unit 1

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College English Book Three
(全新版)大学英语 3
School of Foreign Studies
外国语学院
Unit One
Changes in the Way We Live
School of Foreign Studies
Where do you prefer to live or work after
graduation? And give reasons.
a large city
a small-medium city
a countryside
Would you like to describe your
dream life?
Text A
Mr. Doherty Builds His Dream Life
Contents
• Global Understanding
• Cultural Notes
• Detailed Study
• Summary
• Exercises
• Assignments
Global Understanding
Writing Technique
The author writes his piece in a clear and
logical way. In many instances he employs the
pattern of “one topic sentence + several detail
sentences” structure. It’s easy for readers to
grasp the main idea.
Sometimes the detail sentences run parallel to
each other, In some other paragraphs the detail
sentences have their own hierarchy. Besides there
are transitional devices between detail sentences,
the most frequently used one of which is time
words or phrases.
Text Organization
Part I (Paras 1-3)
Happiness the author and his family have experienced in the
country
Part II (Paras 4-7)
Hardships the author and his family have suffered in the
country
Part III (Paras 8-11)
Ways the author and his family have employed to overcome
difficulties in the country
Part IV (Paras 12-15)
Qualities people needed to live in the country
Cultural Notes
Ivy League
Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island
布朗大学
Columbia University in New York City
哥伦比亚大学
Cornell University in Ithaca, New York;
康乃尔大学
Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire
达特茅斯学院
Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts
哈佛大学
University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia
宾夕法尼亚大学
Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey
普林斯顿大学
Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut
耶鲁大学
E.B.White
Letter from E.B. White
Dear Reader:
I receive many letters from children and can't answer
them all -- there wouldn't be time enough in a day. That is
why I am sending you this printed reply to your letter. I'll
try to answer some of the questions that are commonly
asked.
Where did I get the idea for Stuart Little and for
Charlotte's Web? Well, many years ago I went to bed one
night in a railway sleeping car, and during the night I
dreamed about a tiny boy who acted rather like a mouse.
That's how the story of Stuart Little got started.
Letter from E.B. White
As for Charlotte's Web, I like animals and my barn is
a very pleasant place to be, at all hours. One day when I
was on my way to feed the pig, I began feeling sorry for
the pig because, like most pigs, he was doomed to die. This
made me sad.
So I started thinking of ways to save a pig's life. I had
been watching a big grey spider at her work and was
impressed by how clever she was at weaving. Gradually I
worked the spider into the story that you know, a story of
friendship and salvation on a farm. Three years after I
started writing it, it was published. (I am not a fast worker,
as you can see.)
Detailed Study
Part I (Paras 1-3)
Happiness the author and his family have
experienced in the country
A
Content Questions
B
Idiomatic Expression
C
Language Focus
Content Questions
1. What are the two things that the writer has always
wanted to do?
write live on a farm
2.Why does the writer think that his life in the country is
of the self-reliant type and satisfying?
fruits and vegetables; hens; bees; wood
in the summer; in the winter; get excited;
we love; we watch
Idiomatic Expression
过得去;尚可
get by
多年的惆怅失望
years of frustration
寻觅到心灵的满足
find contentment
自力更生的生活
a self-reliant life
令人满足的生活
a satisfying life
提供
provide with
河上泛舟
canoe on the river
A Self-reliant Life in the Country
A Self-reliant Life in the Country
A Satisfying Life in the Country
A Satisfying Life in the Country
Idiomatic Expression
过得去;尚可
get by
多年的惆怅失望
years of frustration
自力更生的生活
a self-reliant life
令人满足的生活
a satisfying life
提供
provide with
河上泛舟
canoe on the river
Language Focus
I am not in E.B.White’s class as a writer or in my
neighbors’league as a farmer, but I’m getting by.
( para.1)
作为作家,我和怀特不属同一等级,作为农场主,我
和乡邻也不是同一类人,不过我应付得还行。
get by 1.pass or move in front of 通过,经过,走过
2.escape potentially unpleasant consequences
过得去:尚可
The man moved aside to let the
lady get by.
It is impossible to get by CET-4 by cramming at
the last minute.
想要临时抱佛脚来混过大学英语四级考试是不可能
的。
Language Focus
After years of frustration with city and suburban
living, my wife Sandy and I have finally found
contentment here in the country.(Para.1)
在城市和郊区历经多年的惆怅失望之后,我和妻子桑
迪终于在这里的乡村寻觅到心灵的满足。
contentment : n. happiness with one’s situation in life
满足,满意
Happiness consists in contentment.
幸福在于知足/知足常乐。
find contentment in sth/doing sth
I find contentment in cooking and enjoying
delicious food with my friends.
Language Focus
We cut enough wood to just about make it through
the heating season.(Para.2)
我们还自己动手砍柴,足可供过冬取暖之用。
make it : [inf] be successful; fulfill the purpose
成功;达到预定目标
Stick to it and you'll make it.
坚持下去, 就会成功。
I want to make it as a writer.
我想在写作上获得成功。
The train goes at10.15. I think we shall make it.
火车十点一刻开,我想我们能赶上。
Part II (Paras 4-7)
Hardships the author and his family have
suffered in the country
A
Content Questions
B
Idiomatic Expression
C
Language Focus
Content Questions
1.Is life in the country easy for the writer and his
family? Give examples.
Three months ago; three months from now;
recently; soon; later this month
Content Questions
2.What was their first winter like? Why did
the author say it was unforgettable?
3.What happened when the first spring came?
Of the two floods the author describes, what
does the second one actually refer to?
Idiomatic Expression
搬运木柴
haul firewood
翻修后屋顶
retile the back roof
日常家务
household routine
时时,有时
now and then
填满,充满
fill up with
一堆堆
piles of
Language Focus
The youngest of our four children will help me
make some long-overdue improvements on the
outdoor toilet that supplements our indoor
plumbing when we are working outside. (Para.4)
四个孩子中的两个小的,会帮着我一起把拖了很久
没修的室外厕所修葺一下,那是为室外干活而另外
建的。
overdue : a. past due; not paid at the scheduled time;
being sth. that should have occurred earlier
迟到的,延误的;过期的, 到期未付的
早应完成的,早应发生的
The aircraft is overdue by several hours.
飞机晚点几小时。
The library called in all overdue books.
图书馆要求把所有逾期未还的书收回。
Your books are two days overdue.
您的书过期两天了。
supplement: v. add as a supplement to what seems
insufficient 增补, 补充
n.textual matter that is added onto
a publication; usually at the end
增刊,附录
They had to get a job to supplement the family
income.
他们不得不找一份工作以贴补家庭收入。
A supplement to this dictionary may be published
next year.
该词典的补编或许将于明年出版。
Part III (Paras 8-1)
Ways the author and his family have employed
to overcome difficulties in the country
Content Questions
Idiomatic Expression
Language Focus
Content Questions
How do the writer and his family manage to live on
a comparatively low income in the country?
1.The author writes various stories for magazines
and newspapers.
2. They cut back the routine expenses
without appreciably lowering the standard of living
3. They cautiously choose the insurance item.
Idiomatic Expression
通过,度过
get through
认真考虑
think seriously about
辞职
quit one’s job
总的来说
on balance
除了,除…以外(还有) aside from
当说到,当涉及到
When it comes to
外出吃饭
dine out
Language Focus
There have been a few anxious moments since
then, but on balance things have gone much
better that we had any right to expect.(Para.9)
那以后有过一些焦虑的时刻,但总的来说,情况比我
预料的要好得多。
on balance : with all things considered
全面考虑之后, 总的说来
The boy has a lot of disadvantages, but on
balance I think he is still a good boy.
这个男孩有很多缺点,但全面考虑,我认为他仍然
是好孩子。
On balance, joint ventures appeal to me more
than state-owned enterprises.
总的来说,合资企业比国有企业更吸引我。
Language Focus
2. Extravagant Christmases are a memory, and we
combine vacations with assignment.(Para.11)
We no longer have extravagant Christmases, and
when a magazine sends me somewhere on an
assignment to write something, I will take my
family along. By doing son, we can save some
money while enjoying sort of a vacation.
Part IV (Paras12 -15)
Qualities people needed to live in the country
Content Questions
Idiomatic Expression
Language Focus
Content Questions
1.What does the writer think are the special
qualities necessary for leading a life the way
they do?
2. How does the writer think he and his family
will feel when they have to leave the farm
someday?
3. What did the writer and his family choose
to live in the country for? Have they finally
realized their dream?
Idiomatic Expression
两个;几个
a couple of
耐得住寂寞
tolerance for solitude
参加
be involved in
自豪感
a sense of pride
赚一大笔钱
make a fair profit
老式的野餐
an old-fashioned picnic
Language Focus
The way to make self-sufficiency work on a small
scale is to resist the temptation to buy a tractor
and other expensive laborsaving devices.
(Para.13)
小范围里实现自给自足的途径是抵制诱惑,不去购置
拖拉机和其他昂贵的节省劳力的机械。
temptation : the desire to have or do something that
you know you should avoid
诱惑, 引诱;诱惑物, 煽诱人的事物
She yielded to temptation and had another
chocolate.
她禁不住诱惑,又吃了一块巧克力。
The bag of sweets on the table was too strong a
temptation for the child to resist.
桌上那包糖果对那孩子是个难以抗拒的诱惑。
to resist temptation /be superior to temptation
不受引诱
受诱惑
fall into temptation; be lured
Summary
The author may not be a born farmer, but
he gets by (1) without too much trouble. That
first hard winter he faced must have left him with
the temptation (2) to give up and go back to the city.
But he managed to get through(3) it without
losing Heart. He’s picked up (4)a lot of skills
since then and made some real improvements (5) to
his farm, though without much laborsaving
machinery, aside from that old rotary cultivator.
Summary
I suspect (7) he doesn’t make all that much,
though he does have his writing to supplement(8)
what little profit (9) he makes from the farm. I
guess he does it primarily (10) for the quality of
life. Certainly, they seem a happy family and you
can often see them out working together. One
day spraying (11)apple trees, the next
stacking (12) firewood.
Exercises
I. Vocabulary
1.
1) Insurance
2) On balance
3) aside from
4) cut back
5) resist
6) haul
7) supplemented 8) sprayed
9) wicked
10) illustrated
11) budget
12) digest
13) boundary
14) get by
15) at that point
I. Vocabulary
2.
1) cut back/down
2) pick up
3) get by
4) get through
5) face up to
6) turn in
7) turning out
8) think up
Vocabulary
3.
1) While farming, Benneker pursued his mathematical
studies and taught himself astronomy.
2) Misused words often generate misleading thoughts.
3) Lafayette Hotel is patronized by international
celebrities drawn to its French food and service.
4) A person who thinks that money will do everything
may well be suspected of doing everything for money.
5) A person surely has to face a good many bitter
disappointments before he gets through life.
I. Vocabulary
4.
1) Seeing that more and more people are concerned about the
quality of their indoor environments, John is considering
starting an interior decoration business. It seems certain to earn
a profit, but he does not yet have enough money to invest in it.
2) This device is primarily used for the improvement of the
sound quality of electronic media. It was invented in the US, but
now it is used on a global scale.
3) When the first settlers came to America, their household
utensils consisted of a few pots, pans and some bowls stacked in
one corner of the house. There wasn't much material temptation
around them. They never dined out in a restaurant as we often
do nowadays.
doubt & suspect
doubt 与 suspect 作动词用 , 都有“怀疑”的意思
一 . 如果后面接名词、代词或名词性词组时,两者基本上可通用。
I doubt/suspect the truth of her statement.
我对她那番话的真实性表示怀疑。
He says he can cure me, but I still doubt/suspect him.
他说他能治好我的病,但我仍对他不放心。
二 . 如果后面接 that 从句,意思就截然不同。 doubt 意为“无把握;
不相信( question the truth of; don't believe/think )”,怀疑其无。
suspect 意为“有存在或属实的想法;相信( have an idea of the
existence; believe; guess )”,怀疑其有。
I doubt that he has stolen my watch.
我不相信他偷了我的手表。
I suspect that he has stolen my watch.
我怀疑 / 猜想他偷了我的手表。
The doctor suspected that he was ill with flu.
医生怀疑 / 认为他得了流感。
doubt & suspect
这时 doubt 更多用于否定句或疑问句中。
I don't doubt that he is right. 我确信他是对的。
I didn‘t doubt that he would come. 我当时相信他会来的。
Why did she doubt that they were cheats? 她为什么怀疑他们
是骗子?
三 . doubt 用于肯定句中时,多接 whether/if 引导的从句,
意义与 that 从句不同,这时意为“不敢肯定( feel
uncertain about )”。而 suspect 不可接这种从句。
I doubt whether/if he'll come. 我不敢肯定他来不来。
It's raining hard. I doubt whether it will be fine tomorrow.
雨下得很大,我不敢说明天会晴。
doubt & suspect
四 . 其他搭配。
doubt 可作不及物动词,doubt of sth;
suspect : suspect sth to be, suspect sb of(doing) sth
She never doubted of his success.
她从不怀疑他的成功。
I suspected him to be the spy.
我认为他就是那个间谋。
What made you suspect her of having taken the money?
你凭什么怀疑钱是她偷的?
II. Confusable Words
1.
1) house 2) Home
4) Household
2.
1) doubt
4) suspected
3) home, family
2) suspected 3) doubted
5) suspect
III. Word Formation
1)rise
2) final
3) Regular
4)cash
5) how, why 6) upped
7) yellowed
8) bottled
10) search
9) lower
Structure
1.
1) when it comes to changing your life
2) when it comes to such matters as keeping the
room tidy
3) when it comes to emotional intelligence
4) when it comes to managing minor matters
Structure
2.
1) Not everyone agrees on what is right and
what is wrong
2) but, unfortunately, money isn't everything
3) not all Americans like them
4) Not all people share the same interests
Cloze
(A)
1.gets by
2.temptation
3. get through
4. picked up
5. improvements 6. aside from
7. suspect
8.supplement
9. profit
10. primarily 11. spraying
12. stacking
(B)
1. While
2. escape
3. begin
4.Because/As 5. quit 6. start 7. on
8.but (also)
9. be
10. close 11.have
12. cutting
13. cook/prepare 14.
cities
15.however
16. family
Translation
A decade ago, Nancy did what so many
Americans dream about. She quit an executive
position and opened / set up a household
equipment store in her neighborhood. People
like Nancy made the decision primarily because
of/owing to/due to their desire to improve the
quality of their lives.
But, to run a small business is by no means
an easy job. Without her steady income, Nancy
had to cut back on her daily expenses.
Translation
Sometimes she did not even have the money to pay
the premiums for the various kinds of insurance she
needed. Once she could not even pick up the phone
bill and had to ask her parents to loan her some
money.
Fortunately, through her own hard work, she
has now got through the most difficult time. She is
determined to continue pursuing her vision of a
better life.
Text B
American Family Life:
The Changing Picture
Pre-reading Task:
In text B the author Donna Barron describes
how American family life has changed in recent
years. She identifies three forces at work.Read
on to find out:
(1) What are they?
(2) Are similar forces at work within in China?
(3) Will family life here end up going in the
same direction?
While-reading Task
Comprehension Check:
1.a
2. c
3. d
4. b
5.a
6.c
While-reading Task
Translation:
1.什么?你说那听起来不像你府上的生活?其实,不仅仅是你
一个这么想。事实上,大多数人很可能都跟你一样这么的。
2. 例如,《交给比弗吧》一剧中妈妈带着珍珠项链、穿着高
跟鞋做家务。爸爸整个周末都穿着西装,戴着领带。
3.要是网络电视或有线电视没有中意的节目,录像制品商店可
提供好莱坞制作的品质迥异的各种节目:新进发行的电影、
动画片、“成人”电影、体育锻炼节目、旅游、体育及入门
指
南录像带。
4.如今,妈妈在看她的有线电视销售服务节目的时候,爸爸可
能想租一部动作片。而在姐姐想看《辛普森一家》时,弟
弟妹妹却在玩《让我们炸毁土星》的电子游戏。
While-reading Task
Language Practice
1.In addition
4. entertainment
7. get along
9. whip up
12. rent
15. mushroomed
18. dizzy
2. roast
3. percentage
5. cable
6. at one time
8. missed out on
10. as a result 11. commute
13. taken over 14. make sense
16. go with
17. fried
19. array
20.gasped
Post-reading Task
Group discussion:
1)What do you know about family life in your
parent's childhood?
2) What is home life like in your family today?
3) What are the forces that have helped bring
about changes in Chinese family life?
Assignment:
Based on the discussion, write an essay entitled:
Recent Changes in Chinese Family Life
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