“Pericles` Funeral Oration” - Parma City School District

advertisement
“Pericles’ Funeral Oration”
By
Thucydides
460 B.C.-404 B.C.
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Oration
•
A formal speech intended to inspire its
listeners and incite them to action
•
Appeals to the audience’s religious,
moral, or patriotic emotions.
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Oration
Seven Identifiable Parts
•
•
•
•
the opening, intended
to capture the
audience’s attention
the narration, a recital of
facts
the exposition, or
definition, of terms to be
explained and issues to
be proved
the proposition to clarify
the points and state
exactly what is to be
proved
•
•
•
a confirmation to
address the arguments
for and against the
proposition
the confutation, or
refutation, to refute the
opposing arguments
the conclusion, or
epilogue, to summarize
the arguments and stir
the audience
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Examples of Rhetoric
Paragraph One (page 6)
•
Elimination of hyperbole
– everything he says will be the truth
– he will not fall victim to over-praising the
dead, as is often the case with funerals
•
Result
– adds legitimacy to his words
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Two (page 7)
•
Recognition of ancestors
– Responsible for handing down a free state
– Each generation is responsible for improving
the state
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Four (page 7)
•
Discussion of their system of government
– Does not copy other forms of government
– Other people copy their system
– Ability is more important than status
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Four (page 7)
•
Discussion of their system of government
(cont.)
– People can rise out of poverty by helping the
state
– “We are free and tolerant in our private lives;
but in public affairs we keep to the law.”
– Basically defines the state and its citizens as
perfect
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Seven (pages 7-8)
•
Difference between Athens and its
opponents
– Centered around military security
– Athens is open to the public
– Rely on real courage and loyalty, not secret
weapons
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Seven (pages 7-8)
•
Difference between Athens and its
opponents (cont.)
–
Spartans train their young to be brave;
Athenians are born brave.
Spartans invade along side their allies;
Athenians fight by themselves and often
prevail
–
•
•
if Athens loses, it is because the Army is fighting
in multiple places
creates an excuse for any loss
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Eight (page 8)
•
Athenians use both mind and body;
others use one or the other
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Nine (pages 8-9)
•
Creation of allies
– “We make friends by doing good to others,
not by receiving good from them.”
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Ten (page 9)
•
•
Focus now changes from the state to the
current citizens’ responsibilities
First half of speech was designed to
define the greatness of Athens
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Ten (page 9)
•
•
•
These soldiers died to protect this
greatness, and it is now survivors’
responsibility to undergo hardships in her
service.
Citizens of Athens have more at stake
because Athens is better than other
states
The city is great because of its citizens
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Eleven (page 9)
•
Defines the men who died
– “shows us the meaning of manliness in its
first revelation and in its final proof.”
– Some had their faults (elimination of
hyperbole) but their “gallant conduct against
the enemy in defense of their native land”
takes priority
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Eleven (page 9)
•
Defines the men who died (cont.)
– “They have blotted out evil with good, and
done more service to the commonwealth
than they ever did harm in their private
lives.”
– They fought and put success or failure in the
hands of fate
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraph Twelve (pages 9-10)
•
•
•
Survivors should “fix your eyes every day
on the greatness of Athens as she really
is, and should fall in love with her.”
The soldiers gave their lives and will be
praised forever.
“Happiness depends on being free, and
freedom depends on being courageous.”
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraphs 13, 14 & 15
(page 10)
•
Addresses the relatives of the fallen
soldiers
–
Parents who lost a son
• He will not show grief or sorrow for them
• The death of their son is good fortune (to
die honorably)
• Have more children so they can die for
the state as well
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraphs 13, 14 & 15
(page 10)
•
Addresses the relatives of the fallen
soldiers
–
Sons or brothers of the dead
• You have a tough road ahead of you
because your fathers/brothers died in
battle
• The only way to equal them is to die in
battle as well
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Paragraphs 13, 14 & 15
(page 10)
•
Addresses the relatives of the fallen
soldiers
–
Wives of soldiers
• “the greatest glory of a woman is to be
least talked about by men, whether they
are praising you or criticizing you.”
• Doesn’t say much to the women
– ?????
Geschke/English IV
"Pericles' Funeral Oration"
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards