Phonetics and Phonology

advertisement
Chapter 2
PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY
PRODUCTION OF SOUNDS
• Human language displays a wide variety of sounds, but
humans are not capable of producing all the sounds with the
vocal tract in speech.
• The class of possible speech sounds is not only finite, but also
universal.
• Any human is able to pronounce these sounds, regardless of
his racial or cultural background.
SCOPE OF PHONETICS
• Phonetics is the scientific study of speech and is
concerned with defining and classifying speech
sounds according to how and where they are
produced.
• A complex set of physical operations takes place
when a spoken message goes from a speaker to a
hearer.
SCOPE OF PHONETICS
• Phonetics studies the above facets of speech.
• However, the neurological facets of production and
reception are often considered falling outside the
scope of phonetics proper.
• Generally, the study of phonetics is composed of
three fields:
• articulatory phonetics
• acoustic phonetics
• auditory phonetics .
• Articulatory phonetics deals with the
identification and classification of individual
sounds.
• Acoustic phonetics focuses on the analysis and
measurement of sound waves.
• Auditory phonetics is concerned with the
perception of speech.
ARTICULATION OF SOUNDS
• A wide range of physical activity is involved in
the production of the speech sounds.
• Vocal organs play a vital part.
• Vocal organs refer to all the parts of the human
body that are related to speech production.
• Most speech in natural language involves a pulmonic
egressive airstream, which flows upwards from the lungs,
through the larynx (喉) and then into the pharynx (咽), oral
and/or nasal cavities.
• phonation (发音): the range of modifications to the airflow as
it passes through the glottis (声门) within the larynx.
ARTICULATION OF SOUNDS
• Voice: voiced and voiceless
• With voicelessness the glottis is open, resulting from
abduction of the vocal folds.
• Voiced phonation is produced through the vibration of the
vocal folds and with the cooperation of both muscular and
aerodynamic forces.
•
• Phoneticians and linguists often employ two
parameters to examine how sounds are
articulated:
• manner of articulation
• place of articulation
MANNER OF ARTICULATION
• When the articulators are brought close together and
the airflow in the oral cavity is completely blocked,
the resultant articulation is a stop (塞音).
• Stops: oral stops (plosives), and nasal stops (nasals).
• Plosives: a complete closure.
• Nasal stops: air can escape freely through the nasal
cavity.
MANNER OF ARTICULATION
• Fricative (摩擦音):
• Affricative (塞擦音):
MANNER OF ARTICULATION
• Approximant (无擦通音): central [r]) or lateral [l]
• Trill (颤音): 'r' in certain regional accents
• Tap (一次接触音): It is used for 't' in words like 'better’.
PLACE OF ARTICULATION
• The place of articulation is another way to observe how
sounds are articulated.
• Bilabials
• Dentals
• Post-alveolars (后齿龈音)
PLACE OF ARTICULATION
• Retroflex (卷舌音) 'r' in words like 'red'.
• Uvular (小舌音)
• Glottals (喉音) [h]
PLACE OF ARTICULATION
• Labiodentals (唇齿音) For example, in English the [f] in fat
and the [v] in vat are labiodental fricatives.
• Alveolars (齿龈音) [t, d]
• Palatal (硬腭音) English has only one palatal sound, [j], as
in 'yes' and 'yet'.
PLACE OF ARTICULATION
• Velar (软颚音) [k] [g]
• Pharyngeal (咽音) Pharyngeal consonants are not common.
VOWELS
• Vowels are more difficult than consonants to describe
articulatorily.
• A. (1) the distance between the top of the tongue and
the roof of the mouth and (2) the retraction and
extension of the tongue.
• B. rounding of the lips.
• Vowels
may
be
subdivided
into
monophthongs and diphthongs (双元音).
ENGLISH SPEECH SOUNDS
• English has many vowel sounds. According to
Roach (1991), there are:
• seven short vowels
• five long vowels
• eight diphthongs
• five triphthongs
• English is said to have 24 consonants
• English has six plosive consonants: /p/, /t/, /k/,
/b/, /d/, /g/.
• nine fricatives.
•
•
•
•
two affricates:
three nasals:
three approximants: r, j, w.
one lateral consonant: l
THE TRANSCRIPTION OF SOUNDS
• The best-known system, the International Phonetic
Alphabet (IPA), has been developing since 1888.
• IPA transcription uses symbols to write the sound in
whichever language it is heard.
• Phonology is the study of the sound patterns in human language.
• Phoneme is the minimum phonemic unit that is not further
analyzable into smaller units.
• However, a phoneme is the abstract set of units as the basis of our
speech. There are many slightly different ways in which we make the
sounds that represent these phonemes.
• Allophone 音位变体:the phonetic variants of a phoneme
• In phonemic analysis, we may come across sounds that do not
change the meaning when we make a substitution.
• For example, the consonants at the beginning of "shoe" and
"she" have very different sound qualities. For "shoe", the lips
are rounded, for "she", the lips are spread. If we now
substitute one of these sounds for the other, we do not get a
change of meaning.
• Traditionally, the term 'phoneme' is used to refer to a speech
sound that, when substituted for another, brings out a change
in meaning.
• For example,
• 'tip', /t, i, p/.
• 'lip', /l, i, p/.
• A pair of phonemes is also known as a minimal pair.
• deed and seed
• deed and deaf
• Every language has a limited number of phonological oppositions
• Distinctive features are often shown in the form of a binary opposition.
The features can be shown either present [+] or absent [-].
• Tongue body features
• [high], [low], and [back].
• The Features Rounded
• The Features High and Back in Consonants
• Manner Features
[+interrupted] and [-interrupted]
SEQUENTIAL CONSTRAINTS
• It is not difficult to show that speakers have knowledge
of such sequential rules.
• The sequence of of k, b, l, I
• Blik
• Klib
• Bilk
• Kilb
• but *[lbki], *[bkil], *[ilkb]
COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION
• Complementary distribution refers to the case in which one of
two or more sounds occur in a context to the exclusion of
other sound(s).
• [h] and I
• [h] never in word-final position
•
never in word-initial position
• When occurring after a word (or syllable) initial [s], the voiceless stops are
shown in the following:
SYLLABLE
• Structurally, the syllable may be divided into three parts: the
onset, the peak, and the coda.
STRESS
• Stress is generally defined as syllable prominence.
• Message
• Massage
PITCH
• Pitch is a suprasegmental quality which extends over individual segments
and longer stretches of speech.
• Falling pitch is more common in language than rising pitch.
• (1) John's going to tonight's party. (↘)
(2) John's going to tonight's party? (↗)
INTONATION AND TONE
•
Intonation refers to the pitch differences that extend over phonetic units larger
than the syllable.
•
Tone refers to pitch variations. In some languages, the same sequence of segments
may have different meanings if uttered at different relative pitches.
•
Putonghua
End of Lecture
Thank you for your attention
Download
Related flashcards

English dialects

25 cards

Ethnic groups in Kenya

37 cards

Languages of Guyana

16 cards

Create Flashcards