Chapter 12: Drafting and Revising Front & Back Matter Jasna Karkin | Katina Zachas | Gregory Wilson | Chinh Tran | Colleen Sherwin Drafting and Revising Front and Back Matter Front and Back matter play various roles: Help readers find the information they seek Help readers decide whether to read the document Substitute for the whole document Help readers to understand the document Protect the document Front Matter Letter of Transmittal Cover Title page Abstract Table of Contents List of Illustrations Executive Summary Letter of Transmittal Introduce reader to the purpose and content of the document States methods used Acknowledges assistance writers have received Refer to any errors or omissions in the document It is not a place to apologize to the reader or ask for the reader’s patience or compassion Cover Protects document from normal wear and tear and from harsher environmental conditions Contains: - title of the document - name and position of the writer - date of submission - name or logo of the writer’s company Sometimes includes a security notice or a statement of proprietary information Title Page A good title indicates the subject and purpose of the document Use generic term, such as analysis, recommendation, summary, instructions, in a phrase following a colon Include names and positions of the writer and the principle reader of the document Indicate the date the document was submitted Indicate the name or logo of the writer’s organization Abstract Brief technical summary of a document Usually no more than 200 words Helps reader decide whether to read entire document Uses technical terminology Refers to advanced concepts in the field Two types: descriptive & informative Abstract Descriptive • • • Used when space is at a premium Placed at the bottom of the title page Describes type of information contained in the document Informative • • • Presents major findings Begins with the problem and purpose of the study Describes some technical details of the study Table of Contents Helps reader find desired information Helps to understand scope and organization of document Headings should be clearly written and of sufficient amount Does not list itself as an entry List of Illustrations Table of contents for figures and tables List figures first and tables second Begin list on same page as table of contents or, if on a separate page, document in the table of contents List of Illustrations Figures Figure 1.1 U.S R&D Spending on Biotechnology………………………………11 Figure 1.2 ESCA R&D Spending v. Biotech R&D Spending…………………..14 Figure 2.1 Annual Sales……………………………………………………………16 Tables Table 1.1 Industry Costs of the Final Rule(1995 Dollars)………………………12 Table 1.2 Industry Costs of the Final Rule(2002 Dollars)………………………12 Table 4.1 ESCA Biotech Techniques……………………………………………..42 Executive Summary Epitome Executive Overview Management Summary Management Overview What is an Executive Summary? Synopsis of key points of a project, document, or business plan Intended to brief managers on an organization’s specific projects and how projects fit together into a coherent whole What composes an Executive Summary? 20 page document= 1 page, double-spaced Longer document= 5% of document length Presents information to mangers in two parts: Background, Major findings and implications What composes an Executive Summary? Background: Explains background of the project: the specific problem or opportunity presented by the project Major findings and implications: Project methods, conclusions, and recommendations Writing an Executive Summary: Suggestions Use specific evidence in describing background Be specific in describing research Briefly describe methods Describe findings in accordance with your readers’ needs Ask an outside reader to review your draft Decide how to integrate the executive summary within the body of the document Executive Summary vs. Informative Abstract Abstract: Focuses on technical subject eg: whether new radio-based system effectively monitors energy usage Summary: Concentrates on whether the system can improve operations at a particular company Writing the Back Matter Important to include various back matter items at the end of each document compiled Elements composing the back matter: Glossary List of symbols References Appendices Glossary An alphabetical list of definitions Highly useful and recommended if reader is unfamiliar with technical vocabulary of the document Boldface or highlight a word to identify that the word will be defined in the glossary During the first occurrence where the boldface is used, a footnote should be used to present and introduce to the reader Placed near end of the document, prior to appendices If brief, can be placed after the table of contents List of Symbols Same formatting as used for glossary Content defines symbols and abbreviations rather than terms (as in a glossary) May be placed before the appendices or after the table of contents List of Symbols CRT cathode-ray tube Hz hertz SNR signal-to-noise ratio uhf ultra high frequency References Majority of the documents contain a list of references Bibliography or Works Cited Documentation: References and content citations throughout document with the appropriate form (MLA Style) Acknowledges debt to the sources used Establishes credibility as a writer Aids readers to locate and review the sources used Highly significant to cite each source accurately to prevent plagiarism Appendices Convey information too long for use in the body or only interesting to a few readers Defined as any sections following body of document Appendices might consist of the following: Labeled with letters (Appendix A), listed in the table of contents Maps, large technical charts, computations, computer printouts, and texts of supporting documents Referred to at the appropriate points in the body of the document Always accessible to readers for consultation Strategies for Intercultural Communication Honold (1999) “German users of high-tech products rely on the table of contents in a manual because they like to understand the scope and organization of the manual. Therefore, the writers of manuals for German readers should include comprehensive, detailed tables of contents” Technical Communication, Mike Markel Revision Checklist Transmittal Letter Cover Title Page Abstract Table of Contents Executive Summary Glossary List of Symbols Appendices Questions? Comments? References Markel, Mike. 7th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2004.