Verbals - Jenks Public Schools

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Verbals
Where did I leave my cell phone?
Where can
you find
Sponge Bob?
What does
Sponge
Bob do?
Phrases/ Clauses
• A phrase is a word or group of words
functioning as a unit within the sentence; it is
a word cluster that does not have both a
subject and a verb.
Clauses
• Once the word cluster has both a subject and a
verb, it morphs into a clause.
– If it can stand on its own, it is an independent clause. If it
needs to be attached to another clause to form a
complete sentence it is called a subordinate clause. A
sentence consisting of 2 independent clauses (by either
a semi-colon or a coma and a coordinating conjunction)
is called a compound sentence. A sentence consisting of
a main clause is called a complex sentence. And a
sentence consisting of two or more independent clauses
and one or more dependent clauses is called a
compound-complex sentence.
What are the parts of a sentence?
• Remembering what examples you have just
come up with, what are some parts of a
sentence?
• What rules can we make for them?
Parts of a Sentence
• Sentence= Noun Phrase + Verb Phrase
• The function of the noun phrase is to be the subject
– A noun phrase is expandable in various ways
– A noun phrase can fill seven roles: Subject, DO, IO,
Object Complement, Predicate Noun, Appositive, and
Object of the Preposition.
• A Verb phrase is generally referred to as the predicate
– A verb phrase can also refer to structures such as
participial phrases, gerund phrases, and adverbials (an
infinitive phrase can be any of these verb phrases)
Examples
Swimming is my favorite sport.
Is this a complete sentence?
How do we know?
What part of speech is the word ___________?
The test of the verb
• How do you tell what is actually the verb in a
sentence?
• If you change the time, the tense, the verb is
the one that will change
Swimming is my favorite sport.
Swimming was my favorite sport.
Examples
Flying birds sing a jaunty tune.
Is this a complete sentence?
How do we know?
What part of speech is the word ___________?
Examples
Billy Bob decided to run for president.
Is this a complete sentence?
How do we know?
What part of speech is the word ___________?
Examples…..
• Can you use the word swimming(root- swim)
in any other way other than a Noun?
• Can you use the word flying (root- fly) in any
other way than an Adjective?
• Can you use the word to run (root run) in any
other way than a noun?
• Do you see any patterns?
What you have just discovered
are……Verbals!!
• “off-duty” verbs…..
• It is like….
– a carpenter who is doing plumbing work….. Or
– Cross-Dressing
Form and Function
• What is form?
• What is function?
Answer the following questions
• Fill in the following sentence for… (your mom,
dad, brother, sister, grandparent, etc.)
I love you for all that you do: __________,
_________, and ____________.
Verbals: #1 Participle
• One way to expand noun phrases is using a
participle.
• A participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective.
It modifies a noun or a pronoun
• A participial phrase consists of a participle plus its
modifiers and complements.
• Two types: Past participle (-en, -ed) or Present (-i)
ng
Played for more than 100 years, high school football has a rich tradition.
Large crowds attend games featuring rival schools.
More Participle Examples
1. Bob Morris had a disturbing suspicion about John
Hammond's activities.
2. Hammond searched through stockpiled amber for
dinosaur DNA.
3. Grant told Hammond, "We have evidence of a living
dinosaur."
4. "Why would they install electrified fences at a resort?"
Ellie wondered.
5. A partially exposed skeleton was at risk from wind and
rain, so it was covered up.
6. Hammond planned to open the island, in his words,
"to a surprised and delighted public."
More Examples
7. Dodgson wanted Nedry to steal frozen dinosaur embryos.
8. Ian Malcolm explained that every complex system has an
underlying order.
9. Malcolm had described weather as a complicated system.
10. Isla Nublar's forested slopes were wreathed in fog.
11. As they descended, Grant was watching a glowing
fluorescent cross beneath the Plexi bubble of them helicopter.
12. After a thrilling landing, everyone was climbing out of the
helicopter quickly.
13. Surprised, Grant had looked up at the dinosaur for a long
time.
Participles Practice
• In pairs or small groups, create a list of 10
examples of participles! You have 15 minutes
Class examples of Participles
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Adjective Test
• Dog
Participle Assignment
• Write a paragraph with at least 5 sentences
about anything that you like. You must use at
least 1 participle and/or participial phrases in
each sentence. To get credit, you must
highlight, underline, or bold the participle
AND mark what word your Verbal (acting as
an adjective) modifies.
Due: Wednesday 3/24
• Go get 'em, tiger! =)
Nominals
• We can refer to any word or group of words that
functions in the way a noun phrase functions as a
nominal. (Form vs. Function)
There are seven Roles that a nominal can fill:
•
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Subject: A grocery bag makes a great book cover.
Direct Object: I found a grocery bag.
Indirect object: I showed a grocery bag to the clerk.
Subject complement: This is a grocery bag.
Object complement: I consider this thing a grocery bag.
Object of preposition: I put my books inside a grocery bag.
Appositive: One thing, a grocery bag, was in my hands when I fell.
Specialized Phrases: Movable
Participles, Movable Adjectives,
Appositives, Absolute Phrases
The chick, having learned how to fly, left the nest.
Having learned how to fly, the chick left the nest.
The chick left the nest, having learned how to fly.
• Having learned how to fly is a participial phrase
that is an expansion of the noun phrase the
chick. They are moving within the sentence. Such
adjectives have special powers because they are
made out of verbs.
However….
• But note, please, that such elements are
movable only if they modify the subject.
Otherwise they create ambiguity and are
known as dangling modifiers. Examples:
1. Wrapped in tinfoil, Sam thought the grilled
tuna sandwich was a welcome change from
the usual peanut butter and jelly.
2. Beginning in the 1890s, Thanksgiving Day was
when top high school football teams from
different regions paired off in major games.
Adjectives and Appositives
• We can draw special attention to adjectives by
placing them in the post-noun position and
setting them off with commas:
– Cassius, lean and hungry, looks like a man who thinks
too much.
• Appositives are usually noun phrases, that are
often set off by commas. Appositives rename
another noun:
– Appositives, nominals, that are set off by commas,
rename another noun.
Take 5
• Take 5 minutes, and individually or in groups,
come up with 5 examples of appositives used
in complete sentences.
Class examples of Appositives
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Appositive Assignment
• Write a paragraph about anything using at
least 5 appositives and/or appositive phrases-must be highlighted, underlined, or bold.
• This must be a complete paragraph (8
sentences +), with a topic and conclusion
sentence.
Due: Friday 3/26
• Go get 'em, tiger! =)
Verb Phrase
• A verb phrase is generally referred to as the
predicate .
– A verb phrase can also refer to structures such as
participial phrases, gerund phrases, and adverbials
(an infinitive phrase can be any of these verb
phrases)
• Do you remember the 3 types of Verbs?
–
–
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Verb Types (review)
• Linking Verbs
– Require subject complements to complete the
sentence.
– I am a teacher.
• Intransitive Verbs
– Only requires the subject and verb.
– It rained. Apple pie smells good. He looks strange.
• Transitive Verbs
– Require Direct Objects to complete the sentence
– Everybody loves Raymond. Hamlet saw the ghost.
However…
• Just like noun clauses, verb phrases are often found in
off-duty capacities as well.
• Earlier we spoke of the participle that
acts not as a verb but as an adjective:
a galloping horse.
• There are two other kinds of off-duty
verbs: gerunds and infinitives
Verbals #2: Gerund
• A gerund is an –ing verb that functions as a
noun.
• Singing in the shower is my favorite pastime.
Gerund Phrases
• Like nouns, gerunds and gerund phrases can act as subjects,
objects of prepositions, direct objects, indirect objects, and
predicate nominatives.
Functions of Gerund Phrases
Function
Example
Subject
Swimming competitively requires lots of
practice.
Object of a Preposition
Jeff got in shape by swimming at the
YMCA.
Direct Object
Mr. Lopez coaches high school
swimming.
Indirect Object
Tameka gave competitive swimming a
try.
Predicate nominative
Tameka’s specialty is swimming the
backstroke.
By the way… why?
• Why it Matters in Writing:
– Gerunds and other verbals (+ Appositives) can
help you make your writing more concise.
Sometimes a gerund can replace an entire group
of words.
– It can also imbue your sentences with more
power.
– It can also create more sentence variety.
Take 5
• Take 5 minutes, and individually or in groups,
come up with 5 examples of gerunds used in
complete sentences.
Class examples of Gerunds
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Assignment
• Write a paragraph about any of the characters
from Romeo and Juliet (either as you picture them
or as you interpreted them in the videos) using at
least 4 gerunds and/or gerund phrases--must be
highlighted, underlined, or bold. You can use
actual information or make up your own story
about one of the characters. You must also mark
how they are functioning
• Subject, DO, IO, Predicate Nominative, Object of Preposition
Due: ___________
Verbals #3: Infinitives
• An infinitive combines to with the stem form
of the verb. It can function as a nominal
(doing what noun phrases do): To know her is
to love her.; or as an adverbial (doing what
adverbs do): I called you to find out the
homework.; or as an adjectival (doing what
adjectives do): We were the last to get the
news.
Take 5
• Take 5 minutes, and individually or in groups,
come up with 5 examples of infinitives used in
complete sentences.
Class examples of infinitives
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Practice with Verbals
Penguins Waddle.
Participle (adj):
Gerund (noun):
Infinitive (N, Adj, Adv):
Practice with Verbals
Pizza sizzles.
Participle (adj):
Gerund (noun):
Infinitive (N, Adj, Adv):
Practice with Verbals
Brittney sings.
Participle (adj):
Gerund (noun):
Infinitive (N, Adj, Adv):
Practice with Verbals
Bella cries.
Participle (adj):
Gerund (noun):
Infinitive (N, Adj, Adv):
See it in use
• Do you remember one of the first short stories
that we read this school year… “The Most
Dangerous Game”. Take out your literature
books and open to pages 54-74.
• Look at the following pages and find as many
examples of participles, infinitives and gerunds
as you can. Each group should have a recorder.
All group members must agree on every
example. Groups will present and turn in their
answers at the end of the class.
– Pages 57, 59, 62
See it in use
The first novel that we read together this year
was Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451.
Look at the pages 7-8 (through… as long as he
remembered) and find as many examples of
participles, infinitives and gerunds as you can.
Each group should have a recorder. All group
members must agree on every example.
Groups will present and turn in their answers
at the end of the class.
It was a pleasure to burn.
It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and
changed. With the brass nozzle in his fists, with this great python spitting its
venomous kerosene upon the world, the blood pounded in his head, and his
hands were the hands or some amazing conductor playing all the symphonies
of blazing and burning to bring down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history.
This his symbolic helmet numbers 451 on his stolid head, and his eyes all
orange flame with the thought of what came next, he flicked the igniter and
the house jumped up in a gorging fire that burned the evening sky red and
yellow and black. He strode in a warm of fireflies. He wanted above all like the
old joke, to shove a marshmallow on a stick in the furnace, while the flapping
pigeon-winged books died on the porch and lawn of the house. While the
books went up in sparkling whirls and blew away on a wind turned dark with
burning.
Montag grinned the fierce grin of all men singed and driven back by flame.
He knew that when he returned to the firehouse, he might wink at himself, a
minstrel man, burnt-corked, in the mirror. Later, going to sleep, he would feel
the fiery smile still gripped by his face muscles, in the dark. It never went away,
that smile, it never ever went away, as long as he remembered.
Test
• You will take a brief test on Wednesday April
14. Be prepared to write your own examples.
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