Verbals Where did I leave my cell phone? Where can you find Sponge Bob? What does Sponge Bob do? Phrases/ Clauses • A phrase is a word or group of words functioning as a unit within the sentence; it is a word cluster that does not have both a subject and a verb. Clauses • Once the word cluster has both a subject and a verb, it morphs into a clause. – If it can stand on its own, it is an independent clause. If it needs to be attached to another clause to form a complete sentence it is called a subordinate clause. A sentence consisting of 2 independent clauses (by either a semi-colon or a coma and a coordinating conjunction) is called a compound sentence. A sentence consisting of a main clause is called a complex sentence. And a sentence consisting of two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses is called a compound-complex sentence. What are the parts of a sentence? • Remembering what examples you have just come up with, what are some parts of a sentence? • What rules can we make for them? Parts of a Sentence • Sentence= Noun Phrase + Verb Phrase • The function of the noun phrase is to be the subject – A noun phrase is expandable in various ways – A noun phrase can fill seven roles: Subject, DO, IO, Object Complement, Predicate Noun, Appositive, and Object of the Preposition. • A Verb phrase is generally referred to as the predicate – A verb phrase can also refer to structures such as participial phrases, gerund phrases, and adverbials (an infinitive phrase can be any of these verb phrases) Examples Swimming is my favorite sport. Is this a complete sentence? How do we know? What part of speech is the word ___________? The test of the verb • How do you tell what is actually the verb in a sentence? • If you change the time, the tense, the verb is the one that will change Swimming is my favorite sport. Swimming was my favorite sport. Examples Flying birds sing a jaunty tune. Is this a complete sentence? How do we know? What part of speech is the word ___________? Examples Billy Bob decided to run for president. Is this a complete sentence? How do we know? What part of speech is the word ___________? Examples….. • Can you use the word swimming(root- swim) in any other way other than a Noun? • Can you use the word flying (root- fly) in any other way than an Adjective? • Can you use the word to run (root run) in any other way than a noun? • Do you see any patterns? What you have just discovered are……Verbals!! • “off-duty” verbs….. • It is like…. – a carpenter who is doing plumbing work….. Or – Cross-Dressing Form and Function • What is form? • What is function? Answer the following questions • Fill in the following sentence for… (your mom, dad, brother, sister, grandparent, etc.) I love you for all that you do: __________, _________, and ____________. Verbals: #1 Participle • One way to expand noun phrases is using a participle. • A participle is a verb form that acts as an adjective. It modifies a noun or a pronoun • A participial phrase consists of a participle plus its modifiers and complements. • Two types: Past participle (-en, -ed) or Present (-i) ng Played for more than 100 years, high school football has a rich tradition. Large crowds attend games featuring rival schools. More Participle Examples 1. Bob Morris had a disturbing suspicion about John Hammond's activities. 2. Hammond searched through stockpiled amber for dinosaur DNA. 3. Grant told Hammond, "We have evidence of a living dinosaur." 4. "Why would they install electrified fences at a resort?" Ellie wondered. 5. A partially exposed skeleton was at risk from wind and rain, so it was covered up. 6. Hammond planned to open the island, in his words, "to a surprised and delighted public." More Examples 7. Dodgson wanted Nedry to steal frozen dinosaur embryos. 8. Ian Malcolm explained that every complex system has an underlying order. 9. Malcolm had described weather as a complicated system. 10. Isla Nublar's forested slopes were wreathed in fog. 11. As they descended, Grant was watching a glowing fluorescent cross beneath the Plexi bubble of them helicopter. 12. After a thrilling landing, everyone was climbing out of the helicopter quickly. 13. Surprised, Grant had looked up at the dinosaur for a long time. Participles Practice • In pairs or small groups, create a list of 10 examples of participles! You have 15 minutes Class examples of Participles • • • • • • • • Adjective Test • Dog Participle Assignment • Write a paragraph with at least 5 sentences about anything that you like. You must use at least 1 participle and/or participial phrases in each sentence. To get credit, you must highlight, underline, or bold the participle AND mark what word your Verbal (acting as an adjective) modifies. Due: Wednesday 3/24 • Go get 'em, tiger! =) Nominals • We can refer to any word or group of words that functions in the way a noun phrase functions as a nominal. (Form vs. Function) There are seven Roles that a nominal can fill: • • • • • • • Subject: A grocery bag makes a great book cover. Direct Object: I found a grocery bag. Indirect object: I showed a grocery bag to the clerk. Subject complement: This is a grocery bag. Object complement: I consider this thing a grocery bag. Object of preposition: I put my books inside a grocery bag. Appositive: One thing, a grocery bag, was in my hands when I fell. Specialized Phrases: Movable Participles, Movable Adjectives, Appositives, Absolute Phrases The chick, having learned how to fly, left the nest. Having learned how to fly, the chick left the nest. The chick left the nest, having learned how to fly. • Having learned how to fly is a participial phrase that is an expansion of the noun phrase the chick. They are moving within the sentence. Such adjectives have special powers because they are made out of verbs. However…. • But note, please, that such elements are movable only if they modify the subject. Otherwise they create ambiguity and are known as dangling modifiers. Examples: 1. Wrapped in tinfoil, Sam thought the grilled tuna sandwich was a welcome change from the usual peanut butter and jelly. 2. Beginning in the 1890s, Thanksgiving Day was when top high school football teams from different regions paired off in major games. Adjectives and Appositives • We can draw special attention to adjectives by placing them in the post-noun position and setting them off with commas: – Cassius, lean and hungry, looks like a man who thinks too much. • Appositives are usually noun phrases, that are often set off by commas. Appositives rename another noun: – Appositives, nominals, that are set off by commas, rename another noun. Take 5 • Take 5 minutes, and individually or in groups, come up with 5 examples of appositives used in complete sentences. Class examples of Appositives • • • • • • • Appositive Assignment • Write a paragraph about anything using at least 5 appositives and/or appositive phrases-must be highlighted, underlined, or bold. • This must be a complete paragraph (8 sentences +), with a topic and conclusion sentence. Due: Friday 3/26 • Go get 'em, tiger! =) Verb Phrase • A verb phrase is generally referred to as the predicate . – A verb phrase can also refer to structures such as participial phrases, gerund phrases, and adverbials (an infinitive phrase can be any of these verb phrases) • Do you remember the 3 types of Verbs? – – – Verb Types (review) • Linking Verbs – Require subject complements to complete the sentence. – I am a teacher. • Intransitive Verbs – Only requires the subject and verb. – It rained. Apple pie smells good. He looks strange. • Transitive Verbs – Require Direct Objects to complete the sentence – Everybody loves Raymond. Hamlet saw the ghost. However… • Just like noun clauses, verb phrases are often found in off-duty capacities as well. • Earlier we spoke of the participle that acts not as a verb but as an adjective: a galloping horse. • There are two other kinds of off-duty verbs: gerunds and infinitives Verbals #2: Gerund • A gerund is an –ing verb that functions as a noun. • Singing in the shower is my favorite pastime. Gerund Phrases • Like nouns, gerunds and gerund phrases can act as subjects, objects of prepositions, direct objects, indirect objects, and predicate nominatives. Functions of Gerund Phrases Function Example Subject Swimming competitively requires lots of practice. Object of a Preposition Jeff got in shape by swimming at the YMCA. Direct Object Mr. Lopez coaches high school swimming. Indirect Object Tameka gave competitive swimming a try. Predicate nominative Tameka’s specialty is swimming the backstroke. By the way… why? • Why it Matters in Writing: – Gerunds and other verbals (+ Appositives) can help you make your writing more concise. Sometimes a gerund can replace an entire group of words. – It can also imbue your sentences with more power. – It can also create more sentence variety. Take 5 • Take 5 minutes, and individually or in groups, come up with 5 examples of gerunds used in complete sentences. Class examples of Gerunds • • • • • • • • Assignment • Write a paragraph about any of the characters from Romeo and Juliet (either as you picture them or as you interpreted them in the videos) using at least 4 gerunds and/or gerund phrases--must be highlighted, underlined, or bold. You can use actual information or make up your own story about one of the characters. You must also mark how they are functioning • Subject, DO, IO, Predicate Nominative, Object of Preposition Due: ___________ Verbals #3: Infinitives • An infinitive combines to with the stem form of the verb. It can function as a nominal (doing what noun phrases do): To know her is to love her.; or as an adverbial (doing what adverbs do): I called you to find out the homework.; or as an adjectival (doing what adjectives do): We were the last to get the news. Take 5 • Take 5 minutes, and individually or in groups, come up with 5 examples of infinitives used in complete sentences. Class examples of infinitives • • • • • • • Practice with Verbals Penguins Waddle. Participle (adj): Gerund (noun): Infinitive (N, Adj, Adv): Practice with Verbals Pizza sizzles. Participle (adj): Gerund (noun): Infinitive (N, Adj, Adv): Practice with Verbals Brittney sings. Participle (adj): Gerund (noun): Infinitive (N, Adj, Adv): Practice with Verbals Bella cries. Participle (adj): Gerund (noun): Infinitive (N, Adj, Adv): See it in use • Do you remember one of the first short stories that we read this school year… “The Most Dangerous Game”. Take out your literature books and open to pages 54-74. • Look at the following pages and find as many examples of participles, infinitives and gerunds as you can. Each group should have a recorder. All group members must agree on every example. Groups will present and turn in their answers at the end of the class. – Pages 57, 59, 62 See it in use The first novel that we read together this year was Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451. Look at the pages 7-8 (through… as long as he remembered) and find as many examples of participles, infinitives and gerunds as you can. Each group should have a recorder. All group members must agree on every example. Groups will present and turn in their answers at the end of the class. It was a pleasure to burn. It was a special pleasure to see things eaten, to see things blackened and changed. With the brass nozzle in his fists, with this great python spitting its venomous kerosene upon the world, the blood pounded in his head, and his hands were the hands or some amazing conductor playing all the symphonies of blazing and burning to bring down the tatters and charcoal ruins of history. This his symbolic helmet numbers 451 on his stolid head, and his eyes all orange flame with the thought of what came next, he flicked the igniter and the house jumped up in a gorging fire that burned the evening sky red and yellow and black. He strode in a warm of fireflies. He wanted above all like the old joke, to shove a marshmallow on a stick in the furnace, while the flapping pigeon-winged books died on the porch and lawn of the house. While the books went up in sparkling whirls and blew away on a wind turned dark with burning. Montag grinned the fierce grin of all men singed and driven back by flame. He knew that when he returned to the firehouse, he might wink at himself, a minstrel man, burnt-corked, in the mirror. Later, going to sleep, he would feel the fiery smile still gripped by his face muscles, in the dark. It never went away, that smile, it never ever went away, as long as he remembered. Test • You will take a brief test on Wednesday April 14. Be prepared to write your own examples.