[3]句式功能的再现

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A Course of Translation
from Chinese into English
Chapter 3
Translation of Sentences
3.4 句子功能的再现
句子的功能,指句子的交际功能,即句子的用途。
句类不同,功能不同。 “句类是根据语气来分的” (张斌,
2000:222) ,“语气”,在吕叔湘先生看来,有“广狭”二
解。“广义的‘语气’包括‘语意’和‘语势’。所谓‘语
意’指正和反,定和不定,虚和实等等的区别。所谓‘语
势’,指说话的轻或重,缓或急。”狭义的“语气”指“概
念内容相同的语句,因使用的目的不同所生的分别。”(同
上)
以上四种句类具有不同的交际功能。一般情况下,陈述句
传达信息而具有信息功能;疑问句、祈使句使信息反馈——
“祈使句要求用行动反馈,疑问句要求用语言反馈”(同
上)——而具有呼唤功能;感叹句表达说话人的感情和态度
而具有表情功能。
3.4 句子功能的再现
必须指出,语气虽然与交际功能或用途等有关,“但是句
子的语气与用途并不完全一致。同一种语气可能具有不同的
交际用途,不同的语气则可能具有相同的交际用途。”例如:
在特定语言环境中,“你讲得太快了”这一语气或句类可以
用来陈述信息而具有信息功能,可以用来表达说话人的感叹
而具有表情功能,也可以用来请求对方放慢语速而具有呼唤
功能。而反过来,以下不同语气的句子 :
你讲得太快了。 (陈述句)
你能讲慢一点吗? (疑问句)
请讲慢一点。 (祈使句)
你讲得真快! (感叹句)
分属“陈述”、“疑问”、“祈使”、“感叹”四种类型,
但是在特定的语言环境中,它们具有同一种交际功能,即请
求对方将发言的速度放慢的呼唤功能。
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.1 陈述句
“陈述句是最常见、使用范围最广的一种句类。”
翻译时,一方面要使译文与原文信息功能相似、语义相符,
一方面要使其遵循英语语法和表达习惯。
1. 窗前有棵老榆树,榆钱儿正密,一串串在枝上垂着,
有几只刚出巢的蜜蜂,围着榆枝乱飞,不住的嗡嗡的叫着。
An old elm before the house was hung with thick
clusters of seeds and some bees just out of the hive were
flying round it, keeping up a continuous hum.
(梁斌《红旗谱》,北京外文出版社译文)
2. ① 广东省阳春县境内多是石灰岩地质, ② 由于长期的
江水浸渍和风化作用, ③ 形成了大量峥嵘挺拔的山峰和幽
深莫测的溶洞。
Calcareous structure, water erosion and weathering
contributed to many lofty peaks and deep secluded karst
caves in Yangchun County, Guangdong Province.
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.1 陈述句
3. ① 我家门前有些摆摊儿的,都是生意人。 ② 大凡生意
人都懂得“一步差三市”的道理。 ③ 就是说,别看你的店
只和人家差了三步,但景气的程度要差了很多,也许人家的
铺子红火热闹,你的铺子却开不了张。
①In front of my house there are a few stalls run by
street vendors. ②Street vendors all know the popular
saying: “Locations make a difference in business.” ③That
is to say, even if your stall stands side by side with
someone else’s in the neighbourhood, your neighbour may
attract a constant stream of shoppers, but yours,
unfortunately, is visited by few.
(星竹“位置的道理”,王琼译,刘士聪改译)
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.1 陈述句
4. ① 大概是物以稀为贵罢。 ② 北京的白菜运往浙江,便
用红头绳系住菜根,倒挂在水果店头,尊为“胶菜”;福建
野生着的芦荟,一到北京就进温室,且美其名曰“龙舌兰”。
③ 我到仙台也颇受了这样的优待,不但不收学费,几个职
员还为我的食宿操心。
No doubt the rarer a thing the higher the value. When
Beijing Cabbage is shipped to Zhejiang, it is hung upsidedown in the green grocer’s by a red string tied to the root,
and given the grand title “Shandong Vegetable”. When the
aloe which grows wild in Fujian comes to Beijing, it is
ushered into a hothouse and given the beautiful name
“Dragon Tongue Orchid”. In Sendai I too enjoyed such
preferential treatment; not only did the school not ask for
fees, but several members of the staff even showed great
concern over my board and lodging. (《藤野先生》,杨译)
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.2 疑问句
疑问句带有疑问语气词以及问号的标记。类别上,可以分
为有疑而问的疑问句和无疑而问的反问句及设问句。功能上,
疑问句要求对方反馈信息,具有呼唤功能;反问和设问句多
用来加强语气,渲染气氛,或抒发感慨,具有表情功能。
一、有疑而问的疑问句功能的再现
两语之间共性大于异性,翻译时一般无须作大的调整。
5. 记者问:“2008年奥运会点燃圣火的时候,您会在开
幕式现场吗?”何振梁回答说:“只要我身体还行,我一定
会去开幕式的。”
“When the holy fire of the Olympic Games of 2008 is lit,
will you be at the scene of the opening ceremony?” asked
a reporter. “If my physical condition permits, I will definitely
be there.” (“此生无憾——记国际奥委会执委何振梁” )
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.2 疑问句
6. 子贡曰:“贫而无谄,富而无骄,何如?”子曰:
“可也。未若贫而乐道,富而好礼者也。”
Tzu-kung said, “Poor without cadging, rich without
swagger. What of that?” The Master said, “ Not bad. But
better still, ‘Poor, yet delighting in the Way, rich, yet a
student of ritual.’ ”
(孔子《论语》, Arthur Waley 译)
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.2 疑问句
7. 那天,他挑着担子来到我们村,见到我就乐,说:
“娃呀,你要给我做媳妇吗?”
“对呀!”
他张着大嘴笑了,露出了一嘴的黄牙。他那长在半个葫芦
样的头上的白发,也随着笑声一起抖动着。
“你为啥要给我做媳妇呀?”
“我要天天吃灶糖呢。”
One day, he came to our village with his goods. He saw
me and smiled: “And so, you want to be my bride?”
“Yes.”
He laughed, exposing his yellowing broken teeth. The
few strands of white hair at the back of his gourd-like pate
also quivered.
“Now why do you want to be my bride?”
“I want to eat sticky candy.” (张洁“拣麦穗”,朱虹
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.2 疑问句
8. 余曰:“唐以诗取士,而诗之宗匠必推李杜。卿爱宗
何人?”
芸发议曰:“杜诗锤炼精纯,李诗潇洒落拓;与其学杜之
森严,不如学李之活泼。”
“Poetry was used,” I said, “as a literary test in the
imperial examinations of the T’ang
Dynasty, and people acknowledge Li Po and Tu Fu as
the master poets. Which of the two do you like better?”
“Tu’s poems,” she said, “are known for their
workmanship and artistic refinement, while Li’s poems are
known for their freedom and naturalness of expression. I
prefer the vivacity of Li Po to the severity of Tu Fu.”
(沈复《浮生六记》,林语堂译)
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.2 疑问句
二、无疑而问的反问句和设问句功能的再现
9. ① 这个上帝不是别人,就是全中国的人民大众。 ② 全
国人民大众一齐起来和我们一道挖这两座山,有什么挖不平
呢?
Our God is none other than the masses of the Chinese
people. If they stand up and dig together with us, why can’t
these two mountains be cleared away?
(毛泽东《愚公移山》,北京外文出版社 1965 年版译文)
10. 大抵世上无难为的事,只胡乱做将去,自有水到渠成
日子。如子髯之才,天下事何不可为?
All in all, nothing in this world is that hard to do—just
charge ahead and do it! A day will inevitably come when
“the ditch will be dug and the waters flow through.” For a
man with talent like yours, there is nothing in the world that
is impossible.) (袁宏道《致李子髯》 Jonathan Chaves 译)
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.2 疑问句
11. “把女儿当东西卖!”这句话是那样刺伤了她的心,又
是那样地熟悉!是谁在女儿一样的年纪含着女儿一样的激情
喊过?是谁?——唉唉!不是别人,正是她自己呀!……
“Selling your daughter like some merchandise!” These
words that had deeply wounded her were, nevertheless,
familiar to her. Who was it who at around Huangmei’s age,
and with the same outraged vehemence had uttered those
very words? Who was it?—Who! None other than
herself! … (张弦《被爱情遗忘的角落》, Hu Zhihui 译)
析:该例中接连两次设问“是谁……喊过?”“是谁?”
极其强烈地表达了小说女主人公存妮和荒妹的母亲菱花内心
的辛酸苦辣和无限感慨。译文同样采用两个设问句,与原文
语义相符,表情功能也相当。
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.3 祈使句
汉语祈使句英译时,多半译为祈使句,有时也译作语义相
符、具有同样呼唤功能的其他句式。
12. 母亲在盛饺子的时候,把这个大钱饺子盛在一个碗里,
又偷偷把它拨在紧上边,然后把这碗饺子推到我面前:“①
吃吧, ②多吃, ③趁热吃。”
When Mother scooped up the dumplings, she
deliberately put the good-luck dumpling on top of the
others in the bowl and pushed the bowl to me, saying,
“Help yourself. Take as many as you like while they are
hot. ”
(张林《大钱饺子》,夏乙琥译)
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.3 祈使句
13. “我知道了。——瑜儿,可怜他们坑了你,他们将来总
有报应,天都知道; ① 你闭了眼就是了 。——你如果真在
这里,听到我的话,—— ② 便叫这乌鸦飞上你的坟顶, 给我
看罢 。”
“I know,” she continued. “They murdered you. But a
day of reckoning will come, Heaven will see to it. ①Close
your eyes in peace. … If you are really here, and can hear
me, ② make that crow fly on to your grave as a sign.”
(鲁迅《药》,杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
14. 奏国歌。请全体起立。
a. Now it’s time for the National Anthem. Please all
stand up.
b. Please rise for the National Anthem.
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.3 祈使句
15. 二十日,晓钟初动,即闻江口唤渡声。余惊起,呼曹
同济。曹曰:“勿急 。宜饱食登舟。”
On the twentieth, as soon as the morning temple bell
had struck, I already heard the ferry-man crying at the
bank for passengers to come aboard. I got up in a hurry
and asked Ts’ao to go together. “No hurry. We must eat
something before going down to the boat,” said Ts’ao.
(沈复《浮生六记》,林语堂译)
析:该例中的祈使句“勿急”可作多种处理,如 There’s
no hurry about it、 Don’t be in such a hurry、 No need to
hurry,但都不及本译文 No hurry 来得干脆简洁。这其中,
There’s no hurry about it 和 No hurry 都不是祈使句,但具
备相同的“呼唤” (vocative) 这一交际功能。
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.4 感叹句
感叹句的翻译,最重要的是其表情功能或强烈的感情意义
的传达。
16. 唉唉,那是怎样的宁静而幸福的夜呵!
Ah, what peaceful, happy evenings those were!
(鲁迅《伤逝》,杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
17. 哈!这模样子!胡子这么长了!
“Oh! Like this! With such a long moustache!”
(鲁迅《故乡》,杨宪益、戴乃迭译)
18. 我更爱躺在洁净轻柔的细沙上,静听着海潮的倾诉;
当微风轻轻地从我的身边掠过,那种又清凉又轻松的感觉,
真是舒适极了, 甜美极了!
I’m even more inclined to lie on the clean and soft sandy
beach and listen quietly to the sea unbosoming itself. How
comfortable and refreshed I will be to feel the cool gentle
sea breeze brushing past me! (谢冰莹“海恋”,张培基
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.4 感叹句
19. 三月里刘熏宇君来信,说互生病了,而且是没有希望
的病,医生说只好等日子了。四月底在《时事新报》上见到
立达学校的通告, 想不到这么快互生就殁了!
In March I heard from Mr. Liu Xunyu that Husheng was
sick and hopelessly sick at that. The doctor said there was
nothing he could do but to wait for the day to arrive.
Toward the end of April, I came across an obituary issued
by Lida School in the newspaper Current Affairs. How
quickly the day had arrived!
(朱自清《哀互生》,刘士聪译)
析:以上四例的感叹句分别译为英语中常见的 “what
+adj. …”, “… such a +noun …”, “How +adj. …” 和 “How
+adv. …” 的感叹句式,其表情功能与原文相当。
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.4 感叹句
20. 但我不能放歌,
悄悄是别离的笙箫;
夏虫也为我沉默,
沉默是今晚的康桥!
But I cannot sing aloud:
Quietness is my farewell music;
Even summer insects keep silence for me:
Silent is Cambridge tonight!)
(徐志摩《再别康桥》,胡士光译)
析:该例中“沉默是今晚的康桥!” 不是严格语法意义上的
感叹句,而是以倒装语序和感叹号表达诗人深挚情感的修辞
意义上的感叹句。译文的句式与原文相当,语义和交际功能
也和原文相当。
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.5 语气与交际功能不一致
前面提到句子的语气或句类与句子的交际功能可能不一致
的情况。 陈述句通常具备信息功能,但有些陈述句可能蕴
含一个命令或请求,因而具备呼唤功能;它也可能蕴含某种
感叹,因而具备表情功能。其他三种句类也有类似情况。
21. 别出声!
Silence!
22. 别做梦了!
You’re daydreaming!
23. 你在做梦吧?
You’re daydreaming!
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.5 语气与交际功能不一致
24. 冲:不,哥哥,母亲说好久不见你。 你不愿意一起坐
一坐, 谈谈么?
蘩:你看,你让哥哥歇一歇,他愿意一个人坐着的。
萍(有些烦):那也不见得,我总怕父亲回来,您很忙,
所以——
Chong: Oh no, you don’t. Mother says she hasn’t seen
you for a long time. Why not sit down with us and have a
chat?
Fan: Don’t stop him, Chong. Let him go and have a rest
if he wants to. I expect he wants to be let alone.
Ping (somewhat nettled): Not at all. It’s just that I thought
you’d be very busy now that Father’s at home, and I —
(曹禺《雷雨》,王佐良、巴恩斯译)
3.4 句子功能的再现——3.4.5 语气与交际功能不一致
25. (宋恩子:)“民国好几年了, 怎么还请安 ? 你们
不会鞠躬吗 !”
We’ve set up a republic for several years. No need to
bend the knee. Don’t you know how to bow in a new style?
(老舍《茶馆》)
析:“怎么还请安?”形为疑问句,实为否定祈使,意思
是“别再请安了”。译作否定陈述句 No need to bend the
knee,与原文具有相同的呼唤功能。“你们不会鞠躬吗!”
形为感叹,实际也是祈使,要求对方以鞠躬的方式行礼。译
作否定反问句 Don’t you know how…,也与原文一样具有祈
使句意味,呼唤功能也相当。
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