9 The Confederation and the Constitution

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The Confederation and the
Constitution
Although the Revolutionary War brought new changes
to American society, during the Critical Period the new
nation was challenged with an inefficient government.
-Post Revolutionary War changes
-Articles of Confederation
-Constitutional Convention
-Ratification
I. Post Revolutionary War
Changes
A. Social Changes
1.
2.
Less conservative
More egalitarian
a.
b.
c.
3.
Separation of Church/State
a.
4.
VA Statute on Religious
Freedom, 1786
State governments evolve
a.
b.
c.
5.
Cincinnati Society
Anti-slavery somewhat
Republican motherhood
Constitutional convention
Fundamental law
All: BofR & weak EX and
JU
Economic Challenges
1.
2.
1780’s depression
Foreign Trade Barriers
II. Articles of Confederation
A.
Need for a Constitution
1.
2.
B.
Provisions
1.
2.
3.
4.
C.
CC had no constitutional
authority
Ratification dragged on, 1781
Congress chief agency
Each state single vote
Bills required 2/3 vote
Amendments consent
Strengths
1.
Western Expansion
a. Land and Northwest
Ordinances
D.
Weaknesses (intentional)
A.
Couldn’t regulate commerce or
tax
a.
b.
Newburgh Conspiracy, 1783
Shay’s Rebellion, 1786
c. State bickering
III. The Constitutional Convention
A.
B.
C.
D.
Annapolis Convention, 1786
Philadelphia Convention, 1787
Objective?
Issues
1.
Representation
a.
2.
Executive Branch
a.
3.
E.
Electoral College
Slavery
a.
4.
Large (proportional representation) v.
Small states (equal representation)
3/5’s Compromise, Slave Trade,
Fugitive Slave laws
Commerce
Principles of Government
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Checks and Balances
The “elastic clause”
The “Supremacy Clause”
Conservative Safeguards
No Bill of Rights
IV. Ratification
A. Debates in state
conventions
1.
2.
3.
B.
C.
NH (1788)
VA
a. James Mason
NY
a. The Federalist Papers
federalists
1.
Well-educated, seaboard.
2.
AofC weak, support strong
central/national government, no need
for Bill of Rights.
anti-federalists
1. Back country farmers, ill-educated, and
1.
debtors
AofC was good, opposed strong
central/national government, wanted
Bill of Rights.
Strengthening of the Federal
Government?
Articles of Confederation
• Loose Confederation
• 1 legislative vote per state
• 2/3 vote for bills
• No Congressional power
over commerce
• No congressional power to
tax
• No federal courts
• Unanimity of states for
amendment
Constitution
• Firm federation
• At least 3 legislative votes
• Simple majority for bills
• Congress regulate
commerce
• Congress can tax
• Federal courts
• Amendments less difficult
• More Conservative
Practice: Putting Things in Order
__ Fifty-five “demi-gods” meet secretly in Philadelphia to
draft a new charter of government.
__ The first American national government, more a league
of states than a real government, goes into effect.
__ At the request of Congress, the states draft new
constitutions based on the authority of the people.
__ The Constitution is ratified by the nine states necessary
to put it into effect.
__ Debtor farmers fail in a rebellion, setting off conservative
fears and demands for a stronger government to control
anarchy.
Answers
4, 2, 1, 5, 3
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