REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS

REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS
• A regional dialect is the uniqueness of
language in an area.
Ex: amer : will you do it?
scot : No, I’ll not do it.
Regional Variation
1. International varieties
2. Intra-national or intra-continental
varieties
3. Cross-continental variation: dialect
chains
4. Social variation
1.International
varieties:
1.Internasional varieties:
• Include differences vocabularry, pronounciation,
and grammar in regions.
Exp:
 Australians
 England
 New zealanders
: sole parents
: single parents
: solo parents
2.
intra-continental
varieties
2. Intra-national
Intra-nationaloror
intra-continental
varieties
• The high
high level
level of
of intra-national
intra-national
communication together
communication
together
with the
with
relatively
the
small populations,
relatively
small populations,
may have inhibited
may have
the
development
inhibited
the development
of
marked of marked
regional
differences
regional
differences
in these countries.
in these countries.
Exp ::
Exp
West of
West
of New
NewZealand
Zealand : gravel
gravel
East of
East
of New
NewZealand
Zealand : sand
sand
3. Cross-continental variation:
dialect chains
• Two or more different languages or
dialects merge one into others without a
definiable boundary.
Exp: across the whole of europe
• One chain links all the dialect of german, dutch
and flemish from switzerland thorough Austria
andGermani, to the Netherland and Belgium,
and there is another which links dialect of
Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan, French and
Italian.
4. Social variation
Rp : a social accent
the instantly recognisable accent
described as “typically British”.
often
Social dialect
The speech of people from different social,
as well as regional, groups may differ in
these ways.
Rp = a social accent
Standar english = a social dialect
Vernicular
languages
contrast
with
standard languages
•Vernacular dialect contrast with standard
dialect features
Caste Dialect
There are castes system ditermined by birth, and
strict social rules govern the kind of behavior
appropriate to each group. The rules cover such
matters as kind of job people can have, who they
can marry, how should they dress, what they
should eat, how they should behave in a range
of social situation.
Exp: Brahmin-non Brahmin
In say “milk”
Brahmin
: Haalu
Non Brahmin : Aluu
Social Dialect
1. Vocabulary
2. Pronounciation
3. Grammatical pattern
GENDER AND AGE
It is claimed that women
are linguistically more polite
than men
Gender and Age
• Sex has come to refer to categories
distinguished
by
biological
characteristics
• Gender is more appropriate for
distinguishing people on the basis of
their socio-cultural behavior, including
speech.
GENDER-EXCLUSIVE SPEECH
DIFFERENCES:
HIGHLY STRUCTURED COMMUNITIES
Women and men do not speak in exactly
the same way as each other in any
community.
Traditional Japanese provides some clear examples.
Women’s form
Men’s form
Otosan
oyaji
‘father’
Onaka
hara
‘stomach’
oishii
umai
‘Delicious
taberu
kuu
‘eat’
GENDER-PREFERENTAL SPEECH FEATURES:
SOCIAL DIALECT RESEARCH
Social dialect research not surprisingly in
western
urban
communities
where
women’s social roles overlap, the speech
forms they use also overlap. In other
words women and men do not use
completely different forms.
Gender and social class
Every social class men use more
vernacular forms than women. In the
lowest and the highest social groups,
the women’s speech is closer to that
of the men in the same group than to
that women in other groups.
PLANATIONS OF WOMEN’S LINGUISTIC BEHAVOUR
The social status explanations
Some linguists have suggested that women use more standard
speech forms than men because they are more status-conscious
than men.
Woman’s role as guardian of society’s values
Women use more standard forms than men points to the way
society tends to except ‘better’ behavior form women than for
men.
Subordinate groups must be polite
People who are subordinate must be polite.
Vernacular forms express machismo
Men prefer vernacular from because they carry macho
connotations of masculinity and toughness.
How are women categorized?
In assigning women in particular
social class, researchers in early
social dialect studies often used the
woman’s husband’s occupation as
their major criterion. Reflected their
social background.
The influence of the
interviewer and the context
Men the other hand tend to be less responsive to
the speech of others, and to their conversational
need In such circumstances it is likely that the
interview context. This too might account for
men’s greater use of vernacular forms. In one of
the earliest dialect surveys, the male interviewers
asked different question of women and men in
order to eicit a casual style of speech in which
vernacular forms where more likely to occur.
Age and social dialect data
Social dialect research has provided a
great deal of information about pattern
of pronunciation and grammar for
different age groups. Many people social
dialectologist have found that adolescent
use particularly high frequencies of
vernacular forms, especially if they are
forms such as ain’t and multiple negation
which people clearly recognize and
identify as non-standard.
Age grading and language change
When a linguistic change is spreading
through a community, there will be a
regular increase or decrease in the use of
the linguistic form over time. The for an
innovative. A form on the increase-this
will show up in a graph as a low use of the
form by older people and a higher use
among younger people.
GENDER AND AGE
It is claimed that women
are linguistically more polite
than men
THE LANGUAGE FORMS USED BY MEN
AND WOMEN DIFFERENT IN WESTERN
SOCIETIES
In western societies, women and men whose social
roles are similar do not use forms that are completely
different, but they use different quantities or frequencies
of the same form. For example: women use more
standard forms than men, and men use more
vernacular forms than women / women use more ingforms than men and fewer ing-forms in words like
coming or running. But in western communities, such
differences are also found in the speech of different
social classes, therefore the language of women in the
lower and higher classes is more similar to that of men
in the same group.
WOMEN'S LINGUISTIC BEHAVIOR (USING
FORMS THAT ARE MORE STANDARD)
1- Social status: women generally have a
lower social status in society; therefore they try
to acquire social status by using Standard
English.
2- Women's role as guardian of society's
values: women use more standard forms than
men, because society tends to expect 'better'
behavior from women than from men (women
serve as modals for their children's speech).
WOMEN'S LINGUISTIC BEHAVIOR (USING
FORMS THAT ARE MORE STANDARD)
3- Subordinate groups must be polite: women
use more standard forms than men, because
children and women are subordinate groups and
they must avoid offending men, therefore they must
speak carefully and politely.
4- Vernacular forms express machismo: men
prefer vernacular forms because they carry macho
connotations of masculinity and toughness.
Therefore women might not want to use such form,
and use standard forms that associated with female
values or femininity
WOMEN'S LINGUISTIC BEHAVIOR (USING
FORMS THAT ARE MORE STANDARD)
5- women's categories: Not all women marry
men from the same social class, however it is
perfectly possible for a women to be more
educated then the man she marry, or even to
have a more prestigious job than him.
6- The influence of the interviewer and the
context: women tend to become more
cooperative conversationalists than men.
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