REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS • A regional dialect is the uniqueness of language in an area. Ex: amer : will you do it? scot : No, I’ll not do it. Regional Variation 1. International varieties 2. Intra-national or intra-continental varieties 3. Cross-continental variation: dialect chains 4. Social variation 1.International varieties: 1.Internasional varieties: • Include differences vocabularry, pronounciation, and grammar in regions. Exp: Australians England New zealanders : sole parents : single parents : solo parents 2. intra-continental varieties 2. Intra-national Intra-nationaloror intra-continental varieties • The high high level level of of intra-national intra-national communication together communication together with the with relatively the small populations, relatively small populations, may have inhibited may have the development inhibited the development of marked of marked regional differences regional differences in these countries. in these countries. Exp :: Exp West of West of New NewZealand Zealand : gravel gravel East of East of New NewZealand Zealand : sand sand 3. Cross-continental variation: dialect chains • Two or more different languages or dialects merge one into others without a definiable boundary. Exp: across the whole of europe • One chain links all the dialect of german, dutch and flemish from switzerland thorough Austria andGermani, to the Netherland and Belgium, and there is another which links dialect of Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan, French and Italian. 4. Social variation Rp : a social accent the instantly recognisable accent described as “typically British”. often Social dialect The speech of people from different social, as well as regional, groups may differ in these ways. Rp = a social accent Standar english = a social dialect Vernicular languages contrast with standard languages •Vernacular dialect contrast with standard dialect features Caste Dialect There are castes system ditermined by birth, and strict social rules govern the kind of behavior appropriate to each group. The rules cover such matters as kind of job people can have, who they can marry, how should they dress, what they should eat, how they should behave in a range of social situation. Exp: Brahmin-non Brahmin In say “milk” Brahmin : Haalu Non Brahmin : Aluu Social Dialect 1. Vocabulary 2. Pronounciation 3. Grammatical pattern GENDER AND AGE It is claimed that women are linguistically more polite than men Gender and Age • Sex has come to refer to categories distinguished by biological characteristics • Gender is more appropriate for distinguishing people on the basis of their socio-cultural behavior, including speech. GENDER-EXCLUSIVE SPEECH DIFFERENCES: HIGHLY STRUCTURED COMMUNITIES Women and men do not speak in exactly the same way as each other in any community. Traditional Japanese provides some clear examples. Women’s form Men’s form Otosan oyaji ‘father’ Onaka hara ‘stomach’ oishii umai ‘Delicious taberu kuu ‘eat’ GENDER-PREFERENTAL SPEECH FEATURES: SOCIAL DIALECT RESEARCH Social dialect research not surprisingly in western urban communities where women’s social roles overlap, the speech forms they use also overlap. In other words women and men do not use completely different forms. Gender and social class Every social class men use more vernacular forms than women. In the lowest and the highest social groups, the women’s speech is closer to that of the men in the same group than to that women in other groups. PLANATIONS OF WOMEN’S LINGUISTIC BEHAVOUR The social status explanations Some linguists have suggested that women use more standard speech forms than men because they are more status-conscious than men. Woman’s role as guardian of society’s values Women use more standard forms than men points to the way society tends to except ‘better’ behavior form women than for men. Subordinate groups must be polite People who are subordinate must be polite. Vernacular forms express machismo Men prefer vernacular from because they carry macho connotations of masculinity and toughness. How are women categorized? In assigning women in particular social class, researchers in early social dialect studies often used the woman’s husband’s occupation as their major criterion. Reflected their social background. The influence of the interviewer and the context Men the other hand tend to be less responsive to the speech of others, and to their conversational need In such circumstances it is likely that the interview context. This too might account for men’s greater use of vernacular forms. In one of the earliest dialect surveys, the male interviewers asked different question of women and men in order to eicit a casual style of speech in which vernacular forms where more likely to occur. Age and social dialect data Social dialect research has provided a great deal of information about pattern of pronunciation and grammar for different age groups. Many people social dialectologist have found that adolescent use particularly high frequencies of vernacular forms, especially if they are forms such as ain’t and multiple negation which people clearly recognize and identify as non-standard. Age grading and language change When a linguistic change is spreading through a community, there will be a regular increase or decrease in the use of the linguistic form over time. The for an innovative. A form on the increase-this will show up in a graph as a low use of the form by older people and a higher use among younger people. GENDER AND AGE It is claimed that women are linguistically more polite than men THE LANGUAGE FORMS USED BY MEN AND WOMEN DIFFERENT IN WESTERN SOCIETIES In western societies, women and men whose social roles are similar do not use forms that are completely different, but they use different quantities or frequencies of the same form. For example: women use more standard forms than men, and men use more vernacular forms than women / women use more ingforms than men and fewer ing-forms in words like coming or running. But in western communities, such differences are also found in the speech of different social classes, therefore the language of women in the lower and higher classes is more similar to that of men in the same group. WOMEN'S LINGUISTIC BEHAVIOR (USING FORMS THAT ARE MORE STANDARD) 1- Social status: women generally have a lower social status in society; therefore they try to acquire social status by using Standard English. 2- Women's role as guardian of society's values: women use more standard forms than men, because society tends to expect 'better' behavior from women than from men (women serve as modals for their children's speech). WOMEN'S LINGUISTIC BEHAVIOR (USING FORMS THAT ARE MORE STANDARD) 3- Subordinate groups must be polite: women use more standard forms than men, because children and women are subordinate groups and they must avoid offending men, therefore they must speak carefully and politely. 4- Vernacular forms express machismo: men prefer vernacular forms because they carry macho connotations of masculinity and toughness. Therefore women might not want to use such form, and use standard forms that associated with female values or femininity WOMEN'S LINGUISTIC BEHAVIOR (USING FORMS THAT ARE MORE STANDARD) 5- women's categories: Not all women marry men from the same social class, however it is perfectly possible for a women to be more educated then the man she marry, or even to have a more prestigious job than him. 6- The influence of the interviewer and the context: women tend to become more cooperative conversationalists than men.