Chapter 8 Virtual Memory

Chapter 8
Virtual Memory
• Real memory
– Main memory, the actual RAM, where a process
• Virtual memory is a storage allocation scheme in
which secondary memory can be addressed as
though it were part of main memory
– Size is limited by the amount of secondary memory
• Virtual address is the address assigned to a
location in virtual memory
Keys to Virtual Memory
1) Memory references are logical addresses
that are dynamically translated into
physical addresses at run time
– A process may be swapped in and out of main
memory, occupying different regions at
different times during execution
2) A process may be broken up into pieces
(pages or segments) that do not need to
be located contiguously in main memory
Breakthrough in
Memory Management
• If both of those two characteristics are
– then it is not necessary that all of the pages or
all of the segments of a process be in main
memory during execution.
• If the next instruction and the next data
location are in memory then execution can
Execution of a Process
• OS brings into main memory a few pieces
of the program
– Resident set: portion of process that is in
main memory
• Execution proceeds smoothly as long as
all memory references are to locations that
are in the resident set
• An interrupt (memory access fault) is
generated when an address is needed that
is not in main memory
Execution of a Process
• OS places the process in a blocking state
• Piece of process that contains the logical
address is brought into main memory
– OS issues a disk I/O Read request
– Another process is dispatched to run while the
disk I/O takes place
– An interrupt is issued when disk I/O complete
which causes OS to place the affected
process in the Ready state
Implications of
this new strategy
• More efficient processor utilization
– More processes may be maintained in main
memory because only load in some of the
pieces of each process
– More likely a process will be in the Ready state
at any particular time
• A process may be larger than main memory
– This restriction in programming is lifted
– OS automatically loads pieces of a process into
main memory as required
• A condition in which the system spends
most of its time swapping pieces rather
than executing instructions.
• It happens when OS frequently throws out a
piece just before it is used
• To avoid this, OS tries to guess, based on
recent history, which pieces are least likely
to be used in the near future.
Principle of Locality
• Program and data references within a
process tend to cluster  only a few
pieces of a process will be needed over a
short period of time
• It is possible to make intelligent guesses
about which pieces will be needed in the
future, which avoids thrashing
• This suggests that virtual memory may
work efficiently
Performance of Processes
in VM Environment
• During the
lifetime of the
references are
confined to a
subset of pages.
Support Needed for
Virtual Memory
• Hardware must support paging and
• OS must be able to manage the
movement of pages and/or segments
between secondary memory and main
• Each process has its own page table
• Each page table entry contains the frame
number of the corresponding page in main
• Two extra bits are needed to indicate:
– P(resent): whether the page is in main
memory or not
– M(odified): whether the contents of the page
has been altered since it was last loaded
Paging Table
• It is not necessary to write an unmodified
page out when it comes to time to replace
the page in the frame that it currently
Address Translation
The frame no. is
combined with the
offset to produce
the real address
The page no. is
used to index the
page table and look
up the frame no.
Page Tables
• Page tables can be very large
– Consider a system that supports 231=2Gbytes
virtual memory with 29=512-byte pages. The
number of entries in a page table can be as
many as 222
• Most virtual memory schemes store page
tables in virtual memory
• Page tables are subject to paging
Hierarchical Page Table
Composed of 210 4byte page table
Composed of 220 4byte page table
entries, occupying
210 pages
is composed of
220 4-kbyte (212)
Address Translation for
Hierarchical page table
The root page always
remains in main memory
Translation Lookaside
• Each virtual memory reference can cause
two physical memory accesses
– One to fetch the page table
– One to fetch the data
• To overcome this problem a high-speed
cache is set up for page table entries
– Called a Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB)
– Contains page table entries that have been
most recently used
Translation Lookaside
TLB operation
By the principle of
locality, most virtual
memory references will
be to locations in
recently used pages.
Therefore, most
references will involve
page table entries in
the cache.
TLB hit
TLB miss
Page Size
• Page size is an important hardware
design decision
• Smaller page size
 less amount of internal fragmentation
 more pages required per process
larger page tables
some portion of page tables must be in
virtual memory
double page fault (first to bring in the
needed portion of the page table and
second to bring in the process page)
Page Size
• Large page size is better because
– Secondary memory is designed to efficiently
transfer large blocks of data
Further complications
to Page Size
• Small page size
a large number of pages will be available in
main memory for a process
as time goes on during execution, the pages
in memory will all contain portions of the
process near recent references
 low page fault rate
Further complications
to Page Size
• Increased page size
causes pages to contain locations further
from any recent reference
the effect of the principle of locality is
 page fault rate rises
Example Page Size
•The design issue of
page size is related to
the size of physical
main memory and
program size.
•At the same time that
main memory is
getting larger, the
address space used
by applications is also
that support
multiple page
• Segmentation allows the programmer to
view memory as consisting of multiple
address spaces or segments.
• Segments may be of unequal size.
• Each process has its own segment table.
Segment Table
• A bit is needed to determine if segment is
already in main memory, if present,
– Segment base is the starting address of the
corresponding segment in main memory
– Length is the length of the segment
• Another bit is needed to determine if the
segment has been modified since it was
loaded in main memory
Address Translation in
segment base
Segmentation The
is added to the
offset to produce
the real address
The segment no. is
used to index into the
segment table and
look up the segment
Combined Paging and
• A user’s address space is broken up into a
number of segments and each segment is
broken into fixed-size pages
• From the programmer’s point of view, a
logical address still consists of a segment
number and a segment offset.
• From the system’s point of view, the
segment offset is viewed as a page
number and page offset
Combined Paging and
• The base now refers to a page table.
Address Translation The frame no. is
The page no. is
used to index the
page table and
look up the
frame no.
combined with
the offset to
produce the real
The segment no. is
used to index into the
segment table to find
the page table for that
Key Design Elements
Fetch policy
Placement policy
Replacement policy
Cleaning policy
Key aim: Minimise page faults
– No definitive best policy
Fetch Policy
• Determines when a page should be brought into
• Demand paging
– only brings pages into main memory when a reference
is made to a location on the page
– many page faults when process first started
• Prepaging
– pages other than the one demanded by a page fault
are brought in.
– more efficient to bring in pages that reside
contiguously on the disk
Placement Policy
• Determines where in real memory a
process piece is to reside
• Important in a segmentation system such
as best-fit, first-fit, and etc are possible
• Irrelevant for pure paging or combined
paging with segmentation
Replacement Policy
• When all of the frames in main memory
are occupied and it is necessary to bring in
a new page, the replacement policy
determines which page currently in
memory is to be replaced.
• But, which page is replaced?
Replacement Policy
• Page removed should be the page least
likely to be referenced in the near future
– How is that determined?
• Most policies predict the future behavior
on the basis of past behavior
• Tradeoff: the more sophisticated the
replacement policy, the greater the
overhead to implement it
Replacement Policy
Frame Locking
• Frame Locking
– If frame is locked, it may not be replaced
– Kernel of the operating system
– Key control structures
– I/O buffers
– Associate a lock bit with each frame which
may be kept in a frame table as well as being
included in the current page table
Optimal policy
• Selects for replacement that page for
which the time to the next reference is the
• Results in the fewest number of page
faults but it is impossible to have perfect
knowledge of future events
• Serves as a standard to judge real-world
Optimal Policy
• The optimal policy produces three page
faults after the frame allocation has been
Least Recently
Used (LRU)
• Replaces the page that has not been
referenced for the longest time
• By the principle of locality, this should be
the page least likely to be referenced in
the near future
• Difficult to implement
– One approach is to tag each page with the
time of last reference.
– This requires a great deal of overhead.
• The LRU policy does nearly as well as the
optimal policy.
– In this example, there are four page faults
First-in, first-out (FIFO)
• Treats page frames allocated to a process
as a circular buffer
• Pages are removed in round-robin style
– Simplest replacement policy to implement
• Page that has been in memory the longest
is replaced
– But, these pages may be needed again very
soon if it hasn’t truly fallen out of use
• The FIFO policy results in six page faults.
– Note that LRU recognizes that pages 2 and 5
are referenced more frequently than other
pages, whereas FIFO does not.
Clock Policy
• Uses an additional bit called a “use bit”
• When a page is first loaded in memory or
referenced, the use bit is set to 1
• When it is time to replace a page, the OS scans
the set flipping all 1’s to 0
• The first frame encountered with the use bit
already set to 0 is replaced.
• Similar to FIFO, except that, any frame with a
use bit of 1 is passed over by the algorithm.
Clock Policy
page 727
Clock Policy
An asterisk indicates that the corresponding use bit is equal to 1.
The arrow indicates the current position of the pointer.
• Note that the clock policy is adept at
protecting frames 2 and 5 from replacement.
Replacement Policy
Two conflicting constraints:
1. We would like to have a
small page fault rate in
order to run efficiently,
2. We would like to keep a
small frame allocation.
Page Buffering
• Replacing a modified page is more costly
than unmodified page because the former
must be written to secondary memory
• Solution: page buffering + FIFO
– Replaced page remains in memory (only the
entry in the page table for this page is removed)
and is added to the tail of one of two lists
• Free page list if page has not been modified
• Modified page list if it has
Page Buffering
• The free page list is a list of page frames
available for reading in pages.
• When a page is to be read in, the page frame at
the head of the list is used, destroying the page
that was there.
• The important aspect is that the page to be
replaced remains in memory.
– If the process references that page, it is returned to
the resident set of that process at little cost.
– In effect, the free and modified page lists act as a
cache of pages.
Cleaning Policy
• A cleaning policy is concerned with
determining when a modified page should
be written out to secondary memory.
• Demand cleaning
– A page is written out only when it has been
selected for replacement
–  Minimizes page writes
–  A process that suffers a page fault may have
to wait for two page transfers before it can be
unblocked  decrease processor utilization
Cleaning Policy
• Precleaning
– Pages are written out in batches (before they
are needed)
–  Reduces the number of I/O operations
–  Pages written out may have been modified
again before they are replaced  waste of I/O
operations with unnecessary cleaning
Cleaning Policy
• Better approach: incorporates page buffering
• Cleans only pages that are replaceable
– decouples the cleaning and replacement operations
• Pages in the modified list are periodically written
out in batches and moved to the free list
–  significantly reduces the number of I/O operations
and therefore the amount of disk access time
• Pages in the free list are either reclaimed if
referenced again or lost when its frame is
assigned to another page