Positioning

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Positioning
Positioning
1
Positioning in the market place
At the end of this module the learning
outcomes are
1. What is positioning?
2. What are the pitfalls in positioning?
3. What are the different positioning
strategies that are available?
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
Suggesting Readings
Marketing Management by Philip Kotler, 10th
edition chapter 10 .
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
What is Positioning?
- It is the act of designing the company’s
offering and image to occupy a distinctive
place in the target market’s mind.
- Positioning is not what you do to the product
- Positioning is what you do to the mind of
the prospect
- Customer does the Positioning
- A product may have many distinctions. Which
are most important to the customers?
Positioning
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Positioning and Differentiation
Positioning statements:
To (target group and need) our (brand) is
(concept) that (point-of-difference)
Example: To young, active soft-drink consumers
who have little time for sleep, Mountain Dew is the
soft drink that gives you more energy than any
other brand because it has the highest level of
caffeine.
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
Examples
Crest toothpaste
Promotes its anti-cavity protection
Mercedes
Promotes its great engineering
BMW
Ultimate driving machine
Attribute can be single or even multiples
Positioning
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Perceptual Map
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
Positioning
- How do you differentiate your product
from competitors
- Differentiation, which is
 Important
 Distinctive
 Superior
 Not easily copied or Unique.
 Affordable
 Profitable
Positioning
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Developing and Communicating a
Positioning Strategy
Positioning: How many ideas to
promote?
Unique selling proposition vs Unique
value proposition
Positioning
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Developing and Communicating a
Positioning Strategy
Four major positioning errors
1.
2.
3.
4.
Underpositioning
Overpositioning
Confused positioning
Doubtful positioning
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
What to avoid
1. Under positioning
Seen as just another entry in a
crowded market
Pepsi introduces its clear crystal Pepsi
1993
Customer not impressed
“Clarity” not seen as an important
benefit
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
2. Over positioning
Narrow image of the brand
Trying to widen
Customer do not accept this
Maruti Baleno
 Customers think Maruti can make
cars up to 5 lacs
 Not higher end
 Image issue

Poor sales
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
3. Confused Positioning
Company making too many claims
Milkmaid
Started as Tea Whitener
Did not click
As a topping on pudding
Did not click
Finally clicked as base for dessert
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
4.
Doubtful Positioning
Find it to difficult believe in what company claims
Maruti 1000
-
Launches in ’89
Positioned as ‘ultimate in luxury’
Only luxury car
Launch of Esteem in ’94
More luxurious than Maruti 1000
Is it now ‘Ultimate in luxury
Sales dipped
Customer confused
Repositioned as ‘Affordable luxury’
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
Right Positioning is Critical
Make or break the organization
Nestle Maggi noodles
launched in 1983
Noodles a new concept in Indian
households
Two options for Nestle
1.As a dinner item
2.As a snack item
Targeted at children
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
1. As a Lunch or Dinner
Housewives / Mothers take decisions
Noodles as lunch or dinner item
Replacing current lunch items
Housewives want to serve children
‘nutritious’ food
Would noodles provide nutrition and
replace tradition food?
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
2. As a ‘Snack Item ‘
Between lunch and dinner
Children play
Spend energy
Want to eat something
Quick preparation and delicious
Variety of flavors
Filing
Will mothers accept this as a ‘snack Item’
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
Which Positioning – Maggi
- Which Positioning platform is
acceptable
- Careful study of mothers and children
behavior
- Nestle found that as a snack item
would be more acceptable
- Sales picked up
- As a lunch / dinner would have been
disaster.
Right positioning was critical for the
success of Maggi noodles.
Positioning
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Developing a Positioning Strategy
Positioning possibilities:
Attribute positioning
Benefit positioning
Use or application positioning
User positioning
Competitor positioning
Product category positioning
Quality or price positioning
Which Positioning to Promote?
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
1. ATTRIBUTE POSITIONING
- Positioning on attribute
 Size
 No of years in existence
 Culture
Disneyland
Positioned as the largest manmade park in the world
Dove soap
Contains moisturizing cream
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
2. BENEFIT POSITIONING
Positioned as a leader in certain benefit
McDonald’s
Positioned as a family restaurant (QSCV)
Honda
Economy and reliability
BMW
Ultimate driving machine
Volvo
Safety and Durability.
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
3. USE / APPLICATION POSITIONING.
Positioning for some use or application
Nestle ‘Maggi Noodles’
– Positioned as a snack item
– Between meals
– Fast to cook, good to eat
Nestle Milkmaid
– Positioned as a base for dessert preparation.
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
4. USER POSITIONING
Positioning the product as best for some
user group.
‘Red and white’ cigarettes
Positioned for people who are bold and brave
Give ‘bravery’ awards.
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
5. COMPETITOR POSITIONING
Product claims to have better
performance than competitors
Brooke Bond Taj Mahal Tea
Endorsed by Zakir Hussain
“If you find a better tea than Taj Mahal, then Zakir
Hussain will stop playing Tabla.
Directly or indirectly refer competitors.
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
6. PRODUCT CATEGORY POSITIONING
Positioning as a leader in certain category.
Maruti 1000
Launched in 1990
Only luxury car in India
Positioned as ‘ultimate in luxury’
Hero Honda
Four Stroke, fuel efficiency
Claimed as the leader in fuel efficiency
Fill it, shut it, forget it
Livon
After hair wash oil
Smooth and silky hair
Positioning
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Positioning in the market place
7. QUALITY OR PRICE POSITIONING
Positioning as offering the best scooters
Bajaj Scooters
– Lowest prices
– You just cannot beat a Bajaj
– Repositioned as ‘Hamara Bajaj’
Positioning
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Adding Further Differentiation
Differentiation: products feature
meaningful and valuable
differences that distinguish the
company’s offering from the
competition.
Positioning
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Adding Further Differentiation
Differentiation criteria:
Important
Distinctive
Superior
Preemptive
Affordable
Profitable
Unique
Positioning
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Positioning and Differentiation
Performance
Features
Form
Conformance
Product
Differentiation
Tools
Reliability
Design
Style
Durability
Repairability
Positioning
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Positioning and Differentiation
Services Differentiation Tools
Ordering
ease
Customer
consulting
Maintenance
and repair
Customer
training
Installation
Delivery
Miscellaneous
Positioning
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Positioning and Differentiation
Personnel Differentiation Tools
Competence
Responsiveness
Communication
Credibility
Courtesy
Positioning
Reliability
31
Positioning and Differentiation
Channel Differentiation Tools
Coverage
Expertise
Performance
Image Differentiation Tools
Symbols
Media
Atmosphere
Events
Positioning
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