Chapter One

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Chapter One
The Essence of UNIX and
Linux
Guide To UNIX Using Linux
Fourth Edition
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
CTEC 110
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Objectives
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Explain operating systems, including PC,
mainframe, and network operating systems
Describe the UNIX and Linux operating systems
Explain the purpose of UNIX/Linux shells
Understand how to select user names and
passwords
Connect to UNIX/Linux using Telnet or SSH
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Objectives (continued)
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Use basic UNIX/Linux commands and commandline editing features
Explain the role of a system administrator
Change your password for security
Use multiple commands to view the contents of
files
Redirect output to a file
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Understanding Operating Systems
• Operating System (OS)
– The most fundamental computer
program
– Enables you to store information,
process raw data, use application
software, compile your own programs,
and access attached hardware, such as a
printer or keyboard
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Understanding Operating Systems
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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PC Operating Systems
•
A personal computer (PC) OS conducts all I/O,
processing, and storage operations on a stand-alone
computer
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Mainframe Operating Systems
•
A mainframe OS controls a large computer system
with multiple processors for I/O, processing, and
storage operations for many users
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Network Operating Systems
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A network OS controls the operations of a server
computer (host), which accepts requests from user
programs running on other computers (clients)
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Server-based vs. peer-to-peer networks
• Server-based network
– Centralized processing approach
– Data and applications server resident
– If server fails, entire network fails
• Peer-to-peer
– Distributed processing approach
– Data and applications workstation
resident
– Each system is both a server and a client
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Introducing the UNIX and Linux
Operating Systems
UNIX/Linux can be used on systems functioning as:
 Dedicated servers or client workstations in a
server-based network
 Client/server workstations connected to a
peer-to-peer network
 Stand-alone workstations not connected to a
network
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Introducing the UNIX and Linux
Operating Systems (continued)
• UNIX/Linux is a multi-user system
• UNIX/Linux is a multitasking system
– Can execute more than one program at a
time
• UNIX/Linux is a portable operating
system
– Used in many computing environments
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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A Brief History of UNIX
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Bell Labs originally developed UNIX in the late
1960s and early 1970s
Distributed in source code form
Universities modified the code to work on different
machines
Two standard versions of UNIX evolved
– System V (Bell Labs)
– Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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UNIX Concepts
•
Shell
– The interface between user and OS
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Hierarchical Structure
– Directory and subdirectory organization
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Layered components
– Layers of software surround the computer’s
inner core
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Linux and UNIX
•
Linux is UNIX-like
– Not written from traditional UNIX code
•
Linux is original code
– Includes POSIX standards
•
Other Linux information
– Created by Linus Torvalds
– Offers all the complexity of UNIX
– Linux can coexist with other OSs
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Introducing UNIX/Linux Shells
A shell is a
UNIX/Linux
program that
interprets the
commands you
enter from the
keyboard
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Choosing Your Shell
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Shells interpret commands and act as first-class
programming languages
A default shell is associated with your account when
created; Bash is the default shell in Linux
Some UNIX/Linux shells: Bourne, Korn, C shell, Bash
Can switch from shell to shell
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Choosing User Names
and Passwords
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To use UNIX/Linux, a user must log in by
providing a unique user name and password
UNIX/Linux system administrators create
accounts by adding user names and passwords
Users log in to UNIX or Linux systems as long
as they have accounts on the workstation or
host (server) computer
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Connecting to UNIX/Linux Using Telnet
or SSH
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Remotely through Telnet (Use SSH Mostly Now!)
Through network client software
As peer on peer-to-peer network
On a stand-alone PC
Through a dumb terminal
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Connecting to UNIX Using Telnet
•
Telnet is terminal emulation software
– Connects your PC to a server, or host
▫ PC could be running UNIX, Linux,
Windows OS, or Macintosh OS
▫ Once connected to a UNIX/Linux host,
work with UNIX/Linux may begin
– Uses IP addresses or domain names to access
remote systems
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Secure Shell (SSH)
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Developed for UNIX/Linux systems to provide
authentication security for TCP/IP applications, such
as FTP and Telnet
Can encrypt communications as they go across a
network or the Internet
openSSH includes protocols and software for free
distribution on UNIX/Linux systems
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Logging In to UNIX/Linux
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Log in by entering username and password when
UNIX/Linux system booted or connected to
Enter at prompt (command-line mode) or into login
box (GUI mode)
Now commands can be issued at the command
prompt
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Logging In to UNIX/Linux (continued)
With a standalone computer and an X Window desktop
such as GNOME, you must open a terminal window to
access the command prompt
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Using Commands
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To interact with UNIX/Linux, a command is
entered at the command prompt
UNIX/Linux is case-sensitive and most
commands are typed in lower case
Two categories of commands
– User-level: perform tasks
– System administration: system management
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Using Commands (continued)
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The date command
– Displays the system date, which the system
administrator maintains
The cal command
– Shows the system calendar
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Using Commands (continued)
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Using Commands (continued)
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Using Commands (continued)
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The who Command
– To get information about who is logged in
– Useful for administrators and users
The clear Command
– Clears the screen
The whatis command
– Displays a brief description of a command for
help purposes
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Using Commands (continued)
The man
program
displays the
UNIX/Linux
online
reference
manual,
called the
man pages,
for help
purposes
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Using Commands (continued)
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Command-line editing
– Certain keystrokes perform command-line
editing (shell dependent)
Multiple command entries
– More than one command on one line by
separating with a semicolon(;)
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Using Commands (continued)
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Command-line history
– Use up and down arrow keys to scroll through
command history
Logging out ends your current process and indicates
to UNIX that you are finished
Logging out is shell dependent
– Bourne, Korn, Bash – exit command
– C shell – logout command
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Understanding the Role of the UNIX/Linux
System Administrator
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System administrator manages the UNIX/Linux
system
– Adds users and deletes old accounts
– Also called the superuser
– Unlimited permission to alter system
– Unique user name: root
– Prompt ends with # (pound) symbol
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Understanding the Role of the UNIX/Linux
System Administrator (continued)
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The System Administrator’s Command Line
– [[email protected] root]#
The Ordinary User’s Command Line
– [[email protected] username] $
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Changing Passwords
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For security purposes, changing passwords is
necessary
– Use the passwd command
– UNIX/Linux allows new password if:
▫ The new password differs by at least
three characters
▫ It has six or more characters, including
at least two letters and one number
▫ It is different from the user name
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Viewing Files Using the
cat, more, less, head, and tail Commands
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Use cat, more, and less to view an entire file
contents
– cat displays a whole file at one time
– more displays a file one screen at a time,
allowing scroll down
– less displays a file one screen at a time,
allowing scroll down and up
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Viewing Files Using the
cat, more, less, head, and tail Commands
(continued)
•
Use head and tail to view the first few or last
few lines of a file
– head displays the first few lines (10 lines)
– tail displays the last few lines (10 lines)
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Redirecting Output
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The greater than sign (>) is called a
redirection symbol
Create a new file or overwrite an existing file
by attaching (>) to a command that produces
output
To append to an existing file, use two
redirection symbols (>>)
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Chapter Summary
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OS controls all computer resources and provides
the base upon which application programs can be
used or written
A server-based network is centralized (handled
by the system administrator)
A peer-to-peer network is decentralized
UNIX/Linux are multi-user, multitasking
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Chapter Summary (continued)
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UNIX/Linux systems can be configured as
servers, client workstations, client/server
workstations, or stand-alone
The concept of the layered components that
make up an OS originated with UNIX
Linux is a UNIX-like OS for a PC
You communicate with the OS programs through
an interpreter called the shell
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Chapter Summary (continued)
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The system administrator sets up accounts for
users that supply a username and password
You work with UNIX by typing commands that
you can learn by referring to the online manual
called man pages
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Chapter Summary (continued)
•
•
Most shells provide basic command-line editing
capabilities and keep a history of your most
recently used commands
You can view the contents of files with view
commands such as cat, less, more, head, and
tails
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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Chapter 1 Unix Exercises
• Work through Hands-on Projects
at end of chapter 1
• Canvas: Review Questions 1
- (Do not do questions 22,23,24
and 25 on All Unix Chapters!)
• Read chapter 2 before next class
session
• Quiz 1 UNIX…
Chapter 1 Unix (42 slides)
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