Emily Kilpatrick and Alexander Volpi
Intro to Shakespeare
English ship builder, naval
administrator, and commander
Introduced tobacco to England
Fought the Armada
Set up English slave trade
September 16, 1567 “Lade [load]
negroes in Guinea and sell them in
the West Indies in truck of [in
exchange for] gold, pearls and
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Lascar: Sailor/militiaman from
South Asia on European ships
Fashionable for gentlewomen to
have black servents
‘Employees,’ not ‘slaves’
Queen Elizabeth’s proclamation to
send blackamoors out of London –
Never strictly enforced
Preserved fair skin
Shakespeare: Went against concept
and made Othello black - No
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Elizabeth’s London by Liza Picard
English blamed
infections/diseases on tourists
French blamed for French Pox
Taken advantage of by
Phrase books – translations from
English to Flemish, German, Latin,
Italian, Spanish and French
Most from Holland, Belgium, northern
France and northern Germany
England – Tolerably safe for Pope’s
Did most of the toilsome, difficult
and skillful works
Jacob Verselyn – Left Murano and
revolutionized glass production in
England (Soda-ash from seaweed)
Queen’s grocer – Spaniard
Returned to native country when
hostility lessened (French in
Citizens complain about foreign
merchants and craftsmen
Foreigners breaking the law – ‘took
up fairest houses in the city,’ and
subdivded them or took in illegal
Did not increase England’s wealth
England wanted foreigners to teach
citizens lagging in new-market
Tortured if necessary to know
where they came from - no results
Sophisticated census
-How many foreigners reside?
-What nation, profession, origin?
-How many servants?
-How long living there?
-What church they attend?
-Employ English people?
-Sell prohibited wares?
Foreigners must hire as many
English people as fellow strangers –
Seemed to abide
1593 Return
-Total: 7,013
-Strangers: 4,570 (born abroad)
-Strangers: 2,443 (born in England)
Emily Kilpatrick
Foreigners could become English citizens. .
.for a price
2 ways to become a citizen: buy a Patent of
Denization from the Crown (very expensive),
or get Parliament to grant you citizenship,
which cost more money.
Through Elizabeth’s reign, only 1,762
patents granted and only 12 acts passed.
Most foreigners did not bother trying to
become a citizen
Sir Horace Pallavicino became citizen in
1585 so Elizabeth could knight him in
Biggest advantage of denizen status was
that holder could buy land and leave it to
children, and they could also join a livery
“Aliens” paid at least two times more
than native Londoners whether they had
been granted citizenship or not
Hanseatic merchants allowed to live in a
self-contained community with unique
trading concessions since the twelfth
By the 16th century their main trade to
London was timber, cordage, and grain
from north Germany and the Baltic.
1551, native merchants had brought
privileges to an end
Continued to stay at Steelyard and other
properties without paying taxes until
Had to leave country in 1598
Their complaints brought about
standardized weight system for trading
in 1582
Aliens not allowed to have open shops:
window(s) had to be covered with a
By 1587 allowed to take down lattices,
but could not display items for sale
Not allowed to take apprentices
Belonged to one of 2 churches
1: Dutch church that was once Catholic
Community increased under Elizabeth’s rule from
700 communicates in 2 years after church reopened
in 1561 to nearly 2,000 in 1568.
2: French took over St. Anthony’s Church.
Fewer members: 1,800 in 1568
French had higher social standing, Dutch had lower
social standing
1592 Flemish workers had over 1,000 English
workers and Dutch church complained of harassment
Native Londoners attended parish churches scattered
through the city
In 1570’s Privy Council made existing
voluntary arrangements for immigrant
communities to settle somewhere besides
Foreigner’s churches had admirable
government: anyone applying to be part of
church had to prove he had lived a good life.
Anyone not belonging to a church after 1573
risked banishment
Both churches run by council of 8 elders (12
after 1571) that kept members under tight
Couple wanting to marry had to go through
strict rules
If opted to marry in an English parish, could
not return to French church
Once married, adultery not taken seriously
Church members expected to avoid any
appearance of naughtiness
Dancing looked up on as a sin
Foreign churches looked after their own
If someone was sick, elders checked on them;
elders also helped with wills, advice, and loans
Also had “lawyers” (arbitrators) to settle
commercial disputes between members
Medical care could be arranged- during plague of
1563, Dutch appointed a surgeon to tend to sick
Both churches had fund-raisers, most
contributions came from sympathetic English