Today’s standard*Analyze works of literature for what is suggested about the historical period in which they were written. Objective- Gather information to better understand Shakespeare and his work Romeo & Juliet. Parker Presents William Shakespeare Life of William Shakespeare Elizabethan Period 1558-1603 Family Born around April 23, 1564 in Stratford–on–Avon 3rd of 8 children Family was well off Most quoted, other than the Bible Life of William Shakespeare The Dirt ! Married Anne Hathaway at 18 - she was 26! Three children Absentee father Stratford-on-Avon Stratford-on-Avon London During Shakespeare’s Days No running water or electricity Poverty London During Shakespeare’s Days Bathing considered dangerous Childhood diseases Children often died young Small Pox & Bubonic Plague killed thousands London During Shakespeare’s Days No running water Chamber Pots Open Sewers Crowded London During Shakespeare’s Days Clothes One set used all year long, rarely washed Underclothing slept in, rarely changed Clothes handed down from rich to poor Theater in London The Theater First public theater Demolished in 1599 Theater in London Theater in London The Globe Penny admission Hard to believe? Think about admission to the movie theater in the ‘50s Theater in London Actors All men Female parts played by young boys No actual kissing or hugging on stage Audience 2000-3000 people from all walks of life Rich audience sat in covered galleries around stage Most stood in the pit around platform stage – “groundlings” The groundling Poor audience member Stood around stage in “the pit” Threw rotten vegetables at bad performances The Plays Tragedy Ends in the death of one or more of the main characters Most of Shakespeare’s tragedies involved historical individuals or events. Tragic Endings Most tragic heroes are partly to blame for their own fates and end up dying as a result. All of Shakespeare’s tragedies have a tragic hero. Tragic Heroes All of Shakespeare’s tragedies have a tragic hero. Often makes more than one bad judgment Usually recognizes his mistakes We feel sympathy for him. The hero is often a man of high rank, such as a king or prince. Will die Line References The play’s title is written in italics The scene is in small Roman numerals Romeo & Juliet, II. i. 35 The act is written in capital Roman numerals The line number is written as a normal number New Words In Shakespeare’s time . . . There were no dictionaries. There were no spelling rules. Shakespeare created over 2,000 words. Wordplay, bawdy jokes, and lofty language appealed to Elizabethan audiences. Shakespeare’s Words Hint eyeball majestic generous fashionable laughable gloomy undress Romeo and Juliet Think & Write When family differences stand between two people, it can be destructive because_______________. Skills for this Unit: • • • • • • Understand globe theater Summarize and paraphrase complex text Analyze characters (protagonist/antagonist, flat/round, static/dynamic, stock) Analyze conflicts (internal/external), Analyze stage directions, dialogue and dramatic speeches (monologue, soliloquy, aside) Analyze theme What are we about to read? This play is a tragedy-it traces the downfall of the main character, often called the tragic hero. Tragic hero-admired character, but has a major flaw that causes his downfall. Overall Structure Called a “five act play” Act 1-Introduction Act 2- Rising Action Act 3-Climax Act 4-Falling Action Act 5- Resolution Romeo and Juliet: Background The Elizabethan audience expected a drama to unfold in five predictable segments. • Act III Rising action • Act II • Act I Introduction Crisis, or turning point • Act IV Falling action • Act V Climactic moment, resolution Globe Theater The Globe- most famous theater in the history of English stage, for many more of Shakespeare’s plays were performed there. It was a round theater with a central stage open to the sky. Summarize and Paraphrase: What’s the difference? Summarize-briefly stating the idea of a text in a few sentences. Paraphrase-summarize a text LINE by LINE. Analyze Characters Dynamic-a character changes and grows Static- a character remains the same Flat-one dimensional; has only one or two qualities Round-multi-dimensional; has many qualities Stock character-a stereotypical character (villian, mean librarian, etc.) Remember a character can be flat and static. Most flat, static characters are also stereotypical, or stock characters. A character can be dynamic and round at the same time. Analyze Conflicts Internal- man vs. self (Example: Should I cheat?) External- man vs. man Dialogue Dialogue= conversation between characters. Prose dialogue is written in quotation marks. In drama, it generally follows the name of the speaker- seen below BENVOLIO. My noble uncle, do you know the cause? MONTAGUE. I neither know. Stage Directions • • • Notes in a play that describe how the work should be performed, or stagedsuch as scenes, lighting, sound effects and character actions. Usually set in italics and are sometimes set off in brackets or parentheses. Example: • Scene iii. Friar Lawrence’s cell [Enter FRIAR LAWRENCE alone, with a basket.] Stage Directions Sally: Good Morning, teacher. Teacher: Good Morning, Sally. Sally: What do you want us to do this morning? Teacher: I want you to get out your homework. Sally: Great. Same skit with stage directions included. Sally: (loudly) Good Morning, teacher. Teacher: (acting irritated) Good Morning, Sally. Sally: (laughs rudely) What do you want us to do this morning? Teacher: (sternly) I want you to get out your homework. Sally: (sarcastically) Great. And again. Sally: (cheerfully) Good Morning, teacher. Teacher: (smiles) Good Morning, Sally. Sally: (sweetly) What do you want us to do this morning? Teacher: (energetically) I want you to get out your homework. Sally: (excitedly) Great. Dramatic Speeches Monologue- a long, uninterrupted speech delivered to other characters on stage. Soliloquy- (solo) a speech in which a character, alone on stage, reveals private thoughts that the audience is allowed to overhear. Aside-a brief remark a character makes to the audience rather than to the other characters. Now use your guided notes paper- AGAIN. Romeo & Juliet!! Romeo and Juliet: Introduction Verona, Italy Feud between Capulets and Montagues The Montagues and the Capulets hate each other. Romeo and Juliet: Introduction Is there such a thing as love at first sight? Romeo Montague sneaks into a Capulet party. He and Juliet Capulet can’t take their eyes off each other. That’s before the well known romantic exchange on her balcony. Romeo and Juliet: Introduction Neither family is pleased with their interest in each other. But the couple has a friend in the local priest— if only Friar Laurence can coax the families toward peace. Romeo and Juliet: Introduction But meanwhile, the feud between the families is getting worse and even leads to revenge and death. Romeo and Juliet: Background • In Romeo and Juliet a prologue in sonnet (type of poem) form summarizes the play for the audience Prologue- introduction before the first act. • Most lines in the play, like the lines of a sonnet, are in iambic pentameter—ten syllables of a steady unaccented/accented pattern. •Creates a beat/rhythm when read. Romeo and Juliet question During the 1300s in Verona, Italy— in the setting for Romeo and Juliet—it was customary for a father to arrange a suitable marriage for his daughter. Prologue activity Do 1-5 thoroughly for homework. Stage Directions Exit Questions 1&2 Choose the correct description for the following words in parenthesis: (Reciting) (whistling) (at the gate) A They establish the setting and foreshadow upcoming conflict. B They contribute to the characterization and relationship between the actors. C They indicate how the lines should be spoken and describe offstage activity. D They describe what the stage looks like and how the actors should speak and move. What would be gained if the drama were performed instead of read? A The emotions of the characters would be more apparent. B The characters would be more essential to the plot. C The plot would come to a conclusion more quickly. D The foreshadowing would be more effective. 2015 STOP HERE Literature book page 808 Sampson: Gregory: Abram: Benvolio: Tybalt: Officer: Capulet: Lady Capulet: Montague: Lady Montague: Prince: Romeo: Juliet: ACT I Nurse: Mercutio: Servingman 1: Servingman 2: Servingman 3: Romeo and Juliet Exit ticket Who is fighting in the beginning of Act I? What does Aside mean? Are you confused about the play? Write your question here on your paper.