A framework for selecting appropriate online

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A framework for selecting
appropriate online vocabulary
learning environments
Dr. Rob Waring
Notre Dame Seishin University
Example Activities
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explicit teaching
Dictionary work
Studying from a grammar book
Intensive reading
Language awareness activities
Conscious word learning
• Controlled language production
activities.
• Language and pronunciation
drills
• Gap fill exercises
• Memorized dialogs
• Sentence completion tasks
• Tests
•
•
•
•
•
Easy reading
Easy listening
Watching movies
Browsing the Internet
Listening to the radio or music
• ‘Free’ language production
activities.
• Casual conversations
• Debates and discussions
• Email, and online chat
• Diary writing
• Essays
Example Activities
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explicit teaching
Dictionary work
Studying from a grammar book
Intensive reading
Language awareness activities
Conscious word learning
• Controlled language production
activities.
• Language and pronunciation
drills
• Gap fill exercises
• Memorized dialogs
• Sentence completion tasks
• Tests
•
•
•
•
•
Easy reading
Easy listening
Watching movies
Browsing the Internet
Listening to the radio or music
• ‘Free’ language production
activities
• Casual conversations
• Debates and discussions
• Email, and online chat
• Diary writing
• Essays
Example Activities
Receptive
Productive
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explicit teaching
Dictionary work
Studying from a grammar book
Intensive reading
Language awareness activities
Conscious word learning
• Controlled language production
activities.
• Language and pronunciation
drills
• Gap fill exercises
• Memorized dialogs
• Sentence completion tasks
• Tests
•
•
•
•
•
Easy reading
Easy listening
Watching movies
Browsing the Internet
Listening to the radio or music
• ‘Free’ language production
activities.
• Casual conversations
• Debates and discussions
• Email, and online chat
• Diary writing
• Essays
Example Activities
Receptive
Productive
•
•
•
•
•
•
Explicit teaching
Dictionary work
Studying from a grammar book
Intensive reading
Language awareness activities
Conscious word learning
• Controlled language production
activities.
• Language and pronunciation
drills
• Gap fill exercises
• Memorized dialogs
• Sentence completion tasks
• Tests
•
•
•
•
•
Extensive reading
Extensive listening
Watching movies
Browsing the Internet
Listening to the radio or music
• ‘Free’ language production
activities.
• Casual conversations
• Debates and discussions
• Email, and online chat
• Diary writing
• Essays
Example Activities
Receptive
Language
Study
Fluency
practice
Productive
• Explicit teaching
• Dictionary work
• Studying from a grammar
book
• Intensive reading
• Language awareness
activities
• Conscious word learning
• Controlled language production
activities.
• Language and pronunciation
drills
• Gap fill exercises
• Memorized dialogs
• Sentence completion tasks
• Tests
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Easy reading
Easy listening
Watching movies
Browsing the Internet
Listening to the radio or
music
‘Free’ language production
activities.
Casual conversations
Debates and discussions
Email, and online chat
Diary writing
Essays
The Balanced Curriculum
Receptive
• Explicit teaching
• Dictionary work
Language Study • Studying from a
grammar book
• Intensive reading
• Language awareness
activities
• Conscious word learning
Fluency
Practice
•
•
•
•
•
Easy reading
Easy listening
Watching movies
Browsing the Internet
Listening to the radio or
music
Productive
• Controlled language production
activities.
• Language and pronunciation drills
• Gap fill exercises
• Memorized dialogs
• Sentence completion tasks
• Tests
• ‘Free’ language production
activities.
• Casual conversations
• Debates and discussions
• Email, and online chat
• Diary writing
• Essays
The Balanced Curriculum
Receptive
Language Study
Productive
Build language knowledge and get control over it
Develop learning strategies
Develop a sense of how the language works
Fluency
Practice
Build autonomy
Build pragmatic and cultural knowledge
Balance in Language Teaching
Receptive
Language
Study
Fluency
Practice
Productive
- provides new knowledge
about language features
-raises awareness of how
the language works
- raises awareness of
learning strategies
-gives practice in checking
whether something is known
- allows learners to actively
construct language
- focuses on accurate control over
language features
- Learners get a feel for
how the language works
- consolidates the
discretely learned
language features
- allows learners to meet
huge amounts of text
- gives real time opportunities to
experiment with language use
- gives feedback on the success of
language use
- builds fluency of language
production
The Balanced Curriculum
Receptive
Language
Study
Productive
Box 1 - Formal Learning
Box 2 - “Getting Control”
Building knowledge
about the language
Linking knowledge
Accuracy focus
Awareness raising
Fluency
Practice
Box 3 - Fluency Input
Box 4 - Fluency Output
Networking
knowledge
Experimenting with
language
Comprehending
input fluently
Developing fluency
How does learning happen?
“Then they saw an ancient temple …”
Notice
something
Understand
and add to
our knowledge
Try it out
Get
feedback
Correct use
Incorrect
use
We don’t
understand
Get more
input
The Cycle of Learning
Notice
something
Add to our
knowledge
Get more
input
(feedback)
Try it out
How does the cycle of learning fit The Balanced
Curriculum?
Receptive
Notice things
Language Study
Productive
Try it out (controlled)
Add to your knowledge
Get more input
Notice things
Fluency
Practice
Add to your
knowledge
Get more input
Try it out (free production)
What happens if they don’t do these things?
Receptive
Language Study
Fluency
Practice
Productive
- Fewer chances to
notice new things
- Hard to add new
knowledge
- Can’t check the accuracy
of what they learnt
- Not enough input
- Few chances to
develop automatic
processing
- Can’t develop fluent
eye movements
- Can’t experiment with their
knowledge fluently
Two states of vocabulary learning
Form-meaning relationship
- matching the spelling and sound to a meaning
The ‘deeper’ aspects of vocabulary learning
- multiple meaning senses / nuances of use
- frequency, usefulness etc.
- use in context
- domain (lexical set)
- restrictions on use / pragmatic values
- register – polite, rude, spoken, written, formal, informal
- collocation and colligation
- lexical access speed, fluency, automaticity
- etc.
Central Vocab Concepts
Frequency – Usefulness / Need - Range
Receptive – Productive
Contextualized – Decontexualized
Intentional – Incidental learning
Scaffolded learning – Random learning
Single items – Multi-part words
Massed – Distributed practice
Spaced retrieval
Scheduled review / recycling / repetition
What happens to things we learn?
We forget them over time unless they are recycled and
memories of them strengthened
Our brains are designed to forget most of what we meet - not to
remember it
Knowledge
The Forgetting Curve
Time
Leitner’s Memory System
Spaced, expanded retrieval
Image source: www.lexxica.com
Memorization software
Anki
Supermemo
Memosyne
Open cards
Quizlet
AWL Builder
FlashcardDB
SocialDecks
Flashcard friends
http://ankisrs.net/
http://www.supermemo.com/
http://www.mnemosyne-proj.org/
http://www.opencards.info/
http://www.quizlet.com
http://www.charlie-browne.com
http://flashcarddb.com/
www.socialdecks.com
http://www.flashcardfriends.com/
iKnow.jp
iKnow.jp
iKnow.jp
iKnow.jp
Comparison of software
Anki
Supermemo
iKnow!
WordEngine
Mnemosyne
OS
Mac, PC,
Browser, IOS,
Android
PC, iOS,
Browser
Browser, iOS,
Android
Browser
Mac, PC,
Browser,
Android
Import, add
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Audio /
images
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Sync
Yes
No?
Yes
No
No?
Demo video
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Memosyne
Anki
Online Intentional Learning Apps
Current vocab software do quite well:
recognition, productive practice
spelling
spaced repetition
sequenced /scaffolded learning
immediate feedback
sometimes and LMS included for tracking
almost all is controlled practice
Online Intentional Learning Apps
They don’t do so well with these things:
indicating frequency or usefulness
engagement – too functional
general appeal – not all will like these method
poor tie in well with current reading and courses
wide variety of features - ? Lack of clear principles?
often lack context and pronunciation
few contrasts with antonyms and synonyms
generative vocabulary (adding uses take a test -> take a
drive, take a rest, take time-out, take a XXXX)
uneven block sizes (20-50 optimal)
Integrated Software solutions
EnglishCentral.com
Native level input from thousands of YouTube videos
Facility to practice your speech / pronunciation
Vocabulary tracking
DynEd.com
Highly controlled and sequenced learning
Focus on listening
Pronunciation modeling and practice
Rosetta Stone
Integrated solutions in dozens of languages
DynEd
The Balanced Curriculum
Receptive
Language Study
Fluency
Practice
Productive
The Balanced Curriculum
Receptive
EnglishCentral.com
DynEd
Language Study Rosetta Stone
Anki
Mnemosyne
Quizlet
iKnow.jp
Word Engine
Fluency
Practice
?
Productive
EnglishCentral.com
DynEd
Rosetta Stone
Anki
Mnemosyne
Quizlet
iKnow.jp
Word Engine
?
Recommendations for Vocabulary Software
Designers
Focus less on functional, form-meaning level aspects
Focus on contextualizing the learning, too
Replace native-level definitions with those like learner dictionaries
There should be a transition /link to course work or some direct
end goal for the learning
Where’s the context/ the narrative/ the story?
Personalization of the learning to one’s own interests?
Make it fun! Make it engaging
‘Flow’ in gaming
‘Flow’ refers to intense focus on a task to the exclusion all distractions.
Csikszentimahalyi (1990) identifies several aspects of flow
loss of sense of time;
few feelings of self-consciousness and bodily needs;
clear goals and high sense of control;
high concentration;
direct and immediate feedback
a chance to adjust behaviours
a highly rewarding task
Examples:
Being lost in a good book
Video gamers who play for 20 hours straight
Textual input
BeeOasis.com
Online graded readers
www.robwaring.org/er/
OUP graded readers on iTunes
Note:
Moodlereader.org (2000 tests for graded readers online with
LMS)
Vocabulary Size Tests
There are (too) many?
Some are good, but many are poorly made – tests not properly
leveled
Many lack context
Many are for natives and text levels too high
Not enough low level items
No good test for younger learners
Tests are not adaptive
http://www.lextutor.ca/tests/levels/productive/
http://www.lextutor.ca/tests/levels/productive/
http://www.insightin.com/test/take_test.phtml
my.vocabularysize.com
Summary
Keep the framework in your mind when selecting online vocab
software – balance of receptive/productive and language
focus/ fluency focus
Ask: Is it flexible?
How integrated is it?
How does it fit each learner’s needs?
LMS?
IT issues? Access to machines and devices?
You?
Which of these software might you consider for:
Yourself?
Your students?
Thank you for your time
Dr. Rob Waring
http://www.robwaring.org/er/
http://www.robwaring.org/presentations/
[email protected]
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