Indian Nationalism

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Nationalism
India After WWII
Self-Determination
Means to allow people, nations, countries to decide
what government they want and how they want to be
ruled.
This was a challenge to the colonial system.
Countries like Britain did not want self determination
after World War One because it meant that they would
have to give up rule in places like India.
World War One
During World War One
about 1 million Indians
fought for Britain.
Britain had promised
India self rule after the
war however Britain
failed to keep their
promise.
Indian Nationalism
India had wanted
independence since the
mid-1800’s.
Indians wanted both
democracy and
nationalism.
Well educated Indians
began to bring back
these ideas from Europe.
National Movements
Indian National Congress 1885
– A Hindu group wanted Hindu representation in government.
– Well educated
– Wanted a democratic India
Muslim League 1906
– Muslim educated class wanted representation in government
– Based their ideas of democracy on the ideals of the
Enlightenment.
While both groups were very different and disliked each
other they both wanted a democratic representative
government.
Rowlatt Act
In 1918 Indian soldiers and the the Indian
public wanted Britain to uphold it’s promise of
self-determination.
Indians began to protest.
In 1919 to stop protesting the British passed the
Rowlatt Act which allowed them to jail
protestors for up to two years with no trial!
– To educated Indians this was a violation of
Denial of trial by a jury.
The Amritsar Massacre
In 1919 Indians began a
system of violent protest
to the British rule.
Hindus and Muslims
went to Amritsar to
protest the Rowlett Act.
Amritsar Massacre
At the festival at Amritsar Indians gathered to
celebrate and make speeches. The event was
non-violent.
Hindu and Muslim nationalist began to arrive at
the festival.
British citizens were attacked.
The British banned public meetings.
Amritsar Massacre
On April 13, 1919 to British
believed that the Indians
were defying to order not to
meet in public.
British soldiers were ordered
out to stop the people.
The soldiers are ordered to
open fire on the crowd.
Indian Nationalism
400 Indians are killed.
1,200 are wounded.
Indians across India are outraged.
Indians demanded impendence from Britain.
Indian Nationalism
"The nonviolent approach does not immediately
change the heart of the oppressor. It first does
something to the hearts and souls of those committed
to it. It gives them self respect; it calls up resources of
strength and courage that they did not think they had.
Finally, it reaches the opponent and so stirs his
conscience that reconciliation becomes a reality."
(Martin Luther King)
Civil Disobedience
One person can make a
difference.
Civil Disobedience
– Civil Disobedience
Refusing to obey laws or the government without
using violence and in some cases enduring
violence directed towards you.
Civil Disobedience
Civil disobedience has served as a major tactic of nationalist
movements in former colonies in Africa and Asia prior to their
gaining independence.
Most notably Mohandas Gandhi developed civil disobedience as
an anti-Imperialism tool.
Martin Luther King, a leader of the US civil rights movement in
the United States in the 1960s also adopted civil disobedience
techniques
Antiwar activists both during and after the Vietnam War have
done likewise.
More recently, people have used civil disobedience to protest the
war in Iraq
Civil Disobedience
There is a rich tradition of nonviolent direct action in
the United States as well.
American revolutionaries used tactics such as tax and
tea boycotts to mobilize thousand of colonists against
the British.
American peace churches have a long tradition of noncooperation with military conscription and taxation.
Beginning in the late 1800s, the women's movement for
the right to vote carried on a century of silent vigils,
mass demonstrations, and hunger strikes.
Civil Disobedience
In his book The
Politics of
Nonviolent Action,
Gene Sharp has
categorized 198
methods of
nonviolent action,
which can be broken
down into three main
types
Civil Disobedience
Protest and persuasions
– leaflets, pickets, vigils,
teach-ins, marches.
Civil Disobedience
Non-cooperation:
– social boycotts, student
strikes,
– economic labor strikes,
tax resistance, consumer
boycotts
– political election boycotts,
civil disobedience, draft
resistance
Civil Disobedience
Intervention
– sit-ins, occupations,
alternative economic and
social institutions,
obstruction, work
slowdowns and sabotage.
Forms of Protest
Protest expresses relatively overt reaction to
events or situations: sometimes in favor, more
often opposed.
Protestors may organize a protest as a way of
publicly and forcefully making their opinions
heard in an attempt to influence public opinion
or government policy, or may undertake direct
action to attempt to directly enact desired
changes themselves
Forms of Protest
Violence
–
–
–
–
Riots
Terrorism
Revolts
Revolutions
With violence comes death
and destruction of property.
The cause though a just cause
may be confused by the public
as being violent and may lose
public support.
Violence does not solve
problems.
Forms of Protest
Non Violent
– Boycotts
Refusing to buy or trade goods.
– Sit-ins
Sitting down and refusing to leave an area.
– Hunger Strikes
Refusing to eat.
– Peaceful Protest Marches
Showing mass public support for the cause.
– Petitions
Letter writing campaigns and getting signatures to show mass support for the
cause.
– Strikes
Refusal to work.
Indian Civil Disobedience
Satyagraha (Sanskrit truth + path/way) is the
philosophy of non-violent resistance most famously
employed by Mohandas Gandhi in forcing an end to
the British Raj.
Translators have rendered the word satyagraha as "civil
disobedience", "passive resistance", "truth force", or
"the willingness to endure great personal suffering in
order to do what's right". English-speakers may also use
the term "non-violent protest".
Gandhi
He helped bring about India's independence from
British rule, inspiring other colonial peoples to work for
their own independence and ultimately dismantle the
British Empire and replace it with the Commonwealth.
Gandhi's principle of satyagraha, often roughly
translated as "way of truth" or "pursuit of truth", has
inspired generations of democratic and anti-racist
activists including Martin Luther King, Jr. and Nelson
Mandela.
He often stated his values were simple: truth (satya),
and non-violence (ahimsa).
Gandhi’s rules for Protest
Mohandas Gandhi outlined the following rules:
A satyagrahi, i.e., a civil resister, will harbor no anger.
He will suffer the anger of the opponent.
In so doing he will put up with assaults from the opponent,
never retaliate; but he will not submit, out of fear of punishment
or the like, to any order given in anger.
When any person in authority seeks to arrest a civil resister, he
will voluntarily submit to the arrest, and he will not resist
Non-retaliation includes swearing and cursing.
Therefore a civil resister will never insult his opponent, and
therefore also not take part in many of the newly coined cries
which are contrary to the spirit of ahimsa.
Gandhi
Gandhi
An eye for eye only ends up making the whole
world blind
Poverty is the worst form of violence.
Strength does not come from physical capacity.
It comes from an indomitable will.
Hatred can be overcome only by love
Martin Luther King Jr.
MLK
We will have to repent in this generation not
merely for the hateful words and actions of the
bad people but for the appalling silence of the
good people.
Take a few minutes and write down what this
means-What is King saying?
Gandhi
Indian Independence
Civil Disobedience
Early Life
Mohandas Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat,
India.
His family was traders.
At the age of 13, Gandhi married Kasturba who was of his same age. They
had four children, all sons.
At the age of 19, Gandhi went to London to train as a lawyer.
He went to Durban , South Africa to practice law in 1893 and began his
political career by lobbying against laws discriminating against Indians in
South Africa.
Gandhi was arrested on November 6, 1913 while leading a march of Indian
miners in South Africa.
Early Life
During World War I, Gandhi returned to India,
where he campaigned for Indians to join the
British Indian Army.
Gandhi actively supported the British in World War I in
the hope of hastening India's freedom.
He also led agrarian and labor reform demonstrations
that embarrassed the British.
Gandhi
The Amritsar massacre of 1919 stirred Indian
nationalist consciousness, and Gandhi organized several
satyagraha campaigns.
He discontinued them when, against his wishes, violent
disorder ensued
Political Career
After the war, he became involved with the
Indian National Congress and the movement for
independence.
He gained worldwide publicity through his
policy of civil disobedience and the use of
fasting as a form of protest, and was repeatedly
imprisoned by the British authorities.
Civil Disobedience
In the 1920’s Gandhi began his system of civil
disobedience.
Gandhi wanted to weaken the control of the
British government over the Indian people.
Gandhi called for the following measures.
Civil Disobedience
Called for Indians to boycott
British goods.
Gandhi called for Indians to
make their own clothing.
Gandhi spent one hour a day
at the spinning wheel making
his own thread.
The spinning wheel becomes
the symbol of Indian
Nationalism.
Civil Disobedience
The clothing boycott was a success.
Indians burned their British clothing and made
their own clothing.
The sale of British clothing dropped and hurt
the British economy
Civil Disobedience
Gandhi asked Indians to
– Boycott British schools.
– Not hold positions in the
British government in
India.
– Refuse to pay British
taxes.
– Not vote in elections.
Salt Marches
One of his most striking actions was the Salt March
that started on March 12, 1930 and ended on April 5,
when he led thousands of people to the sea to collect
their own salt rather than pay the salt tax.
On May 8, 1933 Gandhi began a fast that would last 21
days to protest British oppression in India.
Salt Marches
Gandhi had shown the people that they could
survive without the British.
That the people could make their own salt,
clothing, and run their own government.
Gandhi showed the people the way.
Indian Act of 1935
Under the success of the various civil
disobedience tactics used by Gandhi the British
government began to give into the demands of
the Indians.
In 1935 under the Indian Act of 1935 Indians
were allowed local self-government.
Some democratic elections were held.
Indians in Conflict
The Muslims and Hindu come into conflict during
these elections.
Both want independence but both want control of the
government.
The Hindu National Congress which outnumbers the
Muslim League wins and controls the government.
This causes more problems between Hindus and
Muslims.
Gandhi
His program included a free, united India
The revival of cottage industries, especially of spinning
and the production of hand-woven cloth.
the abolition of untouchables.
Gandhi
Gandhi became known as a Mahatma or “Great
Soul” of the Indian Independence movement.
Gandhi
Gandhi became even more vocal in his demand
for independence during World War II, drafting
a resolution calling for the British to “Quit
India”, which soon sparked the largest
movement for Indian independence ever,
Violence in India
With India feeling independence so close many
Hindus and Muslims took up violence to protest
British rule.
With mass arrests and violence on an
unprecedented scale.
This went against the teachings of Gandhi.
Indian Independence
In August 1946 Britain gave India its
independence.
Britain gave India to the Hindus and newly
formed Pakistan to the Muslims.
Soon both the Hindu and the Muslims while
free of British rule now turned their violence
towards one another.
Gandhi
Gandhi had great influence among the Hindu and Muslim
communities of India.
It is said that he ended communal riots through his mere
presence.
Gandhi was opposed to any plan which partitioned India into
two separate countries
The plan was eventually adopted, creating a Hindu-dominated
India, and a Muslim-dominated Pakistan.
On the day of the power transfer, Gandhi did not celebrate
independence with the rest of India, but mourned partition
alone in Calcutta instead.
Gandhi
On Jan. 30, 1948, while holding a prayer and
pacification meeting at New Delhi, he was fatally shot
by a Hindu fanatic who was angered by Gandhi's
support for the Muslims.
Gandhi was dead, India was free and now Muslims and
Hindus were killing one another.
Gandhi
View clips from the movie Gandhi
– Salt Marches
Indian Independence
A New India
Indian Independence
In 1947 Britain decided it
could no longer rule
India.
India was granted it’s
independence.
Jawaharlal Nehru
Nehru becomes India’s first
Prime Minister.
Nehru rules from 1947 to
1964.
Nehru hopes for a new
future for India.
Wants
– Industrialization
– Rights for women
– Elevate the lower caste
Indira Gandhi
Nehru’s daughter Indira
Gandhi is Prime Minster
from 1966 to 1984.
Under Gandhi India
increases her production of
grain.
Gandhi was assassinated by
her Sikh bodyguards after a
Sikh revolt.
Rajiv Gandhi
Indira’s son.
His party was accused of
corruption.
Assassinated in 1991.
Democratic India
India is the world’s
largest democracy.
India has a federal
system of government.
– A strong central gov’t and
then smaller local gov’t.
Cold War India
Cold War
– During the Cold War
India followed a policy of
nonalignment
– This policy allowed India
to receive aid from both
capitalist and communist
countries.
Muslim v. Hindu
Muslim
– Were the minority
– Muslim League wanted a
Muslim state.
– In 1947 the British divide India
and create a Muslim Pakistan
Hindu
– Were the majority
– The National Congress
wanted a Hindu state.
– In 1947 the Hindu’s were
given India by the British.
Muslim v. Hindu
The division did not solve the problem.
Muslim’s migrated to Pakistan while Hindu’s
migrated to India.
During the migration millions were killed.
Both India and Pakistan would clash over the
boarders to their countries.
Muslim v. Hindu
Because of both religious
difference and boarder
disputes over Kashmir both
India and Pakistan have
hostile intentions even today.
Both countries also possess
nuclear weapons, which
poses a threat to each
country and the world.
Social Problems in India
Industrial
Growth
Social Equality
Food Production
High cost of equipment
The caste system
Lack of oil
No education for women Rapid population growth
Trying to be socialist
Floods and drought
Religious problems
Changes in India
– In 1950 India banned discrimination against untouchables.
– Untouchables must be allowed to apply for jobs and go to
universities.
– Women were given the right to vote.
– Women were given the right to divorce and inherit property.
Discrimination does still exist against untouchables and
women.
The caste system does still exist.
Discrimination exist in rural areas.
Sikh Separatism
Sikhism is a religion that started in the 1500’s and is a
combination of Islam and Hinduism.
In the 1980’s Sikhs demanded self-rule and took over
the temple at Amritsar.
During the revolt Indira Gandhi sent in troops and
many Sikhs were killed.
Today there are still tensions between Sikhs and
Hindus.
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