Revision Booklet

ICT - Unit 1 Revision
ICT Exam – January 2015
Pre release – Image reflections
Read the pre release and be familiar with the scenario.
Think of ‘Olan Mills’, ‘Tempest’ or any other photography company
A photography business may employ many different photographers. Each of these photographers will take many photographs
that need to be stored for future use (Scenario 1). Photographs may need to be edited to make them suitable for the customers’
needs (Scenario 2).
Scenario 1
Image Reflections is a photography business that specialises in taking photographs of family groups in the customers’ own
homes. It employs a team of travelling photographers for this purpose. Each photographer is provided with a laptop
computer and photographic equipment. Image Reflections has a website that it uses to advertise its products and services.
The website uses cookies to personalise the advertisements that are displayed. Customers who would like a set of
photographs use the booking form on the Image Reflections website to book a photographic session. Staff at the Head
Office then set a date for the session, allocate an available photographer and confirm with the customer via email.
All photographs are stored on the main server of the computer system at the Head Office. Each photograph is given a
reference made up of the first four letters of the surname of the person who booked the session and four digits based on
the order in which the photograph was taken during the session. Image Reflections would like to improve this system and is
considering using a database to store details of individual photographs. A few days after the photographic session, customers
are sent a proof copy of each photograph, so that they can decide which they want to purchase. Until recently, all Head Office
staff have worked on desktop computers, but the owners of the business are now considering replacing some, if not all,
desktop computers with tablet computers. Image Reflections is keen to gather feedback from customers on the quality of the
service it provides and so it makes a form available on the website for this purpose.
Pre release – Image reflections
Read the pre release and be familiar with the scenario.
Think of ‘Olan Mills’, ‘Tempest’ or any other photography company
Scenario 2
Sean is a photographer working for Image Reflections. He is responsible for creating a
portfolio of photographs from each session. To prepare this portfolio, Sean has to delete any
photographs that he thinks are not up to the standard required, as well as edit other
photographs so that they suit the customers’ needs. When Sean has finished preparing each
portfolio, he uses the internet to upload it to the main server at the Head Office of Image
Reflections. Sean and the owners of Image Reflections are aware that there are potential risks
of using the internet to transfer data and so they have taken action to reduce these risks.
Sean uses Diary Management Software to record each booking for a photographic session. To
avoid clashes, he also records personal appointments on the same diary.
Teleworking or working together
Explain the advantages and disadvantages
for the employees of Image Reflections to
work remotely from the main office.
Explain how the Manager can communicate
with the employees through teleworking.
Teleworking - Working from anywhere. Using an internet or
wireless connection to work from a place different to the office
e.g. train, middle of a field, another company. Remotely
connecting to your office. Working from home instead of
travelling to a fixed place of work.
Advantages of teleworking
No need to travel to work – reduced costs
Less stress and work from comfort of own home, work around
family, flexible hours
Use communication media to contact co workers
Disadvantage of teleworking
No work/home divide and cant account for hours of work
Easily distracted by family, no social interaction and lack of
Increased running costs at home
Pay for internet connection (to contact work/co workers)
Image Reflections sends out their photographers to
customers therefore they use ‘Teleworking’.
Photographers need to be able to connect to the company
server to upload images. They then have employees in the
office who manage the customer bookings and edit
images.. They need to be able to connect with the
Working in one office (using a laptop/PC)
Advantages of working in one room
• Working in close proximity – increased productivity
• Ease of communication
• Hot-desking / swapping
Disadvantage of working in one room
• Lack of space, still need somewhere to rest laptop
• Potential file transfer issues
• Potential incompatibility of software / out-of-date software on
laptop compared to school network
• Potential setup issues in office
Tablets (OR Smart phones…)
What are the advantages of using a
tablets to communicate when you are
away from the office?
How can a tablets benefit Image
Reflections compared to other forms
of communications?
Image Reflections is thinking about replacing desktop
computers with tablets at the Head Office.
You may get asked whether Image Reflections can provide
and alternative way of communicating with photographers
and visa versa, therefore you need to know how a
smartphone can be used.
Advantages of Tablets
GPS so that Image Reflections can track location
Tablets have the ability to browse websites with large amount of data – Photographers can access work website /server
Also has QWERTY keyboard which is similar to the computer keyboard.
Tablets have applications that can help the office workers/photographers with their jobs
Tablets also has a GPS which can be used to locate places that are new to you. When traveling to unknown places it is a good idea to have a GPS to
help the Photographers find a customer address.
When it comes to messaging, a tablet will send messages and also emails.
A tablet can synchronize customer information and use Image Reflections email account. Some smart phone can support multiple accounts
depending on the make and model.
Disadvantages of Tablets
Tablets are not durable especially when not taken good care of. For example it can malfunction easily when they come into contact with water.
It is very expensive to buy compared to other phones so Image Reflections will find it hard to replace
Many of the applications which need to be on the tablet, need to be mastered to avoid confusion when operating it. The Photographers would
need training in how to use the apps
It can only work efficiently where there is accessible internet connection when it comes to browsing – photographers can lose connection.
Tablets cannot be used to store large amount of data due to their storage memory – so they might lose information.
Tablet synchronising
How can Image Reflections ensure that all the
tablets are synchronised with the computer
system or server in the main office.
Name 2 ways in which a tablet can be
Image Reflections is thinking about replacing
desktop computers with tablets.
They need to be able to sync the tablet with
company servers, laptops and computers.
Photographers/Office Workers should be able to
use the tablets to carry out daily tasks.
Synchronise = connecting your tablet to other devices/software/apps
– Examples
• synchronise your Facebook to work on your PC and your tablet
• synchronise your Facebook with your calendar (remember birthdays)
• synchronise your phone to your iTunes
• synchronise your iCloud to your smartphone, PC and tablet
Photographers can synchronize a tablet so that it can be used alongside a PC , laptop, smartphone or software
They can synchronize their calendar on the tablet with a work schedule
They can synchronize the tablet to backup to another device or memory card
Data storage
Each photographer has to keep a record of the
photos that they have taken. This data is vital
as part of their daily routine. How can a
photographer backup the information on their
You need to make sure that you know how a
photographer can store the photos s/he is taking.
Understand the different forms of storage and how
then can be used.
Digital cameras keep a log of the date and time of images
Image reflections can buy a camera with large built in memory or purchase SD Cards
They can attach camera to PC and backup work and visa versa
Media / Connectivity
Memory Cards
Cloud Storage
External Hard Disk
Main Features
Who would use it & what for (be specific)
Large capacity
Small and portable
Large capacity (4-8GB)
Good quality
Read only (cannot overwrite)
Portable, light, cheap.
Access anywhere
Requires an internet connection.
Easily share with people.
Used in mobile phones, tablets and digital cameras for storing pictures, applications, videos etc.
Store a lot of files.
Can be easily broken
Movies, Music, Backups.
Businesses who work on the move.
iPhone/iPad/iPod devices to synchronise data between them.
Schools to work online.
Families to store data online.
Mobile users, businesses, teachers, students who need to access all their files on the move without having to rely
on an internet connection.
Wireless Technology
How will Image Reflections benefit
from installing a wireless system?
What type of wireless system will the
photographers connect to in order to
communicate with the main office?
You need to make sure that you understand how and why
the photographers need the internet. They need to be
able to connect to the internet while they are on a job so
they can send photos back to the company. They can also
use it to back up what they have done on a job.
You could be questioned on how a photographer can
Image Reflections might want to upgrade internet within
the business.
Uses of wireless technology Photographers can use:
WIFI, Hotspots, Internet allowance with contract, Tethering
Wireless communications can be available all of the time, almost anywhere.
They have several advantages over wired communications. These include:
no wires need to be run through buildings, over ground or underground
wireless devices can be portable
Many devices can connect using one provider
It can be free for all to use
Does not rely on physical connection
Wireless connection
Explain how The Photographers can
connect to a wireless system.
You might get a question on how a
photographer can connect to a WIFI
connection. Alternatively look below and
make sure that you know how to connect to
cloud technology or hotspots.
To use Wi-Fi you will need certain equipment:
A wireless transmitter, also known as a Wireless Access Point (WAP)
A Wi-Fi adapter on every computer that will use Wi-Fi
You may find that you already have a Wi-Fi network, as many ISPs (internet service providers) are setting up new
customers with Wi-Fi from the outset.
If not, you could call your ISP and ask to upgrade. They might even upgrade you for free - and send you some or all
of the equipment. If not, you might consider checking whether other ISPs are offering Wi-Fi to new customers.
Many ISPs will supply you with a router, modem and wireless transmitter combined in one device, which it calls ‘the
router’. To make your Wi-Fi set-up as simple as possible, you should consider using a similar device.
The router plugs directly into a phone socket and doesn’t need a computer to run it, so you don’t have to set up
your computer next to the router.
Computers – mainly laptops/tablets – increasingly have built-in Wi-Fi receivers. If not, the simplest method of
installing a receiver is a dongle - a little device that plugs into a USB port and transmits between your PC and
wireless router.
Diary Management
How can the photographers use Diary
Management software are part of their job?
Give an example of how the Image
reflections/Sean could use DM software to
manage their customers?
Image Reflections heavily relies on the booking
system otherwise they cannot keep track of
customers. The booking form would be linked as
you don’t want double bookings. The DM software
can be used to remind photographers and
customers about appointments.
Diary management software
Diary Management software allows us to have a digital calendar. The major benefit is that it can be accessed on a range of devices by
multiple people. The key features are:
– Creating appointments / meetings (Image Reflections will be scheduling appointments and sending these to each photographer)
– Invite people to the meetings/appointments (Allow customers to book appointments that suit them)
– Create a task or to-do lists (which can be synchronised to database, priorities can be set for priority customers)
– Set reminders of daily appointments
– You can then:
• Be alerted on your computer or mobile
• Change appointments dynamically
• Share your diary with other people
• Change/move appointments quickly
• Alert your invited people quickly.
• Access it anywhere, any time.
• Let’s have a look at one.
Data Security
What threats can The Photographers face
when working with personal information?
As part of the ICT Policy the Photographers
need to make sure that they follow the Data
Protection Act. List 3 rules they must follow.
Image Reflections holds personal data and images
of customers. They need to make sure that all
these files are kept secure and not open to hacking,
loss or deletion.
Data security is about keeping data safe. Image Reflections relies heavily on their computer systems.
Data may get:
lost or damaged during a system crash - especially one affecting the hard disk, corrupted as a result of faulty disks,
disk drives, or power failures, lost by accidentally deleting or overwriting files
lost or become corrupted by computer viruses, hacked into by unauthorised users and deleted or altered
destroyed by natural disasters, acts of terrorism, or war. deleted or altered by employees wishing to make money
or take revenge on their employer
Keeping data secure
Measures that can be taken to keep data secure include:
making regular backups of files (backup copies should be stored in fireproof safes or in another building)
protecting yourself against viruses by running anti-virus software, using a system of passwords so that access to
data is restricted, safe storage of important files stored on removable disks, e.g. locked away in a fireproof and
waterproof safe
Data transfer
The Photographers need to be able to transfer
data between desktop computers and their
laptop. Suggest one method of data transfer
that would make this possible.
How can Sean transfer images back to the
office so they can be edited.
Image Reflections and Sean need to be able to transfer
photos to and from company servers/computers. You need
to know what methods/how and why they need to
transfer images/data. Sean has to transfer images back to
the office so they can be edited and sent out to customers.
Wired Transfer0
The most secure way of sending files – down a private line.
Wireless (Wi-Fi, Bluetooth)
Sending through the air, either by Bluetooth or a shared wireless connection. This is
worth doing if the data is not that important and security isn’t a major issue
Mobile (3G, 4G, HSDPA)
Using mobile technology – e.g. sending an email with an attachment. Again this is worth
doing when security is not a major concern and speed is not important as the file size is
Internet (E-Mail, Cloud, P2P,
Files can be sent across the internet:
E-Mail – small files and data where you are not worried about security.
Cloud – Larger files which can be accessed anywhere.
P2P/Torrents – where you need to share data between lots of people. Very insecure but
a fast way of sending and receiving data.
Data security - Password
The Photographers are working with
sensitive data/images that belong to
customers. Can you advise them on how
to set a suitable system password.
How can Image reflection monitor access
to the Diary Management System?
Image Reflections need to keep data secure and they are
dealing with customer information and images. They need
to follow measures such as ‘Strong’ Passwords to keep
their Desktop computers, Tablets & Laptops secure when
they are away from their machines.
Companies store a lot of data about us when we make purchases or register on their websites. It is important that they
keep data secure and protected both from people outside and so that only required people can use the data inside the
company. Measures which could be taken are discussed below.
Access Levels – give different people different levels of access. For example, someone may be able to see customer
records but not change them. A senior manager may have a higher level of access where they can change them.
Firewalls – prevent unauthorised access from outside.
Audit Transaction Logs – these are files which keep a record of everything is done on a computer system. Should
anything be changed, the log file can be checked.
What makes a good password?
Mixture of CaSe
Symbols and characters *&(^
Longer than 8 characters.
Changed regularly.
Not related to you.
What makes a bad password?
One word simple
All one case.
Something which relates to you.
One which is written down.
Never changed.
Data Protection Act
What are the 8 principles of
the Data Protection Act?
Image Reflections need to ensure that all data of
customers (including images) and employees of the
company, is safe and secure by using Passwords and
installing appropriate software.
They also need to keep data up-to-date and make sure it is
used appropriately in line with these principles.
1.It must be collected and used fairly and inside the law.
2.It must only be held and used for the reasons given to the Information Commissioner
3.It can only be used for those registered purposes and only be disclosed to those people mentioned in the register entry. You
cannot give it away or sell it unless you said you would to begin with.
4.The information held must be adequate, relevant and not excessive when compared with the purpose stated in the register. So
you must have enough detail but not too much for the job that you are doing with the data.
5.It must be accurate and be kept up to date. There is a duty to keep it up to date, for example to change an address when
people move.
6.It must not be kept longer than is necessary for the registered purpose. It is alright to keep information for certain lengths of
time but not indefinitely. This rule means that it would be wrong to keep information about past customers longer than a few
years at most.
7.The information must be kept safe and secure. This includes keeping the information backed up and away from any
unauthorised access. It would be wrong to leave personal data open to be viewed by just anyone.
8.The files may not be transferred outside of the European Economic Area (that's the EU plus some small European countries)
unless the country that the data is being sent to has a suitable data protection law.
Data Protection Act
Describe one legal implication for
Image Reflections if images are stolen.
Explain one possible implication for a
customer/company if their personal
information/image is stolen.
Image Reflections could get sued (if data OR images of
customers are lost) if they have not followed the correct
Image Reflections and Sean needs to make sure that he
knows the principles of the law and the consequences of
breaking it.
Legal implication
For serious breaches the organisation can be made to pay up to £500,000
The company could be prosecuted/fined/sued because they have not kept the data securely
Data held has to be protected from loss so if the data is lost, an offence has occurred / the company has to inform
those whose data has been lost (that it has been lost)
The Information Commissioner can issue the company with an undertaking to comply to force the company to
improve their data security
The Information Commissioner can serve an assessment notice on the company and investigate its data security.
Implication on individuals
The individual would need to change some of their details because the personal data that is lost may allow access
to private and personal information / other named security breach
Individuals and/or family/parents may get money taken out the bank as personal details allow others to
impersonate them.
Someone might create false accounts (Fraud), send and receive calls on their behalf.
Copyright Law
How does this apply to: Photographers?
Image Reflections?
Explain three actions that Image Reflections must
take in order to comply with the Copyright, Designs
and Patents Act when conducting their business
Image Reflections must get permission of customers if they wish to
use any images in their promotional material OR on their website.
The photographers must also get permission for use of any material
for portfolio/website purposes.
Actions that should be taken to comply with this law:
Gain permission to use images, etc.
Pay usage fee for images
Quote source of images
Copyright gives the creators of some types of media rights to control how they're used and
distributed. It applies to music, books, video and software can all be covered by copyright law.
Image Reflections can not use any material that belongs to others without:
Checking whether copyright applies to a picture / photo as many pictures / photos are not covered/copyright free
Seeking permission to use the resource (before using it) from the copyright holder
Acknowledging the source/original producer of the resource any acceptable method
Paying a fee if requested
Purchasing the resource ensuring it’s a legal copy
Finding out if the Copyright holder has placed conditions which the photographers would have to follow
This applies to taking photos of customers and their families
Downloading apps for free without permission (onto tablet) which Image reflections is thinking about
Computer Misuse Act
Image Reflections has access to
all areas of their computer
Identify two ways in which the
Computer Misuse Act may be
Computer Misuse Act may be breached by:
Someone Hacking into the Image Reflections computer
systems/Server/Website and stealing data/images.
The Law may be breached by not having appropriate protection software.
If Sean uses the laptop for personal use.
Sean uses the Diary Management system for his personal appointments as
well – so he must make sure that he does not misuse the system.
Hacking - Unauthorised user who attempts to or gains access to an information system
Virus - A virus is a program written to cause mischief or damage to a computer system.
The Computer Misuse Act (1990) was developed to cope with the problems of computer hackers and viruses.
There are three principles to the act
– It is illegal to access unauthorised data e.g. Hacking.
– It is illegal to access unauthorised data with the intent to commit a crime.
– It is illegal to access unauthorised data and change it e.g. Planting viruses and deleting files.
Sean needs to comply with this law because he is using the Dairy Management System for personal appointments. He
needs to make sure that he doesn’t mix business with his social life. Access to his devices must be password protected
(because if the laptop, etc, gets into the wrong hands then images/information could get misused).
Sean must not use the laptop for use other than for his work i.e. no inappropriate websites, games apps or personal use
Describe three features of database software that
make it suitable for storing and analysing customer
Image Reflections needs to find a list of customers
who live in one area, which database feature could
they use and why?
Image Reflections would like to produce a document
to show the results of the above search, which
database feature would be most appropriate for this
WILL NOT COUNT. (Use the Term Database)
Image Reflection stored the information and images for each
customer in a database. They use an ID Number (primary key) which
is unique to each customer.
Do not confuse this with the name each image which is saved 4 digits
of the customer surname & order in which photo was taken. This
question might be linked to the Data Protection Act.
Fields-to store each category of information e.g. Customer name, address, telephone, appointment date and time
Records -to enable each customers information to be stored
Primary key -to ensure each customer record can be identified by a unique number
Tables-to store sets of related information e.g. Customer in certain area, etc.
Queries/searches-enable information in tables to be interrogated
Reports-to produce visual displays of query results
Switchboard/Main menu - to enable access to the main parts of a database/user interface
Forms-to enter data instead of into tables (better user interface)
Sort-so that data can be put in order (ascending or descending)
Easy to edit-so records can be updated, deleted or inserted.
Data validation and verification
Sean is entering data into the system
What validation/verification can be
put into place to avoid incorrect data
Image Reflections can set up Data Validation rules with their
database to reduce the number of mistakes that are made when
entering information into the company database.
They can use some of the methods mentioned below. E.g. They
could use Format Check to allow only NUMBERS in the telephone
field/section. Think of other examples for address fields/ image
reference fields, etc.
Format Check – checks what is entered is of the
correct structure. E.g. Postcode (LLNN NLL) E.g. TS23
3DX. E.g. a phone number is STD: NNNNN Num:
Length Check – Ensures that information is of a
specified length. For example a name field may be
more than 2 characters. If it is less it would not be
Validation and verification are two ways to check that
the data entered into a computer is correct. Data
entered incorrectly is of little use.
Types of validation
Type Check – checks something of the correct type is
entered. E.g. a date in a date field, a number in a
number field etc.
Range Check – checks something is within a specific
Verification Checks:
range. E.g. an order quantity is between 1 and 10, >
Entering the data twice.
18years old, or <21 etc.
Checking the data on the screen against the original
Presence Check – checks that something is there. E.g. •
paper document
Mandatory field. Makes sure REQUIRED fields are
Printing out a copy of the data and comparing the
printout to the original paper document.
Online forms
Discuss how an online form could be designed
to allow for information to be easily captured
about an appointment.
In your answer make sure to explain any
appropriate data validation which could occur
when they submit the completed form.
Areas for consideration may include:
Form should have a title and make it clear to users what online
form they are about to fill in
Form should have clear instructions so users can fill the form in
with little confusion
Online data capture forms can limit the type of data entered to
make sure the data is entered by the user in the correct format:
Drop down menus: to force a pre-set selection of choices
(performance night, no. of tickets)
Boxes to force a yes or no response
A pre-set format for a date so that all forms are completed in
the same way
Radio buttons forcing a single choice from several options
(performance night, no. of tickets)
Validation rules to make sure the data meets the requirements
or that all specific questions have to be answers before the
Image Reflections have an online form on their website for
customers to fill-in to make bookings for photographs.
To make the Form user friendly AND so that there are very little
mistakes, they can use validation methods in the online form. Here
are some of the elements that could be used:
Dropdown menus, Check boxes, Tick boxes
Date formats
user can press submit.
Error message or dialogue box appears if fields are missed out
or filled in incorrectly
Mandatory fields: Full name, address, night of performance,
no of tickets should be highlighted by using a (*) or user can
not continue unless it is filled in
Other sensible fields e.g. e-mail address is a sensible size and
shows errors if correct symbols not used i.e. @
Text box for “other general” comments should be limited to
the amount of characters is can contain
Submit button – once form is filled in user can submit the
Message should appear to acknowledge if online form has
been successful
Paper Based Forms versus Online Forms
Image Reflections is going to adopt an online form
system to get feedback for each customer.
(a) Can you compare a paper based form and
online form
(b) Give three reasons why an online form is
more favourable over a paper based one
Image Reflections have an online form on their website for
customers to make bookings and to get customer feedback.
Online Forms would clearly benefit the company and speed up
bookings and customer feedback.
Paper-based forms
Means they are more accessible than having to log on
People who are not familiar with computers may prefer paper based
Easy to monitor and collect
More likely to be seen by customer f they are filled in whilst on job
Online registration forms can help you reduce cost
Web-based registration forms are eco-friendly
Tracking and reporting on the registration process is easier and more efficient online
Online registration forms will increase registration numbers
Web-based registration forms allow you to customise your form.
Insert option (radio button), dropdown list, check box and text boxes
Storing feedback from forms
Image Reflections needs to make sure that the feedback from the eForms is stored securely, suggest a
way she can store feedback.
Which law would apply to storing data/images securely?
Areas for consideration may include:
• Using a database linked to the online form
• Save forms on a secure drive
• Save feedback onto online storage (cloud)
Laws that Image Reflections would need to be following are:
Data Protection
Copyright Law
Computer Misuse Act
File types
• State a suitable file type for Image Reflections to save their images or database.
• Explain why the file type you mentioned above would be appropriate
Proprietary File Formats: created and owned by a company and can only be used properly in the software they
Open File Formats: general formats which do not need one specific software package and can be adopted and
used by any developer
Used for
Used for
Bitmap image
Every pixel is saved
Portable Network
24bit or 48bit true
Joint photographic
[Experts] group
Everyday use
Tagged Image File
Interchange Format
256 colours
Raw Image Format
Some digital;#l
Small file
Paint shop Pro
Vector graphics
editable image
Word processing
documents made in
Spreadsheets made in
Presentations made in
Animation files made in
Music to be played back
in Windows Media
Music to be played back
in Apple iTunes.
Graphics editing software
• State one example of graphics editing software that could be used by Image
Reflections/Sean to edit photos taken?
• What editing can be done using this software?
Graphics Editing Software (e.g. Photoshop)
Photoshop is often used to clean-up/enhance images on photo shoots, magazines and used for many other
publications. Photoshop files have default file extension as .PSD, which stands for "Photoshop Document.“
Because of Photoshop's popularity, PSD files are widely used and supported to some extent by most competing
Editing Options: These editing options could be used by Sean to edit the customer photos to prepare them for the
customers portfolio.
Magic Wand
Printing photographs (proof copies)
• State what type of printer would be
required by Image Reflections for printing
proof copies?
• What information would be required to
go on the proof copies to customers?
Image Reflections send customers ‘Proof copies’ of the photographs that
have been taken. They will be dealing with many customers so they would
need a good quality colour printer that has a fast printing speed.
The type of printer that would be best suited for their company would be a
Colour Laser Printer.
The Type of information that would be referenced on the Proof photos
would be Date, reference number, etc.
Types of Printers:
High quality printouts - better than ink-jet or dot-matrix
Fast printouts - faster than ink-jet or dot-matrix
Prints very quietly - quieter than ink-jet or dot-matrix
Cost per page is low - cheaper than ink-jet or dot-matrix
Most expensive printer type to buy, especially colour lasers
Toner is more expensive than ink-jet cartridges
Expensive to repair - lots of complex equipment inside
Fairly bulky - larger than ink-jet printers
Can't use continuous or multi-part stationary to create
carbon copies like you can with a dot-matrix printer
Cheap to buy
More compact than a laser printer
Cartridges cost less than toners
Quality is better than dot-matrix printers
Speed – faster than dot-matrix
Noisier than laser printer (less than dot-matrix)
Colour printing slow
Cost of printout per page is higher than laser
Ink can smudge – still wet
Colours can become dull compared to screen
Cartridges can dry out, if not used for a while