HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, and MALACHI Comparisons and Similarities… There are only three POST-EXILIC prophets: Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. All three spoke to encourage the spiritual and moral reconstruction of the returned remnant. Haggai and Zechariah spoke primarily about their spiritual and religious needs centered around rebuilding the __________. TEMPLE Malachi spoke of their moral and social needs centered around rebuilding the __________ itself. NATION HAGGAI, ZECHARIAH, and MALACHI Comparisons and Similarities… Haggai was practical, with his feet on the ground; so, he spoke mostly to the ____________. PRESENT Zechariah was visionary, with his head in the clouds; so, he prophesied much about the ___________. FUTURE Haggai and Zechariah were contemporaries. Haggai challenged the people to build the Temple of the present (Zerubbabel’s); Zechariah encouraged them to behold the Temple of the future (The MESSIAH’S _______________). PROPHET OVERBOARD HAGGAI Haggai means "festal," which may indicate that the prophet was born during one of the three pilgrimage feasts (Deut. 16:16). Based on Haggai 2:3, he may have witnessed the destruction of Solomon's temple. If so, he must have been in his 70s during his ministry. Haggai's messages are among the most carefully and precisely dated in the entire Old Testament. They were given during a four-month period in 520 B.C., the second year of King Darius. The first message was delivered on the 1st day of Elul (Aug.-Sept.); the 2nd message was delivered on the 21st of Tishi (Sept.-Oct.), 520 B.C.; and the last messages came on the 24th day of Chisleu (Nov.-Dec.) of the same year. HAGGAI Apart from Obadiah, Haggai is the shortest book in the Old Testament, but its teachings are significant. Haggai clearly shows the consequences of disobedience (1:6,11; 2:16-17) and obedience (2:7-9,19). When the people give priority to God and His house, they are blessed rather than cursed. Obedience brings the encouragement and strength of the Spirit of God (2:4-5). An example of encouragement is in chapter 2, verses 6-7: The Jews in Judah may now be a much reduced community and under a powerful world empire, but the Lord will shake up the present world order and assert His claim on to the world's wealth so that the glory of His future temple will be without rival. HAGGAI Like Malachi, Haggai uses a number of questions to highlight key issues: In 1:4, we read: 2 This is what the LORD Almighty says: "These people say, 'The time has not yet come for the LORD's house to be built.' " 3 Then the word of the LORD came through the prophet Haggai: 4 "Is it a time for you yourselves to be living in your paneled houses, while this house remains a ruin?" In 2:3, we read: 1 On the twenty-first day of the seventh month, the word of the LORD came through the prophet Haggai: 2 "Speak to Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, to Joshua son of Jehozadak,the high priest, and to the remnant of the people. Ask them, 3 'Who of you is left who saw this house in its former glory? How does it look to you now? Does it not seem to you like nothing? HAGGAI Haggai also makes effective use of repetition: "Give careful thought" occurs in 1:5,7 and 2:15,18, "I am with you" in 1:13 and 2:4, and "I will shake the heavens and the earth" is found in 2:6,21. Several times the prophet appears to reflect other passages of Scripture: Compare 1:6 with Deuteronomy 28:38-39, and 2:17 with with Deuteronomy 28:22. The threefold use of "Be strong" in 2:4 echoes the encouragement given in Joshua 1:6-7,9, and18. OUTLINE OF HAGGAI I. First Message: The Call to Rebuild the Temple (1:1-11) A. The People's Lame Excuse (1:1-4) B. The Poverty of the People (1:5-6) C. The Reason God Has Cursed Them (1:7-11) II. The Response of Zerubbabel and the People (1:12-15) A. The Leaders and Remnant Obey (1:12) B. The Lord Strengthens the Workers (1:13-15) III. Second Message: The Temple to Be Filled with Glory (2:1-9) A. The People Encouraged (2:1-5) B. The Promise of Glory and Peace (2:6-9) Chapter 1: The word of REPROOF (Elul 1) 2:1-9 The word of SUPPORT (Tishri 21) IV. Third Message: A Defiled People Purified and Blessed 2:10-19 (2:10-19) The word of BLESSING A. The Rapid Spread of Sin (2:10-14) (Chisleu 24) B. Poor Harvests because of Disobedience (2:15-17) C. Blessing to Come as the Temple Is Rebuilt (2:18-19) 2:20-23 V. Fourth Message: The Promise to Zerubbabel (2:20-23) A. The Judgment of the Nations (2:20-22) The word of PROMISE B. The Significance of Zerubbabel (2:23) (Chisleu 24) HAGGAI It is also possible to outline the book in a chiastic (kī ăs´ tĭk) pattern: (a-b / b-a): a Negative effects of the unbuilt house (1:1-11) b The Lord's presence energizes the present work (1:12-15) b1 The Lord's presence guarantees future glory (2:1-9) a1 Positive effects of the rebuilt house (2:10-23) “Chiastic structuring” is a literary device often used by Old Testament and New Testament writers. They use it to build up to their main point and then back off from it in the reverse order (so that the parts “cross over” like the members of the Greek letter Chi - X). Historical Purpose To exhort the returned remnant to rebuild the Temple in _______________. Jerusalem Doctrinal Purpose The many lessons include: first 1. God blesses His people when they put Him _______, (Matt. 6:33), 2. When we are in God’s service we should never “_________ weary in well doing” (Gal. 6:9), 3. God’s __________ for tomorrow is our hope for promise today. Christological Purpose Our Lord is represented as the estorer of the Temple’s glory (2:7-9), R_________ vercomer of the kingdoms of this the O__________ world (2:22), and a signet ring for srael I ________(2:23). How Do I Apply This? The Jews who emigrated from Babylon to their original homeland of Judah faced intense opposition, both external and internal. Haggai, focused on the internal opposition, namely from their own sin. The Jews had thoughtlessly placed their own interests before the Lord’s interests, looking after their own safety and security without giving consideration to the status of the Lord’s house. Haggai’s encouragement to rebuild the temple in the face of the Jews’ neglect brings to mind the apostle Paul’s exhortation to Christians to build our lives on the foundation of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 3:10–17). Are you building a life that reflects your status as a temple of the Holy Spirit, leaving a legacy that will stand the test of time? We should find encouragement for that construction project in the four passionate sermons from this Old Testament prophet. ZECHARIAH Zechariah means “the Lord remembered." Zechariah was a captive in Babylon but, under the leadership of a political ruler whose name was ______________, Zechariah, together with some 50,000 Zerubbabel of his Hebrew kinsmen, returned to their native Palestine (around 536 B.C.). The record of these events is found in the book of Ezra. When the Israelite people eased into a state of lethargy, Zechariah, and his companion prophet,__________, Haggai sought to bring them back to an invigorated level of service. ZECHARIAH Haggai worked to encourage the completion of the Temple project (which had been destroyed during the Babylonian invasion — 586 B.C.), and Zechariah would attempt to rekindle a spiritual fire in the hearts of the nation (Ezra 5:1). Zechariah, just as Haggai, was concerned with rebuilding the Temple, but his visions of the future go far beyond those of Haggai. He received 8 visions about Zion’s sanctuary, 4 messages about Zion’s services, and 2 burdens about Zion’s savior. The Eight Visions (chapters 1-6) Vision 1 (1:7-17), of the angelic horsemen, represents God’s providential activity among the nations to return His people to Jerusalem so they can rebuild their Temple. Vision 2 (1:18-21), of the “four horns and smiths,” symbolizes the four w_______ p ________ orld owers under whose dominion Israel was to come. Vision 3, of the man and the measuring rod illustrates urveying the land for the remnant to re-inhabit. God s___________ Vision 4, of Joshua the high priest, is a vision of Christ in the Temple in____________ for Israel so that Satan terceding would not destroy her (Rev. 12). The Eight Visions Vision 5, of the “lampstand and olive trees,” declares that the renewed light of Israel among the nations is pirit (see dependent on the oil of the H_______ S______ oly v. 6). Vision 6 (5:1-4), of the “flying scroll,” indicates that the j___________ of God’s Word would fall upon the udgment Jews because they broke His commandments. Vision 7 (5:5-11), of the “woman in the ephah” (bushel basket), portrays the purging away of Israel’s i_________ dolatry by her captivity in Babylon, the seat of idolatry. The Final Vision Vision 8, of the “four chariots and horses,” are the providential agents of God who oversee the events of the nations to assure Israel’s return to their land and reconstruction of the Temple. The Four Messages (chapters 7-8) Message 1: Against the worldly ritual practiced in the heart of Jerusalem, the Temple of God (against pure formalism in serving God, 7:1-7) Message 2: The Wide Retribution (the judgment of God that came on Israel because they would not heed the rophets former p__________ – they were scattered by God among the nations (7:8-14) Message 3: Worldwide Restoration of Israel (8:1-19): (“Behold I will save My people…I will bring them to dwell in the midst of Jerusalem.”) Message 4: Worldwide Religion (8:20-23): (“Many people eek the Lord of host and strong nations shall come to s______ in Jerusalem, and to entreat favor of the Lord.”) The Two Burdens (chapters 9-14) Burden 1: The Rejected Savior (9-11) – The First Coming of Christ The prediction of the triumphal entry of Christ into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, just before His rucifixion c____________; but He was rejected. Burden 2: The Reigning Savior (12-14) – The Second Coming of Christ When Christ returns the Jews will “look on him whom they have pierced” (Zech 12:10; Rev. 1.7); Jerusalem will be cleansed from sin (13:1); the Lord will fight against those nations who are against Jerusalem. After the battle of A_____________, Christ will judge the nations (14:1-4). rmageddon He will then set up His Messianic kingdom and reign for 1000 years (14:9, 16; Rev. 20:1-6). ZECHARIAH The Book of Zechariah divides itself into two major portions: Chapters 1-8 deal principally with events contemporary with the prophet, while chapters 9-14 sweep across the centuries, and have a decidedly “messianic” thrust. Chapter 11 has a most remarkable prophecy of the prophet’s composition The chapter begins with an ominous prophecy of a coming destruction that would vanquish the nation of Israel. This devastation would be a judgment from God because of the Jewish people’s rejection of Jehovah’s royal King. The description previews the Roman invasion that would culminate in A.D. 70 (see also Matthew 22:1-7). ZECHARIAH Out of this background of Chapter 11 comes the following prophecy: “And I said unto them, If you think good, give me my hire; and if not, forbear. So they weighed for my hire thirty pieces of silver. And Jehovah said unto me, Cast it unto the potter, the goodly price that I was prized at by them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them unto the potter, in the house of Jehovah” (Zechariah 11:12-13). Zechariah, speaking on behalf of the promised Messiah, makes the following 7 points: ZECHARIAH 1. The prophecy suggests there would be a haggling of terms in connection with the b_________ etrayal of Jesus. Matthew records Judas’ words as follows. “What are you willing to give me, and I will deliver him unto you?” (Matthew 26:15). Luke says that the chief priests were glad and “covenanted” to give him the money, and the traitor “consented” to the deal (Luke 22:5-6). The term “covenanted” (suntithemi) signifies “to work out a mutually agreeable contract.” Although Judas was a willing instrument in the deed, the Son of God was totally i____ He was ontrol n c________. laying down his life willingly (John 10:17-18; Galatians 1:4). He is represented figuratively as orchestrating the events. ZECHARIAH 2. The prophet specified the metallic composition of the coinage by which the transaction would be made. It was neither gold nor copper, but rather, “silver” (Matthew 26:15). 3. The exact number of coins was prophetically declared, “thirty pieces of silver.” This amount is not incidental; thirty pieces of silver, under the Mosaic law, was the price to be paid to remedy the ored by a damage done to a slave that had been g______ neighbor’s ox (Exodus 21:32). Christ went to the cross as the “servant” of God (doulos - a ________, Philippians slave 2:7). The Lord, in fact, was a servant “wounded” by the ails of the crucifixion brutality (Isaiah 53:5). n_____ ZECHARIAH 4. The insulting rejection of Christ was a reflection of the Jews’ attitude toward J__________ Himself. As the Lord ehovah said through Zechariah, “Cast it to the potter, the goodly price [strong irony] that I was prized at by them.” These words find stark fulfillment in the Savior’s warning, “he who rejects me rejects him who s_____ ent me” (Luke 10:16). 5. Zechariah’s prophecy indicated that the money would be returned to the Jewish leaders, the caretakers of “the house of God.” Matthew’s record reveals that Judas, regretting what he’d done, brought back the coins to the chief priests and elders; but, they would have none of it. Their outward religiosity would not allow the temple treasury to be c______________ with blood money. How ontaminated twisted - Bloody hands backed away from “blood money!” ZECHARIAH 6. Zechariah indicated that in some way the silver coins were to be “cast” (thrown) into the “house of Jehovah.” Zechariah perfectly depicted the act of the betrayer. Judas “cast down the pieces of silver into the sanctuary” (Matthew 27:5). The term “sanctuary” (naos) denotes the sacred edifice containing the Holy Place and the Most Holy Place, in contrast to the outer courts of the Temple area. Since Judas would not have been allowed in the p________ riestly area, it is likely that he approached as close as he could, and then flung the money into the sacred area - as if this “gift” could be a substitute for genuine repentance! ZECHARIAH 7. Finally, Zechariah suggests that the ultimate destination of the “goodly price” would be to “the potter.” Matthew explains this expression. The chief priests took the money and purchased a “potter’s field,” which would serve as a burial place for s___________. This likely was trangers an area where clay for pottery was extracted from the earth, or perhaps a dump where broken shards finally were discarded. It most assuredly was cheap land. At the time Matthew penned his Gospel record (some twenty to thirty years after Christ’s death), the place was still known as “the field of blood” (Matthew 27:8; see also Acts 1:1819). MALACHI In Hebrew malaki means "my messenger." In 3:1, "See, I am sending my messenger," the messenger is Malachi (malaki). In a double sense, "Malachi" is the messenger bringing us this Book, and his message is that God will send another messenger in the future, as the Elijah great prophet _________ returning before the Day of the Lord. By the time of Malachi, the exiles had been back in their land for more than a hundred years and were looking for the blessings they expected to receive when they returned. Malachi The Historical Purpose: Malachi rebuked Israel’s social system and moral decay, thus warning the backslidden remnant. The Doctrinal Purpose: Malachi teaches that unless there is purity in God’s people there will be purging by God’s hand. It stresses that sincerity and purity are prerequisites for serving God. The Christological Purpose: Christ is the Messenger of the Covenant (3:1), the Refiner’s Fire (3:2), and the Sun of Righteousness (4:2). MALACHI The message of Malachi strikes home to several areas of the life of the backslidden remnant. He speaks of their religious decline (regression), their social debasement (disgrace; shame; dishonor), their moral defection (desertion), and their material dissipation (indulgence; debauchery). This description forms the outline of the Book of Malachi… MALACHI I. Religious Decline (1:1 – 2:9) II. Social Debasement (2:10-16) III. Moral Defection (2:17 – 3:6) IV.Material Dissipation (3:7-18) V. Messianic Declaration (4:1-5) MALACHI I. Religious Decline (1:1 – 2:9) Malachi begins with a “revelation of God’s love to Israel,” (1:1-5) and a “rebuke to the priests” sins (1:6 – 2:9). The priests were despising His name, distorting His W______, ord and polluting His altar by using sickly s___________ acrifices rather than using the best animals as God demanded. MALACHI II. Social Debasement (2:10-16) Socially, the tide was as low as it was spiritually. “Idolatry was present” (vv. 10-13), despite the lesson learned in ____________. Babylon “Divorce was practiced” (vv. 14-16), even though it is written, “I _______ hate divorce, says the Lord the God of Israel.” MALACHI III. Moral Defection (2:17 – 3:6) uestioned by the The justice of God was q____________ people (2:17): “Where is the God of justice?” they cried. But “the judgment of God is coming,” replied the Lord (3:1-6). MALACHI IV. Material Dissipation (3:7-18) Because they had not tithed as God commanded, robbing they were “____________ from God” (vv. 7-12). Furthermore, the “resistance of the people” was stout and arrogant (vv. 13-15), but the “reply of the Lord was clear:” He would remember the righteous in the day of judgment, sparing them as a father spares His son (vv. 16-18). MALACHI V. Messianic Declaration (4:1-5) The “condemnation of the wicked” will be accomplished with the coming of the Messiah (v. 1): “For behold, the day comes, burning like an oven, when all the arrogant and all evildoers will be stubble.” But, this day will be a “consolation for the righteous,” (v. 2), for therein “the sun of righteousness shall rise, with __________ healing in its wings.” The Old Testament began with creation in Genesis 1:1, and it ends here in Malachi 4:6 with a curse. Man’s sin brought death and the curse of God. But alvation s___________ is coming. The anticipation in the Old Testament for deliverance will become a realization in the New Testament. It is also interesting to observe that the New Testament begins “the book…of Jesus Christ” (Matthew 1:1) and ends with “the ________ GRACE of the Lord Jesus…” in Revelation 22:21. AMEN!