Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi Lesson Slideshow

Comparisons and Similarities…
 There
are only three POST-EXILIC prophets:
Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.
 All three spoke to encourage the spiritual and moral
reconstruction of the returned remnant.
 Haggai and Zechariah spoke primarily about their
spiritual and religious needs centered around
rebuilding the __________.
 Malachi spoke of their moral and social needs
centered around rebuilding the __________
Comparisons and Similarities…
Haggai was practical, with his feet on the ground;
so, he spoke mostly to the ____________.
Zechariah was visionary, with his head in the
clouds; so, he prophesied much about the
Haggai and Zechariah were contemporaries.
Haggai challenged the people to build the Temple of
the present (Zerubbabel’s); Zechariah encouraged
them to behold the Temple of the future (The
 Haggai means "festal," which may indicate that the prophet
was born during one of the three pilgrimage feasts (Deut.
 Based on Haggai 2:3, he may have witnessed the
destruction of Solomon's temple. If so, he must have been in
his 70s during his ministry.
 Haggai's messages are among the most carefully and
precisely dated in the entire Old Testament. They were given
during a four-month period in 520 B.C., the second year of
King Darius. The first message was delivered on the 1st day
of Elul (Aug.-Sept.); the 2nd message was delivered on the
21st of Tishi (Sept.-Oct.), 520 B.C.; and the last messages
came on the 24th day of Chisleu (Nov.-Dec.) of the same year.
 Apart from Obadiah, Haggai is the shortest book in the Old
Testament, but its teachings are significant.
 Haggai clearly shows the consequences of disobedience
(1:6,11; 2:16-17) and obedience (2:7-9,19). When the people
give priority to God and His house, they are blessed rather
than cursed. Obedience brings the encouragement and
strength of the Spirit of God (2:4-5).
 An example of encouragement is in chapter 2, verses 6-7:
The Jews in Judah may now be a much reduced community
and under a powerful world empire, but the Lord will shake up
the present world order and assert His claim on to the world's
wealth so that the glory of His future temple will be without
Like Malachi, Haggai uses a number of questions to
highlight key issues:
In 1:4, we read: 2 This is what the LORD Almighty says:
"These people say, 'The time has not yet come for the LORD's
house to be built.' " 3 Then the word of the LORD came through
the prophet Haggai: 4 "Is it a time for you yourselves to be
living in your paneled houses, while this house remains a
In 2:3, we read: 1 On the twenty-first day of the seventh
month, the word of the LORD came through the prophet
Haggai: 2 "Speak to Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, governor of
Judah, to Joshua son of Jehozadak,the high priest, and to the
remnant of the people. Ask them, 3 'Who of you is left who saw
this house in its former glory? How does it look to you now?
Does it not seem to you like nothing?
Haggai also makes effective use of repetition:
 "Give careful thought" occurs in 1:5,7 and 2:15,18,
 "I am with you" in 1:13 and 2:4, and
 "I will shake the heavens and the earth" is found in 2:6,21.
Several times the prophet appears to reflect other
passages of Scripture:
 Compare 1:6 with Deuteronomy 28:38-39, and 2:17 with
with Deuteronomy 28:22.
 The threefold use of "Be strong" in 2:4 echoes the
encouragement given in Joshua 1:6-7,9, and18.
I. First Message: The Call to Rebuild the Temple (1:1-11)
A. The People's Lame Excuse (1:1-4)
B. The Poverty of the People (1:5-6)
C. The Reason God Has Cursed Them (1:7-11)
II. The Response of Zerubbabel and the People (1:12-15)
A. The Leaders and Remnant Obey (1:12)
B. The Lord Strengthens the Workers (1:13-15)
III. Second Message: The Temple to Be Filled with Glory (2:1-9)
A. The People Encouraged (2:1-5)
B. The Promise of Glory and Peace (2:6-9)
Chapter 1:
The word of
(Elul 1)
The word of
(Tishri 21)
IV. Third Message: A Defiled People Purified and Blessed
The word of BLESSING
A. The Rapid Spread of Sin (2:10-14)
(Chisleu 24)
B. Poor Harvests because of Disobedience (2:15-17)
C. Blessing to Come as the Temple Is Rebuilt (2:18-19)
V. Fourth Message: The Promise to Zerubbabel (2:20-23)
A. The Judgment of the Nations (2:20-22)
The word of PROMISE
B. The Significance of Zerubbabel (2:23)
(Chisleu 24)
It is also possible to outline the book in a chiastic
(kī ăs´ tĭk) pattern: (a-b / b-a):
Negative effects of the unbuilt house (1:1-11)
b The Lord's presence energizes the present work
b1 The Lord's presence guarantees future glory (2:1-9)
a1 Positive effects of the rebuilt house (2:10-23)
“Chiastic structuring” is a literary device often used
by Old Testament and New Testament writers. They
use it to build up to their main point and then back off
from it in the reverse order (so that the parts “cross
over” like the members of the Greek letter Chi - X).
Historical Purpose
To exhort the returned remnant to rebuild the
Temple in _______________.
Doctrinal Purpose
The many lessons include:
1. God blesses His people when they put Him _______,
(Matt. 6:33),
2. When we are in God’s service we should never
weary in well doing” (Gal. 6:9),
3. God’s __________ for tomorrow is our hope for
Christological Purpose
Our Lord is represented as the
estorer of the Temple’s glory (2:7-9),
vercomer of the kingdoms of this
the O__________
world (2:22), and a signet ring for
I ________(2:23).
How Do I Apply This?
The Jews who emigrated from Babylon to their original homeland of
Judah faced intense opposition, both external and internal. Haggai,
focused on the internal opposition, namely from their own sin. The
Jews had thoughtlessly placed their own interests before the Lord’s
interests, looking after their own safety and security without giving
consideration to the status of the Lord’s house.
Haggai’s encouragement to rebuild the temple in the face of the
Jews’ neglect brings to mind the apostle Paul’s exhortation to
Christians to build our lives on the foundation of Jesus Christ (1
Corinthians 3:10–17).
Are you building a life that reflects your status as a temple of
the Holy Spirit, leaving a legacy that will stand the test of time?
We should find encouragement for that construction project in
the four passionate sermons from this Old Testament prophet.
 Zechariah means “the Lord remembered."
 Zechariah was a captive in Babylon but, under the
leadership of a political ruler whose name was
Zechariah, together with some 50,000
of his Hebrew kinsmen, returned to their native Palestine
(around 536 B.C.). The record of these events is found in
the book of Ezra.
 When the Israelite people eased into a state of lethargy,
Zechariah, and his companion prophet,__________,
sought to bring them back to an invigorated level of
 Haggai worked to encourage the completion of the
Temple project (which had been destroyed during the
Babylonian invasion — 586 B.C.), and Zechariah
would attempt to rekindle a spiritual fire in the hearts of
the nation (Ezra 5:1).
 Zechariah, just as Haggai, was concerned with
rebuilding the Temple, but his visions of the future
go far beyond those of Haggai. He received 8
visions about Zion’s sanctuary, 4 messages
about Zion’s services, and 2 burdens about Zion’s
The Eight Visions (chapters 1-6)
Vision 1 (1:7-17), of the angelic horsemen, represents
God’s providential activity among the nations to return His
people to Jerusalem so they can rebuild their Temple.
Vision 2 (1:18-21), of the “four horns and smiths,”
symbolizes the four w_______
p ________
owers under
whose dominion Israel was to come.
Vision 3, of the man and the measuring rod illustrates
urveying the land for the remnant to re-inhabit.
God s___________
Vision 4, of Joshua the high priest, is a vision of Christ in
the Temple in____________
for Israel so that Satan
would not destroy her (Rev. 12).
The Eight Visions
Vision 5, of the “lampstand and olive trees,” declares
that the renewed light of Israel among the nations is
pirit (see
dependent on the oil of the H_______
v. 6).
Vision 6 (5:1-4), of the “flying scroll,” indicates that
the j___________
of God’s Word would fall upon the
Jews because they broke His commandments.
Vision 7 (5:5-11), of the “woman in the ephah”
(bushel basket), portrays the purging away of Israel’s
dolatry by her captivity in Babylon, the seat of
The Final Vision
Vision 8, of the “four chariots and horses,” are the
providential agents of God who oversee the events of
the nations to assure Israel’s return to their land and
reconstruction of the Temple.
The Four Messages (chapters 7-8)
Message 1: Against the worldly ritual practiced in the
heart of Jerusalem, the Temple of God (against pure
formalism in serving God, 7:1-7)
Message 2: The Wide Retribution (the judgment of God
that came on Israel because they would not heed the
former p__________
– they were scattered by God among
the nations (7:8-14)
Message 3: Worldwide Restoration of Israel (8:1-19):
(“Behold I will save My people…I will bring them to dwell in
the midst of Jerusalem.”)
Message 4: Worldwide Religion (8:20-23): (“Many people
eek the Lord of host
and strong nations shall come to s______
in Jerusalem, and to entreat favor of the Lord.”)
The Two Burdens (chapters 9-14)
Burden 1: The Rejected Savior (9-11) – The First
Coming of Christ
The prediction of the triumphal entry of Christ into
Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, just before His
but He was rejected.
Burden 2: The Reigning Savior (12-14) – The Second
Coming of Christ
When Christ returns the Jews will “look on him whom they
have pierced” (Zech 12:10; Rev. 1.7); Jerusalem will be
cleansed from sin (13:1); the Lord will fight against those
nations who are against Jerusalem. After the battle of
Christ will judge the nations (14:1-4).
He will then set up His Messianic kingdom and reign for
1000 years (14:9, 16; Rev. 20:1-6).
 The Book of Zechariah divides itself into two major
portions: Chapters 1-8 deal principally with events
contemporary with the prophet, while chapters 9-14 sweep
across the centuries, and have a decidedly “messianic”
Chapter 11 has a most remarkable prophecy of the
prophet’s composition
 The chapter begins with an ominous prophecy of a coming
destruction that would vanquish the nation of Israel. This
devastation would be a judgment from God because of the
Jewish people’s rejection of Jehovah’s royal King. The
description previews the Roman invasion that would
culminate in A.D. 70 (see also Matthew 22:1-7).
Out of this background of Chapter 11 comes the following
“And I said unto them, If you think good, give me my
hire; and if not, forbear. So they weighed for my hire
thirty pieces of silver. And Jehovah said unto me, Cast it
unto the potter, the goodly price that I was prized at by
them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them
unto the potter, in the house of Jehovah” (Zechariah
Zechariah, speaking on behalf of the promised Messiah,
makes the following 7 points:
1. The prophecy suggests there would be a haggling of
terms in connection with the b_________
etrayal of Jesus.
Matthew records Judas’ words as follows. “What are you
willing to give me, and I will deliver him unto you?”
(Matthew 26:15). Luke says that the chief priests were
glad and “covenanted” to give him the money, and the
traitor “consented” to the deal (Luke 22:5-6). The term
“covenanted” (suntithemi) signifies “to work out a mutually
agreeable contract.”
Although Judas was a willing instrument in the deed,
the Son of God was totally i____
He was
n c________.
laying down his life willingly (John 10:17-18; Galatians
1:4). He is represented figuratively as orchestrating
the events.
2. The prophet specified the metallic composition of the
coinage by which the transaction would be made. It was
neither gold nor copper, but rather, “silver” (Matthew
3. The exact number of coins was prophetically declared,
“thirty pieces of silver.”
This amount is not incidental; thirty pieces of silver, under
the Mosaic law, was the price to be paid to remedy the
ored by a
damage done to a slave that had been g______
neighbor’s ox (Exodus 21:32). Christ went to the cross as
the “servant” of God (doulos - a ________,
2:7). The Lord, in fact, was a servant “wounded” by the
ails of the crucifixion brutality (Isaiah 53:5).
4. The insulting rejection of Christ was a reflection of the
Jews’ attitude toward J__________
Himself. As the Lord
said through Zechariah, “Cast it to the potter, the
goodly price [strong irony] that I was prized at by
them.” These words find stark fulfillment in the Savior’s
warning, “he who rejects me rejects him who s_____
ent me”
(Luke 10:16).
5. Zechariah’s prophecy indicated that the money would be
returned to the Jewish leaders, the caretakers of “the
house of God.” Matthew’s record reveals that Judas,
regretting what he’d done, brought back the coins to the
chief priests and elders; but, they would have none of it.
Their outward religiosity would not allow the temple
treasury to be c______________
with blood money. How
twisted - Bloody hands backed away from “blood money!”
6. Zechariah indicated that in some way the silver coins
were to be “cast” (thrown) into the “house of Jehovah.”
Zechariah perfectly depicted the act of the betrayer.
Judas “cast down the pieces of silver into the sanctuary”
(Matthew 27:5).
The term “sanctuary” (naos) denotes the sacred edifice
containing the Holy Place and the Most Holy Place, in
contrast to the outer courts of the Temple area. Since
Judas would not have been allowed in the p________
area, it is likely that he approached as close as he could,
and then flung the money into the sacred area - as if this
“gift” could be a substitute for genuine repentance!
7. Finally, Zechariah suggests that the ultimate destination
of the “goodly price” would be to “the potter.”
Matthew explains this expression. The chief priests took
the money and purchased a “potter’s field,” which would
serve as a burial place for s___________.
This likely was
an area where clay for pottery was extracted from the
earth, or perhaps a dump where broken shards finally
were discarded. It most assuredly was cheap land. At the
time Matthew penned his Gospel record (some twenty to
thirty years after Christ’s death), the place was still known
as “the field of blood” (Matthew 27:8; see also Acts 1:1819).
In Hebrew malaki means "my messenger." In 3:1,
"See, I am sending my messenger," the
messenger is Malachi (malaki).
In a double sense, "Malachi" is the messenger
bringing us this Book, and his message is that God
will send another messenger in the future, as the
great prophet _________
returning before the Day of
the Lord.
By the time of Malachi, the exiles had been back in their land for
more than a hundred years and were looking for the blessings they
expected to receive when they returned.
The Historical Purpose:
Malachi rebuked Israel’s social system and moral decay,
thus warning the backslidden remnant.
The Doctrinal Purpose:
Malachi teaches that unless there is purity in God’s
people there will be purging by God’s hand. It stresses
that sincerity and purity are prerequisites for serving
The Christological Purpose:
Christ is the Messenger of the Covenant (3:1), the
Refiner’s Fire (3:2), and the Sun of Righteousness (4:2).
 The message of Malachi strikes home to several
areas of the life of the backslidden remnant.
 He speaks of their religious decline (regression),
their social debasement (disgrace; shame;
dishonor), their moral defection (desertion), and their
material dissipation (indulgence; debauchery).
 This description forms the outline of the Book of
Religious Decline (1:1 – 2:9)
Social Debasement (2:10-16)
III. Moral Defection (2:17 – 3:6)
IV.Material Dissipation (3:7-18)
V. Messianic Declaration (4:1-5)
I. Religious Decline (1:1 – 2:9)
Malachi begins with a “revelation of God’s love to
Israel,” (1:1-5) and a “rebuke to the priests” sins
(1:6 – 2:9).
The priests were despising His name, distorting His
ord and polluting His altar by using sickly
acrifices rather than using the best animals as
God demanded.
II. Social Debasement (2:10-16)
Socially, the tide was as low as it was spiritually.
“Idolatry was present” (vv. 10-13), despite the
lesson learned in ____________.
“Divorce was practiced” (vv. 14-16), even though it
is written, “I _______
hate divorce, says the Lord the
God of Israel.”
III. Moral Defection (2:17 – 3:6)
uestioned by the
The justice of God was q____________
people (2:17): “Where is the God of justice?” they
cried. But “the judgment of God is coming,”
replied the Lord (3:1-6).
IV. Material Dissipation (3:7-18)
Because they had not tithed as God commanded,
they were “____________
from God” (vv. 7-12).
Furthermore, the “resistance of the people” was
stout and arrogant (vv. 13-15), but the “reply of the
Lord was clear:” He would remember the righteous
in the day of judgment, sparing them as a father
spares His son (vv. 16-18).
V. Messianic Declaration (4:1-5)
The “condemnation of the wicked” will be
accomplished with the coming of the Messiah (v. 1):
“For behold, the day comes, burning like an
oven, when all the arrogant and all evildoers will
be stubble.”
But, this day will be a “consolation for the
righteous,” (v. 2), for therein “the sun of
righteousness shall rise, with __________
healing in its
The Old Testament began with creation in Genesis
1:1, and it ends here in Malachi 4:6 with a curse.
Man’s sin brought death and the curse of God. But
is coming. The anticipation in the
Old Testament for deliverance will become a
realization in the New Testament.
It is also interesting to observe that the New
Testament begins “the book…of Jesus Christ”
(Matthew 1:1) and ends with “the ________
GRACE of the
Lord Jesus…” in Revelation 22:21.
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