Global Media Flow and Contra-Flow “Societies without change aren’t authentic; they’re just dead.” QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. E&M Market (USD 1.3 trillion) US$ 450 billion US$ 523 billion US$ 32 billion US$ 23 billion US$ 229 billion Media Flows •Global •Transnational •Geo-Cultural Global Media: Dominant Flows Text Transnational Media: Contra-Flows Shilpa Shetty Geo-Cultural: Contra-Flows Impact of Media Flows • Dominant flows (US mainly) continue to shape the global media order. • Contra-Flows are important but remain small in comparison. • Impact of this order is complex as reception of these cultural products is never uniform Impact of Media Flows • Some argue this is leading to a cultural dependency of the South on the North • This dependency amounts to cultural imperialism. • Audiences in this research on the political economy of the global media were ignored or assumed to be victims • Another assumption: core-periphery focus • Assumption: audiences cannot innovate or improvise on the core. Glocalization • Re-appropriation/indeginization of Western cultural products: CNBC Asia; STAR TV Japan; STAR PLUS/NEWS India; Viacom’s Showtime Arabic; MTV Latin America; CNN En Espanol; Time Asia; Fortune China, National Geographic, etc. • Is this localizing Americana promoting a Westernized elite market and liberal democracy? South-South Media Flows • Aided by media technology and people mobility (35m Chinese and 20m Indians in diaspora); • Emerging geo-cultural/linguistic spaces: circulation and adaptation of media products inside and across regions (telenovelas in Russia, India and the Middle East) • Bollywood as an example of contra-flow worth billions of dollars. Hybridity as Hegemony? • Imbalance between dominant and subaltern media flows is still real • Bollywood accounted for 0.2% of the $200b global film industry in 2004. • Out of the top 5 entertainment companies, 4 are US-based: Time Warner, Walt Disney, Viacom, and News Corp. • Print: WSJ, Business Week, Fortune, Reader’s Digest, Cosmo, and Na. Geo. Time and newsweek. Hybridity as Hegemony? • Contra against whom exactly? • Telesur (Al-Bolivar), Al-Jazeera, French Int’l News Channel, etc. • Contra doesn’t necessarily mean antihegemonic- Soft Power is still power and glocalization processes, while important, reinforce a dominant media order.