Nazi Propaganda Today you will be taking notes. Please take out your copybooks. Nazi Propaganda • Propaganda is the use of the Media to aggressively promote one point of view. • The Nazis created propaganda as a way of ‘brainwashing’ the public and convincing them of an ideological viewpoint. • Basically, what this means is that they used propaganda to make the German people believe the same thing they did. Nazi War Propaganda • Nazi Germany was noted for its psychologically powerful propaganda, much of which was centered around the Jews. • The Jews were the “scapegoat” for Germany economic woes. In other words, they were to blame for Germany’s lack of economic progress and poverty. Nazi Propaganda • The Nazi’s quickly recognised the value of the media. From the early days of the party they used aggressive advertising to promote the nazi ideology. • Goebbels was in charge of ‘enlightening’ the German public. Nazi War Posters • Josef Goebbels was the “Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda”. • His main responsibilities were the creation and distribution of AntiSemitic and Pro-Nazi material for the party. • Anti-Semitic: Beliefs against the Jews and the Jewish faith. Nazi War Posters: Target Audience • Nazi Propaganda before the start of World War II had several distinct audiences: (1) German audiences: who were continually reminded of the struggle of the Nazi Party and Germany against foreign and internal enemies, especially Jews. Nazi War Posters – Target Audience (2) Ethnic Germans (i.e. Germans living in other countries): were told that their bond with Germany was stronger than to their new country. (3) Potential Enemies: Like France and Britain who were told that Germany had no quarrel with them. It was their government that wanted to start a war with Germany. Nazi Propaganda – Target Audience (4) All Citizens: were reminded of the greatness of German culture, scientific and military achievements. • The Nazis targeted these four groups to gather up support for what was to come, the “cleansing” of Germany. • Look at your package of German posters. Which ones do you think were used before the war? Nazi Propaganda: Methods • • • • Posters Radio Film Newspapers Nazi War Posters – During the War • German propaganda emphasized the power of German arms and humanity German soldiers had shown to the people living in the countries the conquered. • The Allies were portrayed as cowardly murderers. The Allies included the USA, Britain and The Soviet Union. Posters • Posters are cheap and easy to distribute • Placed in prominent positions they act as a constant reminder of ideology • Can be used for many purposes Examples of Nazi Posters Radio and Film • Hitler’s Speeches: Hitler is considered to have been one of the greatest public speakers of all time. • Film was used to show Hitler in a positive light as often as possible. • The Nazi’s commissioned several films, each carefully portraying a certain image – try to think what this may have been. Newspapers • Censoring newspapers ensures that only the news you want people to read is available to the public. • Nazi party members wrote many articles for the press, ensuring that the message was always positive. • Many publications were banned. Nazi War Posters - Analysis • Look at the package of German war posters. Using the answer sheet, indicate what it was used for: (1) (2) (3) (4) The struggle against the Jews and the allies. The strength of a united German population. Blaming other countries for starting a war. The greatness of the German culture and military. American War Posters • In World War II, one of the main goals of American propaganda was to show the Germans and the Japanese as anything but human. • They did this by giving them animalistic and demonic characteristics to their appearance. American War Posters - Themes • American war posters had four (4) distinct themes. (1) Dehumanization: The enemy is shown as animals with devil-like intentions. (2) Preying on the weak: Images of Americans that include helpless women and innocent babies at the mercy of the Germans and the Japanese. American War Posters - Themes (3) Straightforward: Images and message is direct. Words communicate a sense of urgency and need for defense. (4) Good Vs Evil: Includes a portrayal of the Germans and Japanese as the “evil” and the Americans as “good”. The Americans are portrayed this way through the use of women, children and American homes. American War Posters - Analysis • Now, go back to your package of American war posters. On the answer sheet, figure out which of the following themes are being shown: (1)Dehumanization – Enemies as creatures. (2)Preying on the weak – Helpless women/babies (3)Straightforward – Direct messages of defense (4)Good Vs Evil – Japanese/Germans are evil while the Americans are good. British War Posters British War Posters • The British, similar to the USA and the Nazis had very distinct purposes for their propaganda. • Three things were always needed if they wanted to win the war: Soldiers, Money (for weapons) and Bare Necessities (food and fuels). British War Posters • The British also had other concerns. The morale of the people and soldiers was low, the government was in fear of German spies and maintaining the safety of the citizens. • These issues were what British propagandists targeted in the war posters. British War Posters - Themes • So, in total, the British war posters had six themes. (1) Specialist Recruiting: • The British started recruiting soldiers long before the war started and therefore had little recruiting once it started. • Recruiting posters were nevertheless all over but in the case of the British were targeted towards women and the services they could provide. British War Posters - Themes (2) Industrial Production: • World War II placed great emphasis on sophisticated weapons of war. • Tanks, aircrafts, ships and ammunitions were in need of being manufactured quickly. • Thus, the British propaganda sometimes targeted factory workers to increase the production of these things. British War Posters - Themes (3) Maintaining Morale: • World War II involved not only the armed forces, but also civilians who were threatened by the bombing of the populated parts of the countries. • Therefore, an effort was made by British propagandists to keep people’s spirits up. British War Posters - Themes (4) Security Concerns: • During a war there was always a concern that military secrets would be leaked out in a casual conversation soldiers would have in bars between each other or any “entertainment” the would be spending their money on. • They were made to believe that German spies could be anywhere, even dressed as women, and would take the information back to the German army. British War Posters - Themes (5) Savings: • The cost of waging war was and still is very expensive. This put big strains on the already weak British economy. • This resulted in posters focusing on people giving money through war bonds, saving food and not wasting resources. • People were actually encouraged to grow their own food in a garden and not go to the stores. British War Posters - Themes (6) Health and Safety: • The hazards of enemy attack or the consequences of a potential attack was a realistic situation faced by all British citizens. • Posters depicting the destruction of British building and what cities would look like after an attack by the enemy were found all over the city. • This reminded citizens to continue do all they could to help the war effort. British War Posters - Analysis • • (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Look at the your package of British war posters. Using the answer sheet, indicate what type of propaganda was used for each one. Then, figure out which one of the six themes it is emphasizing: Specialist Recruiting – Getting soldiers and women to work Industrial Production – Encouraging factory workers Maintaining Morale – Cheering up the British people Security Concerns – The fear of German spies Savings – Saving money, food and supplies Health and Safety – Showing potential destruction.