Objectives: istory of Floral Design 1 1. To identify the aesthetic benefits of floral design 2. To become familiar with the history of floral design 3. To understand the origin and development of different styles Significance of Flowers • Used throughout civilization • Religious significance • Personal adornment • Addition of beauty to dwellings 2 Significance of Flowers • Special occasions • Symbols of love, friendship, sympathy and celebration • Language of flowers Red Roses symbolize and communicate love 3 Why Know the History of Floral Design? • To understand the impact of earlier cultures on modern design styles • To see the derivation of design styles 4 5 • To be able to create arrangements depicting historical style or design period Classical Period of Floral Design Byzantine Period Egyptian Period Greek Period Middle Ages Roman Period 6 Egyptian Period (2800 – 28 B.C.) • Styles were simple and orderly • Wide-mouthed basins or bowls held flowers or fruit • Wire loops or holes around container rims held flower stems • Regimented rows and repetition of identical floral groups created patterned designs • Primary colors dominated 7 Lotus Greek Period (600-146 B.C.) • Did not arrange flowers in vases • Flowers were scattered on the ground for celebrations • Wreaths and garlands were worn or carried during special occasions • Heroes, athletes and dignitaries were honored with wreaths 8 Greek Period • Potted plants were grown indoors to supply flowers • Professional florists were hired to create wreaths and decorations • Cornucopia (horn of plenty) was a symbol of abundance and was used in an upright position • Grace, simplicity and symbolism characterized Greek design 9 Roman Period (28BC - 325AD) • Continued use of Greek designs • Wreaths and garlands were more elaborate • Blossom filled scarves were placed on religious altars • Flowers were arranged in containers or liknons (baskets with high backs and flattened fronts) 10 Byzantine Period (320- 600 AD) • Continued Roman designs • Garlands were twisted narrow bands of fruit, flowers and foliage • Introduced symmetrical, stylized tree compositions • Elaborate containers had nearly pointed bases • Color schemes used neighboring hues with complementary accents 11 Middle Ages (476 – 1400 AD) • Flowers arranged in vases • Symmetrical groups in Chinese flasks shows Chinese influence • Little known about floral designs of this period • Information found in Persian art, rugs and tapestries 12 European Periods of Floral Design 13 • Renaissance Period • Baroque Period • Flemish Period • French Styles • English Georgian Period • Victorian Period Renaissance Period (1400 – 1600) • Arrangements were large, tall, pyramidal and symmetrically balanced • Arrangement was twice the height of container • Flowers were loose, airy and uncrowded • Bright colors contrasted with plastered walls 14 Baroque and Flemish Style Period (1600 – 1775 AD) • Classical Renaissance style gave way to the lavish Baroque style • Baroque style originated in Italy and spread to Holland and Belgium • Symmetrical oval shaped designs • Hogarthian curve or S-curve developed during this period Flemish Style Jan van Huysum 16 • Flemish artists painted floral arrangements, refining the Baroque style • Better proportioned and more compact • Flowers were massed into oval shaped arrangements taller than the container • Many arrangements in paintings could not have existed because the flowers bloomed in different seasons French Tradition • Influenced European, English and American styles • Influenced by Baroque art • Feminine appeal • Arrangements were bouquets with no design or center of interest • Topiary designs were introduced 17 Topiary English Georgian Period (1714 – 1760) • Moved away from formality and symmetry • Japanese influence affected design • Tuzzy-muzzy or nosegay was a hand-held bouquet developed at this time • Nosegays were placed in bowls of water on tables as tuzzy-muzzy centerpieces 18 Victorian Period (1820 – 1901) • Floral designs were poorly proportioned • Large masses of flowers with no focal point crowded into containers • Too many colors and flower types created an unplanned effect • Toward the end of the period, rules were established for floral design • Skilled designers established floral design as a professional art 19 History of Oriental Styles Japanese Style 20 Chinese Style Chinese Styles • Floral arrangements originally used to decorate Buddhist temples • Large, symmetrical arrangements with central axis • Only one or two types of flowers and foliage used • Bright colors were used 21 Japanese Styles • Adopted Chinese style in 6th century and created their own highly refined art form • Basic styles are Ikenobo, Rikkwa, Shokwa, Nageire, Moribana and Jiyu-Bana • Ikenobo school of floral art created the style known as Ikebana • Japanese styles are characterized by linear forms and open spaces 22 ikenobo rikkwa 0 shokwa American Floral Design Periods Early American Period Colonial Williamsburg Period American Federal Period Contemporary Styles 23 Early American Period • Early colonists had little time for flower arranging • Household utensils (kettles, pitchers, pans, etc.) and baskets were used as containers • Materials for arrangements were wildflowers, dried flowers and grasses • Designs were informal and massed 24 Colonial Williamsburg Period (1724 – 1780 AD) • Trade with Europe influenced floral designs • Many southern arrangements were copied from European prints and tapestries • Casual, open massed bouquets were common • Styles were fan shaped, rectangular or round • Visual weight concentrated at base of design 25 American Federal Period (1780 – 1820) • Influenced by French styles • Stressed individual beauty of flowers • Break from English style • Flower height was greater than width of arrangement • Gave way to stuffy, ornate Victorian style 26 Modern American Styles (Late 1800’s – Present) • Development of floral wire services in late 19th century established design catalogs • European mass designs were combined with Japanese line designs to create line-mass designs • Advances in transportation and refrigeration influenced availability of cut flowers from local to world markets 27 1. List three ways flowers have been used throughout history. 2. _____ styles are characterized by linear forms and open spaces. A. Japanese B. Victorian C. Flemish D. Baroque 3. The _____ period made extensive use of wreaths and garlands. A. Egyptian B. Victorian 28 C. Greek D. Byzantine 4. Little is known about floral designs of this period. A. Egyptian B. Greek C. Roman D. Middle Ages 5. Designs of this period were masses of flowers with no focal point and poor proportion. A. French Tradition C. Early American B. Victorian D. Chinese 6. The tuzzy-muzzy was developed by A. The Romans C. The French B. Martha Stewart 29 D. The English Acknowledgements McDaniel, Gary L. Floral Design & Arrangement. 3 rd ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996. Berrall, Julia S. A History of Flower Arrangement. London: Studio Publications, 1953. Sandra Balch – Production Coordinator Jennifer Donaldson – Graphics Coordinator Geoff Scott – Production Manager G.W. Davis – Executive Producer 30 , MMIV CEV Multimedia, Ltd.