Accessibility Testing

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Web Accessibility
Testing for AIR
AIR Austin
February 2012
Jim Thatcher
http://jimthatcher.com
[email protected]
Accessibility Consulting
Austin, Texas
Jim Allan
http://tsbvi.edu
[email protected]
TSBVI
Austin, Texas
Resources
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Resources and Slides at
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Resources list http://jimthatcher.com/testing
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PowerPoint testingForAIR.ppt
Most important for us and testing are
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Web Accessibility Toolbar
http://tinyurl.com/wattoolbar
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Jim’s Favelets http://jimthatcher.com/favelets
Testing for accessibility 2
Testing for Web Accessibility
Web Accessibility:
Web resources are accessible if people with
disabilities can use them as effectively as nondisabled people
(UT Accessibility Institute)

So testing means user testing with disabled and
non-disabled people?
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Instead there are “standards and guidelines”
against which we can test
Testing for accessibility 3
Testability – an example
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Contrast – 1990 (WCAG 1)
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Contrast – 2010 (WCAG 2)
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Ensure that foreground and background color
combinations provide sufficient contrast when viewed by
someone having color deficits or when viewed on a black
and white screen.
Text and images of text have a contrast ratio of at least
4.5:1 … 3:1 for larger text (18pt or 14pt bold) (Level AA)
A simple tool to measure contrast ratio
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Colour Contrast Analyser Tool
Testing for accessibility 4
The Colour Contrast Analyser Tool
Testing for accessibility 5
Testing Tools
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Colour Contrast Analyser
http://tinyurl.com/colourcontrast
Web Accessibility Toolbar http://tinyurl.com/wattoolbar
Jim T’s Favelets http://jimthatcher.com/favelets/
Toolbar for Firefox http://tinyurl.com/cptoolbar
WAVE http://wave.webaim.org
FireEyes http://tinyurl.com/jfireeyes
Lists of tools
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http://www.w3.org/WAI/ER/tools/complete
http://www.colostate.edu/Dept/ATRC/tools.htm
http://www.webaim.org/articles/tools/
Testing for accessibility 6
Computer tests vs. Human Review

Testable by a computer vs. requiring human
judgment
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Only ~25% of accessibility errors can be
detected by computers

Many claim compliant/accessible because no
errors reported by testing tool

Testing all for Section 508 Standards discussed

http://jimthatcher.com/testing1.htm
Testing for accessibility 7
Computer tests (about 12 of them)
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(3) Missing alt on <img>, <area>, or <input> with
type=“image”
(3) Empty alt on <img> in <a> without text, same for
<button> or <input> with type=“image”
(1) Form control with no title or label (or empty)
(2) No title on frame or iframe
(1) Sever-side image map (image link with ismap)
(1) Missing lang attribute for page
(1) No HTML headings (h1, h2, …) on page
Testing for accessibility 8
The Issues from AIR Judging Form
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Judging form: http://www.knowbility.org/v/airdev-resources/AIR-Austin/34/
Core Accessibility 240 points
(Basic Accessibility 70 points)
Advanced Accessibility 120 Points
Testing for accessibility 9
Core Accessibility – Inactive images

1. Inactive images (20 points). Use the alt attribute to
provide a text alternative for non-linked (inactive) images. If the
image is decorative or redundant, use alt=””; if the image
conveys information the alt-text should convey the same
information. … If the image consists of text, the alt-text should be
the same. Each image without appropriate alt-text is an error.

Testing – Use WAT (images → show images)
or a little simpler, Jim’s Favelets (Formatting
images and larger images).
Testing for accessibility 10
Core Accessibility – Active images
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2. Active images (20 points). Use the alt attribute to
provide a text alternative for every active image, including image
links, image map hot spots, or input elements of type image.
The text alternative must convey the function of the active element,
the target of the link. If the image consists of text, the alt-text should
be the same. Each active image without appropriate alt-text is an
error.

Testing – Use WAT (images → show images
mouse over for whether active) or the Favelets
(Active images).
Testing for accessibility 11
Core Accessibility - Links
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3. Hypertext Links (20 points). Use descriptive link text
to ensure that each link makes sense when it is read out of context.
Make sure that links with same text on the same page go to same
place. Each anchor with inadequate link text is an error.

Testing – Use WAT (Doc Info → List links) or
inspection. Watch out for “More” “Click Here”,
etc.
Testing for accessibility 12
Core Accessibility – Semantic markup
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4. Correct Markup/Parsing (20 points). Use
semantic markup (block quotes, headings, lists, etc.) to properly
represent the structure of the document. … Each instance of a
structural tag used for formatting or content that should use
semantic markup or that is not structured to specifications is an
error.

Testing – Use WAT (Structure → Headings)
and (Structure → List Items) and (Structure →
Q/Blockquote).
Testing for accessibility 13
Core Accessibility
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- Skip links
5. Skip links (10 points). Provide at least 1 and no more
than 3 links at the top of the page which are either visible all the
time or become visible on focus. These should jump to the main
content or main navigation sections of the page. Intended for
keyboard users, be sure to test them with the keyboard. Each page
that does not meet these requirements is an error.

Testing – Use the keyboard to test, simply:
1.
2.
3.

Tab to skip link
Press enter to follow
Tab again; should be at first link after target of skip
Or Jim’s Favelet – Skip links
Testing for accessibility 14
Core Accessibility - Headings
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6. Headings for navigation (10 points). There
should be a heading at the top of each major section of a page; use
only one h1 and heading levels should not skip (h2 then h4). Each
page that does not meet these requirements is an error.
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
Testing – Use WAT (Structure → Headings)
and (Structure → Headings Structure) or Jim’s
Favelet, Headings
Watch out for skipping levels (like h2 to h4) –
Don’t do it.
Testing for accessibility 15
Core Accessibility - Landmarks
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7. Landmark roles (10 points). Use ARIA landmark
roles to label key sections that don’t easily accommodate headings,
like role="main", role=”content info”,
role=”navigation” (use aria-Label if more than one
navigation area) and role=”search”. Don’t overdo it; time is
taken announcing these. Each page that does not meet these
requirements is an error.
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Testing – Use JAWS (; or Ctrl+Ins+; to list)
Watch for correct labeling
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aria-labelledby for id of an on-screen element
aria-label for text
Or Jim’s favelet aria to display ARIA markup
Testing for accessibility 16
Core Accessibility – Info in presentation
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8. Information in presentation layer (20 points).
Ensure that information conveyed through presentation (font, color)
is also available in text. Any instance of information only available
through presentation is an error.
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Testing – Inspection!
Testing for accessibility 17
Core Accessibility - Contrast
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9. Contrast (20 Points).
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Testing –Use the Colour Contrast Analyser tool
WAT (Colour → Contrast Analyser application)
The visual presentation of text
and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for
the following:
Large Text (14 pt bold or 18 point or larger): have a contrast ratio
of at least 3:1.
Each instance that does not follow these guidelines is an error
Testing for accessibility 18
Core Accessibility - Contrast
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10. Keyboard (20 Points). All functionality must be
accessible with the keyboard. Keyboard functionality should not
require the use of mouse keys, the JAWS cursor, or anything
similar. Any instance of an operation or a control that requires the
mouse, unless a keyboard equivalent is readily available, the score
is 0.

Testing – Use the keyboard to be sure
everything is available without a mouse.
Combine with testing for #14 – focus indication.
Testing for accessibility 19
Core Accessibility - Language
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11. Language (20 Points). Identify the natural language
of each page. Any failure is score of 0.is readily available, the score
is 0.
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Testing: Use WAT – (Doc Info → Show lang
attributes)
Testing for accessibility 20
Core Accessibility - Forms
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12. Forms (20 points).
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Testing: use WAT – (Structure →
Fieldset/Labels) and or use Jim’s Forms favelet
and ARIA favelet
Label all form controls. For
example, use the label element when on-screen text prompt is
adequate. Use the title attribute when on-screen text prompt is
not adequate or is dispersed. Use fieldset/legend to group
radio buttons and check boxes. Use aria-required for required
fields. Use ARIA markup for error handling including aria-invalid on
fields which have errors and use alerts or alert dialogs for
announcing the errors. Each form control with inadequate labeling
is an error.
Testing for accessibility 21
Core Accessibility – Data Tables
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13. Data Tables (10 points).
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Testing: Use WAT – (Tables → Show Data
Tables) and or use Jim’s Data tables favelet
For tabular data, use the
caption element and/or the summary attribute. Use the th
element or use either th or td elements with the scope attribute to
unambiguously identify all row and column headers. For complex
data tables associate data cells with the appropriate headers using
either headers/id or scope. Each instance of missing or
incorrect table markup is an error.
Testing for accessibility 22
Core Accessibility – Focus Indication
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14. Focus Indication (20 points). There must be a clear
visual indication (highlight, dotted rectangle, change in color) when
an object receives keyboard focus. Each instance of an object with
no focus indication is an error.
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Testing: Use the keyboard and tab through
every active object on each page.
Testing for accessibility 23
Advanced Accessibility Flash
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32. Flash (20 points).
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Testing: Inspection: Use the keyboard and test
with JAWS
If Flash content is non-essential to
the meaning of the page then assistive technology must be able to
either tab through, or bypass the Flash object. If the content
conveys information or responds to user input, assistive technology
must be able to access the information and functionality. Each
instance of missing information or function is an error. There must
be a clear visual indication (highlight, dotted rectangle, change in
color) when an object receives keyboard focus. Each instance of an
object with no focus indication is an error.
Testing for accessibility 24
Advanced Accessibility Flash
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33. Video (20 points).
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Testing: Inspection.
For video with soundtrack, provide
synchronized captions. Provide an html text description for video
without sound. In addition, provide synchronized audio description
if the video cannot by understood from the soundtrack alone. If not
synchronized, audio description must be provided as text with the
video link. Each instance of inadequate accommodation is an error.
Testing for accessibility 25
Advanced Accessibility Flash
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34. Audio (10 Points)
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Testing: Inspection.
Provide html text transcripts for
audio files. Speakers must be identified. Each place where the text
transcript substantially differs from the audio is an error.
Testing for accessibility 26
Advanced Accessibility Style Sheets
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35. Alternative Style Sheets (10 Points) Provide at
least two style sheets in addition to the default that can be
conveniently selected by users, for example, to change font size,
contrast, color schemes, printing, or displaying on small devices.
Any page where the layout fails with any alternate style sheet or
where the selection process fails is an error.
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Testing: Inspection.
Testing for accessibility 27
Advanced Accessibility Scripting
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36. Client Side Scripting (20 Points) All scripted
functionality is available from the keyboard or there is a readily
available keyboard accessible alternative. Scripted controls must
identify themselves (name, role, state, value and properties) to
assistive technology. Make sure that screen readers are aware of
important content exposed with scripting. Each instance violating
these requirements is an error. No points awarded if scripting is for
switching style sheets, or scripting is peripheral to the purpose of
the site.
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Testing: Inspection, keyboard. JAWS.
Testing for accessibility 28
Advanced Accessibility ARIA Widgets
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37. ARIA Widgets (20 Points) Use ARIA Best Practices
to code special widgets including tab panels, accordion menus and
modal windows.
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Testing: Jim’s ARIA favelet, inspection,
keyboard, JAWS.
Testing for accessibility 29
Advanced Accessibility Fluid layout
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38. Fluid Layout (20 Points) Using browser magnification
in at least two browsers, increase the magnification level to 200%.
If content reflows to prevent the necessity of using a left-right scroll
bar to access content and all content is available, 20 points. If
screen does not reflow 0 points.
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Testing: inspection.
Testing for accessibility 30
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