Folie 1 - Stefan.Schleicher(a)wifo.at

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Geopolitics of Energy
United States of America
Russian Federation
People´s Republic of China
KS Energy and Sustainable Development, SS 2011
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
USA
Energy Consumption
USA
Austria
8,000 kilo oil equivalent
4,000 kilo oil equivalent
Source:
U.S. Energy Information Administration
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 2
USA
Energy Production
Source:
U.S. Energy Information
Administration
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 3
USA
Import & Export
• 24% of consumed energy is imported energy
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 4
Geopolitical strategies
USA
The gulf region
• 2010:
30 % of global oil production
55 % of global oil reserves
• dependence of industrialized
countries
• influence on bordering countries
– containment of russian and chinese
interests
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 5
Geopolitical strategies
USA
Nabucco-Pipeline
• from Azerbaijan to Austria
• influence balance of forces in the
Middle-East & Central Asia
• power of Russia could be reduced
• USA tries to improve their relations
to the participating countries
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 6
Energy Consumption
Russian
Federation
• Total energy consumption:
686,757 kt of oil equivalent
• Energy consumption per capita:
4,838 t of oil equivalent
• Total consumption of electricity enrgy:
725,460 GWh
• Total consumption of heat energy:
4,757,649 TJ
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 7
Energy Production
Russian
Federation
• Total energy production:
1,253,922 kt of oil equivalent
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 8
Imports & Exports
Russian
Federation
• 2nd largest exporter of oil
(largest non-OPEC member) –
5,43 million bbl/day (2009)
• Largest exporter of natural gas
– 179,1 billion m³ (2009)
• Russia is energetically selfsustained
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 9
Russian
Federation
European reliance on Natural Gas
• Interruptions in gas supplies
because of disputes between Russia
and the Ukraine in January 2009
• „North Stream“ and „South Stream“
pipeline projects should establish a
direct connection between Russia
and the EU
• Competition in form of the Nabucco
pipeline, which circumvents Russia
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 10
Russian
Federation
Russia as an energy superpower
• High dependence of
neighbors on russian
energy exports
• Russia uses this
dependence as a policy
tool to influence its
neighboring states
• Race for the Arctic
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 11
Cooperation with China
Russian
Federation
• Pipeline project valued at $ 25 M
which connects Russia and China
• Russia brings oil on the AsianPacific market
• Reduction of the reliance on
European trading partners while
simultaneously opening new
markets
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 12
Republic of China
many ressources
1.3 billion people
Energy self sufficent untill 1993
enormous growth rates, energy production could
not keep pace
growing purchasing power through
industrialisation
BRICS
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 13
China
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 14
Brazilian Pipeline
China
1050 km pipeline to connect
south-east and north-east
Brazil
export-corridor
900 million USD loan to
Brazil, half the sum in Yuan
repaid in oil
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 15
Venezuela Joint Venture
China
contract between Petróleos de Venezuela and China
National Petroleum Corporation
exploration, production, oil marketing and transportation
50.000 barrels/day in 2012
400.000 barrels/day in 2016 for 25 years
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 16
China
Angola
Angola provides 25% of Chinas oil Imports
China International Fund Ltd
Imex Bank
Luand International Airport
Hydro Power Plants
Railway
…
little influence of IMF, because of chinese Investment
Geopolitics of energy
Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
Pagina 17
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