PROCESS-ORIENTED APPROACH TO TRANSLATING SPORTS RESEARCH PAPERS FROM SERBIAN INTO ENGLISH Third IATIS Regional Workshop – Novi Sad: September 25 and 26 2014 Mira Milić, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Novi Sad Presentation plan 4 sections: Introduction Theoretical aspects of non-literary translation Description of the corpus Method of corpus analysis Conclusions Introduction • Aim: on the basis of corpus analysis, to suggest the need for upgrading a widespread productoriented approach to translation of non-literary texts. – From product-oriented activity to process-oriented activity due to complex requirements such as: • Good command of two languages • Knowledge of terminology • Certain knowledge of the subject matter • Expectations of the target reader. Theoretical aspects of non-literary translation • Non-literary translation covers texts: administrative, legal, economic, business, scientific, technical, and publicist texts (cf. Gibova 2012); • Non-literary translation - a process-oriented operation aimed at the transfer of pragmatic information from one language to another (Gibova 2012: 18); • Essential aim: translation must be reader-friendly; • In line with Vermeer’s skopos theory, the concept of equivalence of the ST and TT is replaced by the concept of adequacy; • Discussing technical translation, Byrne (2010) says that it is a matter of the extent of modification; • Non-literary translation is a matter of stylistic modifications if the style of the original text is deficient (Newmark 2004: 12); • Accordingly, non-literary translation IS creative to a certain extent; • It requires process-oriented teamwork (translator’s and/or author’s). Description of the corpus • 3 M21-23 research papers in the field of sport translated from Serb. into Eng., each with the initial and final peer translator/researcherreviewed version, entitled: – “Uticaj eksperimentalnog programa fizičkog vežbanja na mentalno zdravlje dece predškolskog uzrasta” (Eng. Exercise Effects on Mental Health of Preschool Children) (Tubić & Đorđić 2013), EEOMHPC; – “Posturalni status i profil samovrednovanja dece” (Eng. Postural Status and Self-Perception Profile of Children) (Poček, Đorđić & Tubić 2012), PSSPPOC; and – “Latentna struktura Ravnovih progresivnih matrica u boji” (Eng. Latent Structure of Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices) (Fajgelj, Bala & Katić 2010), LSRCPM. Method of corpus analysis • All papers were analysed in terms of six comprehensibility dimensions, as per Göpferich (2009): – concision, – correctness, – motivation, – perceptibility, – simplicity and – structure Concision (overtranslation) Serbian text (1)Phrase: E-specific morphosyntax (1) (2) (2)Extra-words of a sentence (3)Paragraph: abstract modification Total no of words: EEOMPHC: 5549-5200 PSSPPOC: 3445-2981 LSRCPM: 8590-9480 (3) … u specifičnim domenima samovrednovanja… (PSSPPOC) Polazeći od nespornih osobenosti istražovanja efekata fizičkog vežbanja kod dece predskolskog uzrasta, u ovom radu se problemsko ponašanje dece karakteriše sa stanovišta, u dečjoj psihologiji i psijihijatriji poznate i prihvaćene, podele na eksternalizovano i internalize-vano ponašanje… (EEOMHPC) Uticaj eksperimentalnog programa fizičkog vežbanja na mentalno zdravlje dece predškolskog uzrasta (title) (abstract containing 167 words and two paragraphs) (EEOMHPC) Initial English translation Final English translation … in specific domains of … in domain-specific selfself-perceptions… perceptions… Starting with an indisputable peculiarity of the examination of the effects of doing physical exercises on preschool children, this paper is based on the classification of problematic behviour into externalized and internalized behavior, which is wellknown and accepted in children’s psychology and psychiatry… In this paper, the problem behavior is considered in terms of externalizing and internalizing behavior, which is well-known and accepted in children’s psychology and psychiatry… Influence of the experimental programme of doing physical exercises on mental health of preschool children (title) (abstract containing 204 words and two paragraphs) Exercise effects on mental health of preschool children (title) (abstract containing 167 words and one paragraph only) Correctness (absence of any mistakes related to spelling, grammar and lexis) Serbian text (4) Mistranslation of meta- (8) Serbian-based clippings Final English translation (4) meta-analiza (EEOMHPC) target-analysis meta-analysis (5) Skor na svakoj subskali predstavlja aritmetičku sredinu odgovora ispitanika na pojedinačne tvrdnje koje se boduju na četvorostepenoj skali… (PSSPPOC) The score on every subscale represents the arithmetic mean of the answers given by the examinees to every assumption which is marked on four-level scale… The score on every subscale represents the arithmetic mean of the responses given to each item scored on a fourlevel scale… (6) …problemsko … (EEOMHPC) ponašanje …problematic behavior …problem behavior… versus behavior… (7) …2,5 (EEOMHPC) godine… …2,5 years… (8) PMB (Progresivne matrice PMB (Color Progressive CPM (Color Progressive u boji) (LSRCPM) Matrices) Matrices) (5) Overtranslation + Improper lexis due to translator’s insufficient knowledge of the subject matter (6) BE versus AE spelling (cf. e.g.2 “behaviour” (7) Decimal coma versus decimal point Initial English translation …2.5 years… Motivation (to attract the reader’s attention) (9) Literal translation: *dullwitted versus low-average intelligent (10) Ambiguous sentence meaning in Serbian: not clear what occurs in a given range APM scores or prediction (11) Emphasis missing on the fact that it is author’s own belief + insufficient argumentation of the ST Serbian text Initial English translation Final English translation (9) Visoko nadprosečni ispitanici 1942. godine bili bi danas razvrstani kao mentalno tupi. (LSRCPM) Highly above-average subjects from 1942 would fall under the current category of dull-witted people. The highly above-average participants from 1942 would nowadays be classified as mentally dull. (10) Rushton i saradnici (2004) navode da je predviđanje školskog uspeha i uspeha na poslu, na osnovu skorova sa APM, između 0,20 i 0,50. Pri tome je predviđanje školskog uspeha najčešće 0,40, a kad se kontroliše uzrast i socio-ekonomski status 0,28. (LSRCPM) Rushton et al. (2004) report the anticipated academic and business achievements based on scores with APM in the range between 0.20 and 0.50, with 0.40 as the most common one or 0.28 if age and socio-economic status is controlled. Rushton et al. (2004) report that the prediction of academic and business achievement based on the scores of APM was in the range between 0.20 and 0.50, with 0.40 as the most common one or 0.28 if age and socio-economic status is controlled. (11) Ovaj proces nema samo za cilj nalaženje tačnog rešenja, nego verujemo da pomaže ispitanicima, posebno inteligentnijim, da otkriju zakonitosti u slici. (LSRCPM) This process is not only aimed at finding correct solution, but it is believed to be helping the subjects especially more intelligent ones to discover a regularity of a picture. For example, if you perceive that there are two clouds of dots, that is, two factors, which are in addition in keeping with theoretical expectations, your task is accomplished. Based on such a perception you will theorize, set further hypotheses, or make structural conclusions. If you perceive your variables as being grouped in two or more wholes, that is a valuable finding both heuristically and epistemologically. Motivation cont. (12) Non-transeference of full semantic content of inflectional forms of the ST (13) Inconsistent use of present simple and past simple tense (14) non-standard acknowledgement paragraph in TT (12) Pri tome, taj program kao tehniku inicijalnog faktorisanja koristi Minres metodu, čime smo uvećali šarolikost primenjenih faktorskoanalitičkih tehnika i, sledstveno tome, ograničili uticaj tehnike na rezultate. (LSRCPM) In doing so, the program uses Minres method as a method of initial factoring technique, which allowed increased variability of the applied factor-analysis techniques, hence a limited effect of the technique on results. In addition to this, this program uses Minres method as a technique of initial factoring, which helps us increase the variety of the factoranalytical techniques applied in order to be able to perceive the possible influence of the technique on the results. (13) Apstrakt: …Osnovni cilj ovog rada bio je da detaljnije analizira problem dimenzionalnosti ovog testa. …. Osnovni cilj ovog rada se odnosi na utvrđivanje da li eksperimentalni program fizičkog vežbanja utiče na manifestovanje simptoma eksternalizovanog i internalizovanog ponašanja…(PSSPPOC) Abstract: … The basic aim of this paper was to analyze in more details the problem of dimensionality of the test…. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the experimental programme of doing physical exercises influences the manifestation of the symptoms of both externalised and internalised behaviour… The main goal of the study was to determine the constructive validity of Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices by means of item factor analysis… The aim of this study was to identify effects of 2.5-year movement program on mental health of preschool children, i.e. the reduction of symptoms of externalizing and internalizing behavior. (14) 1 1 Acknowledgements This paper was done within the research projects »Anthropological status and physical activity of Vojvodina population«, co-financed by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, and »Integral development, aberrant behavior and physical activity of preschool children«, co-financed by the Ministry of Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia, which are accomplished by the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Novi Sad. The study was supported by grant No. 177-0000000-3410 from the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports. Rad je rađen u okviru naučnoistraživačkih projekata „Antropološki status i fizička aktivnost stanovništva Vojvodine“, koga sufinansira Pokrajinski sekretarijat za nauku i tehnološki razvoj, te „Integralni razvoj, fizička aktivnost i aberantno ponašanje predškolske dece“, koga sufinansira Ministarstvo nauke i zaštite životne sredine“, a realizuje ih Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja u Novom Sadu. (LSRCPM) The Paper was elaborated within research projects: “Anthropological Status and Physical Activity of the Population of Vojvodina“, co-financed by the Provincial Secretariat of Science and Technological Development, and “Integral Development, Physical Activity and Aberrant Behavior of Preschool Children“, co-financed by the Ministry of Science and Protection of Environment“ and implemented by the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Novi Sad Structure (macro-level (paragraphs or longer texts) & micro-level (two adjacent sentences) (15) Added interrogatiove sentence → subheading Serbian text Final English translation (15) Non-existent in Serbian. (LSRCPM) Non-existent in English What are the opinions on the unidimensionality of Raven’s tests? (16) 1.1. Opis testa Progresivne matrice u boji sastoje se od tri serije od po 12 ajtema: A, Ab i B. U okviru svake serije ajtemi su (otprilike) poređani po težini, a slično je i kod serija – serija B je najteža. U gornjem delu svakog zadatka prikazana je slika u kojoj, u donjem desnom uglu, nedostaje jedan deo, a ispod nje šest predloženih rešenja, od kojih samo jedno tačno odgovara nedostajućem delu slike. (LSRCPM) 1.1. Description of the test Colored progressive matrices consist of three series of 12 items each: A, Ab, and B. Within each series, items are (roughly) ordered according to difficulty, and the same holds true of the series – B series is the most difficult one. On the top of each assignments there is a colored picture whose bottom part on the right is missing, with six offered solutions given below of which only one fits the deficiency of the picture. Test (subheading) Colored Progressive Matrices consist of three sets of 12 items each: A, Ab and B. Within each set, items are (approximately) arranged according to difficulty, and it is similar with sets – set B is the most difficult. In the upper part of each task there is a picture in which, in the lower right corner, one part is missing, and below it there are six suggested solutions, out of which only one fits exactly the missing part of the picture... (17) Ovaj program smatramo odgovarajućim zbog toga što kao polaznu matricu može da uzme matricu tetrahloričnih koeficijenata korelacija, koja je pri tome tako “ispeglana“ da bi bila pozitivno definitna. (LSRCPM) We believe that this program is appropriate one due to the fact that it allows taking a matrix of tetrachloric coefficients of correlation for an initial matrix, which is so well “trimmed“ that it can be a positive definite one. This program is considered appropriate because it can take an initial matrix of tetrachloric coefficients , which is “smoothed“ in such a way to be positively definite. (16) Paragraph rephrased and moved from the beginning to the end of the section dealing with research method. (17) Rephrased sentence → better concision, transparency, and reliability of the given statement Initial English translation Simplicity (lexis & syntax) (18) Terminology: modified / retranslated (19) Mistranslation + Serbian-based morphosyntax changed to English-based (20) Modification of English terms & morhosyntax + replacement of general ST lexemes by better fitting ones in TT Serbian text Initial English translation Final English translation (18) Procena samovrednovanja Izabrani merni instrument za procenu samovrednovanja dece podržava multidimenzionalni pristup self-konceptu (Harter, 1985). (PSSPPOC) Estimation of self-perception The chosen measuring instrument for the estimation of children’s self-esteem supports a multidimensional approach to self-concept (Harter, 1985). Self-perception profile. The chosen measuring instrument supports a multidimensional approach to self-concept 39 (19) Uticaj specifičnih domena na opšte samovrednovanje dece sa i bez odstupanja u posturalnom statusu. (PSSPPOC) The differences in selfperception between children with and without deviations in postural status. The influence of domainspecific perceptions on Global Self-Worth of children with and without postural deviations (20) Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata (Tabela 1), konstatovano je da između dece sa i bez odstupanja u posturalnom statusu, razlike u domenima specifičnog i opšteg samovrednovanja nisu statistički značajne. (PSSPPOC) Taking the obtained results into account (Table 1), it has been concluded that the differences in the domains of specific and general self-esteem between the children with and without deviations in postural status, are not statistically significant. Bearing the obtained results in mind (Table 1), it has been concluded that the differences in the domain-specific and global self-worth between the children with and without postural deviations, are not statistically significant. Perceptibility (ease of perceiving text with our senses) (21) Table captions and column headings (22) Alphabetically ordered references reordered in the order they appear in text Serbian text Initial English translation Final English translation (21) Tabela 1. Osnovni pokazatelji ukupnog skora PMB po godinama i ukupno (Fajgelj i sar., 2007) – uzrast, AS, Std. greška, σ, N, procenat, pouzdanost α. (LSRCPM) Table 1. Basic indicators of CPM score per years and in total (Fajgelj et al., 2007) – age, M, SEM, SD, N, %, Reliability α. TABLE 1 BASIC INDICATORS OF TOTAL SCORE ON CPM ACCORDING TO AGE AND TOTAL (Fajgelj et al., 2007) – age, X, SEM, SD, σ, N, Percent, Reliability α. (22) Zarevski, P. (2000). Struktura i priroda inteligencije. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap. (LSRCPM) Zarevski, P. (2000). Struktura i priroda inteligencije [Structure and Nature of Intelligence]. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap. … — 41. ZAREVSKI P, Struktura i priroda inteligencije. (Structure and Nature of Intelligence) (Naklada Slap, Jastrebarsko, 2000)… Conclusions • Corpus analysis of 3 published M21-23 research papers on sport in terms of reader-friendly approach: text comprehensibility; results: • Substantial number of corrections of initial TT and modifications of ST; • Translation equivalence (initial translation) translation adequacy (final translation); • Non-literary translation IS creative to a certain extent; • Product-oriented translation (by a linguist) process-oriented teamwork (translator+author/s).