Cheltenham Mandarin School By YingShi Helsby Pinyin and Tone 中文 你好 Hello Chinese nǐ hǎo 你 好 (You good) Hello Chinese - 汉语/华语/中文 Standard Mandarin is a standardized form of spoken Han Chinese. In Chinese: 汉语 Hàn yǔ / 华语 Huá yǔ / 中文 Zhōng wén / 普通话 Pǔ tōng huà / Guó yǔ Official language of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore and United nation Spoken by approx 1.3 billion people. Pinyin - ‘spell of sound’ • Romanised Alphabet (25 letters of out of 26 are used, except letter ‘v’) and four accents over the letters indicate which of the 4 tones should be used. There are 6 basic vowels and 21 consonants in Chinese Pinyin. • A syllable always consists of a vowel or a consonant with a vowel. Vowels can stand by themselves when no initial consonant is present. Finals (韵母)- Vowels & Initials (声母) - Consonants The six initials (vowels) in Pinyin pronunciation: aoeiuü The following finals (consonants): b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l g, k, h, j, q, x, z, c, s zh, ch, sh and r http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Teomsfl-ylA 声调 shēng diào Tones mā má mǎ mà ma 妈 麻 马 骂 Mother Hemp horse scold Hanyu Pinyin Schema (published in 1958) • Character Set. – 25 characters, all from ‘a’ to ‘z’ except ‘ü’. – (For easy to input on computer: ü is replaced by v.) • Initial Set: – b, p m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, h, j, q, x, zh, ch, sh, r, z, c, s • Final Set: – i, u, ü, a , ia, ua, o, uo, e, ie, eü, ai, uai, ei, uei, – ao, iao, ou, iou, an, ian, uan, üan, en, in, uen, ün – ang, iang, uang, eng, ing, ueng, ong, iong, • Tone Annotation: – mā , má, mǎ, mà, ma • Separator: ' – pi’ao Pinyin VS. IPA Basic rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography (published in 1996) 1. Words are the basic units for spelling the Chinese Common Language. (Space is used to separate Word) – rén (person/people), péngyou (friend[s]), túshūguǎn (library/libraries) – wǒrén hé nóngmín (Workers and Farmers) 2. Structures of two or three syllables that indicate a complete concept are linked: – quánguó (the whole nation), duìbuqǐ (sorry), 3. Separate terms with more than 4 syllables if they can be separated into words, otherwise link all the syllables: – wúfèng gāngbǐ (seamless pen), Hóngshízìhuì (Red Cross) Basic rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography (published in 1996) 4. Reduplicated monosyllabic words are linked, but reduplicated disyllabic words are separated: – rénrén (everybody), chángshi chángshi (give it a try) 5. In certain situations, for the purpose of making it convenient to read and understand the words, a hyphen can be added: – huán-bǎo (environmental protection), shíqī-bā suì (17 or 18 years old) wǒ jiào 我 叫 Helsby lǎo shī 。 Helsby 老 师 。 (I’m called Helsby teacher .) My name is Mrs Helsby. wǒ jiào ________。 我 叫 _________。 (I’m called____________.) My name is ____________. Tones Difference Mandarin has four tones with each tone indicated by a diacritical mark above a non-medial vowel. Four tones: ā á ă à a 1. high 2. rising 3. falling rising 4. falling 5. a half tone mā má mă mà ma mother numb horse to scold or swear create a question Chinese words of foreign origin 芭蕾 拜拜 咖啡 酷 卡通 巧克力 高尔夫 bā lěi bài bài kā fēi kù kǎ tōng qiǎo kè lì gāo ěr fū ballet bye-bye coffe (café) cool cartoon chocolate golf Chinese words of foreign origin 吉他 汉堡包 马拉松 奥林匹克 披萨 三明治 jí tā guitar hàn bǎo bāo hamburger mǎ lā sōng marathon ào lín pǐ kè olympic pī sà pizza sān míng zhì sandwich Tone changed rules • When a third tone syllable is followed by another third tone syllable, the first syllable change to second tone e.g. hěn hǎo --> hén hǎo (very good) hǎo jiǔ -->háo jiǔ (good wine) Hui-Ju Chuang • When two forth tone syllables occur together, the first syllable will change to second tone • But only apply to two words yì (one) and bù (not) • e.g. yì dìng --->yí dìng (definitely) Hui-Ju Chuang bù duì--> bú duì (not Marry Christmas & Happy New Year! Shèng dàn kuài lè ! 圣 诞 快 乐! Xīn nián hǎo ! 新 年 好! Shēng rì kuài lè 生 日 快 乐!