- Cheltenham Mandarin

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Cheltenham Mandarin School
By YingShi Helsby
Pinyin and Tone
中文 你好
Hello Chinese
nǐ
hǎo
你 好
(You
good)
Hello
Chinese - 汉语/华语/中文
Standard Mandarin is a standardized form of
spoken Han Chinese.
In Chinese: 汉语 Hàn yǔ / 华语 Huá yǔ / 中文
Zhōng wén / 普通话 Pǔ tōng huà / Guó yǔ
Official language of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan,
Singapore and United nation
Spoken by approx 1.3 billion people.
Pinyin - ‘spell of sound’
• Romanised Alphabet (25 letters of out of
26 are used, except letter ‘v’) and four
accents over the letters indicate which of
the 4 tones should be used. There are 6
basic vowels and 21 consonants in
Chinese Pinyin.
• A syllable always consists of a vowel or a
consonant with a vowel. Vowels can stand
by themselves when no initial consonant is
present.
Finals (韵母)- Vowels &
Initials (声母) - Consonants
The six initials (vowels) in
Pinyin pronunciation:
aoeiuü
The following finals (consonants):
b, p, m, f, d, t, n, l
g, k, h, j, q, x, z, c, s
zh, ch, sh and r
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Teomsfl-ylA
声调 shēng diào Tones
mā
má
mǎ mà ma
妈
麻 马
骂
Mother Hemp horse scold
Hanyu Pinyin Schema (published in 1958)
• Character Set.
– 25 characters, all from ‘a’ to ‘z’ except ‘ü’.
– (For easy to input on computer: ü is replaced by v.)
• Initial Set:
– b, p m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, h, j, q, x, zh, ch, sh, r, z, c, s
• Final Set:
– i, u, ü, a , ia, ua, o, uo, e, ie, eü, ai, uai, ei, uei,
– ao, iao, ou, iou, an, ian, uan, üan, en, in, uen, ün
– ang, iang, uang, eng, ing, ueng, ong, iong,
• Tone Annotation:
– mā , má, mǎ, mà, ma
• Separator: '
– pi’ao
Pinyin VS. IPA
Basic rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography (published in 1996)
1. Words are the basic units for spelling the Chinese Common
Language. (Space is used to separate Word)
– rén (person/people), péngyou (friend[s]), túshūguǎn
(library/libraries)
– wǒrén hé nóngmín (Workers and Farmers)
2. Structures of two or three syllables that indicate a complete
concept are linked:
– quánguó (the whole nation), duìbuqǐ (sorry),
3. Separate terms with more than 4 syllables if they can be
separated into words, otherwise link all the syllables:
– wúfèng gāngbǐ (seamless pen), Hóngshízìhuì (Red
Cross)
Basic rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography (published in 1996)
4. Reduplicated monosyllabic words are linked, but
reduplicated disyllabic words are separated:
– rénrén (everybody), chángshi chángshi (give
it a try)
5. In certain situations, for the purpose of making it
convenient to read and understand the words, a
hyphen can be added:
– huán-bǎo (environmental protection), shíqī-bā
suì (17 or 18 years old)
wǒ jiào
我 叫
Helsby
lǎo shī 。
Helsby
老 师
。
(I’m called Helsby teacher .)
My name is Mrs Helsby.
wǒ jiào ________。
我 叫
_________。
(I’m called____________.)
My name is ____________.
Tones Difference
Mandarin has four tones with each tone indicated by a diacritical
mark above a non-medial vowel.
Four tones:
ā á ă à a
1. high
2. rising
3. falling rising
4. falling
5. a half tone
mā
má
mă
mà
ma
mother
numb
horse
to scold or swear
create a question
Chinese words of foreign origin
芭蕾
拜拜
咖啡
酷
卡通
巧克力
高尔夫
bā lěi
bài bài
kā fēi
kù
kǎ tōng
qiǎo kè lì
gāo ěr fū
ballet
bye-bye
coffe (café)
cool
cartoon
chocolate
golf
Chinese words of foreign origin
吉他
汉堡包
马拉松
奥林匹克
披萨
三明治
jí tā
guitar
hàn bǎo bāo hamburger
mǎ lā sōng marathon
ào lín pǐ kè olympic
pī sà
pizza
sān míng zhì sandwich
Tone changed rules
• When a third tone syllable is followed by
another third tone syllable, the first syllable
change to second tone
e.g. hěn hǎo --> hén hǎo (very good)
hǎo jiǔ -->háo jiǔ (good wine)
Hui-Ju Chuang
• When two forth tone syllables occur
together, the first syllable will
change to second tone
• But only apply to two words yì
(one) and bù (not)
• e.g. yì dìng --->yí dìng
(definitely)
Hui-Ju Chuang
bù duì-->
bú duì (not
Marry Christmas &
Happy New Year!
Shèng dàn kuài lè !
圣 诞 快 乐!
Xīn nián hǎo !
新 年 好!
Shēng rì kuài lè
生 日 快 乐!
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