Comparing Nonverbal and Verbal Codes

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Comparing Nonverbal and
Verbal Codes
A woman without her man is
helpless.
A woman, without her, man is
helpless.
Channel Reliance Research
• Research paradigms
a. Experimental
b. Natural observations
c. Meta-analysis
Channel Reliance Research
• Propositions
– Adults rely more on NV than V; children rely more
on V.
– Reliance on NV is greater when the V & NV conflict.
– Reliance depends on function at stake.
– Information averaging when channels are congruent.
– Variability in info processing and reliance on extreme
or negative cues when content is incongruent.
– Individuals biases in channel dependence.
Channel Reliance Research
• Reasons for differential and variable reliance?
Coding Properties:
Analogic versus Digital
• Digital systems
– discrete
– arbitrary
– finite
• Analogic systems
– continuous
– natural
– infinite
Need to distinguish code properties from
interpretive processes
Coding Properties:
Buck’s Approach
• Spontaneous communication • Symbolic communication
– biologically-based
– socially shared
– spontaneous
– intentional
– signs
– symbols
– nonpropositional
– propositional
– right-hemispheric
– left-hemispheric
processing
processing
Coding Properties:
Design Features of Codes
Discrete v. continuous
Symbolic (extrinsic) v.
sign (intrinsic)
Iconicity
Syntax rules
Transformation
Semantic rules
Pragmatic rules
Productivity
Polysemy
Universal v. culture- and
context-bound meaning
Displacement
Reflexivity
Prevarication
Coherence mechanisms
Direct v. mediated
response
Applicability to Verbal versus
Nonverbal Coding
Discrete v. continuous
Symbolic v. sign
Iconicity
Syntax rules
Transformation
Semantic rules
Pragmatic rules
Productivity
Polysemy
Universal v. culture- and
context-bound meaning
Displacement
Reflexivity
Prevarication
Coherence mechanisms
Direct v. mediated
response
Origins of Verbal and Nonverbal
Behavior
• Alternative possibilities
– Exclusively nurture (totally learned)
– Physiological/anatomical predispositions but learned
performance
– Universal needs but variability in environmental
influences on enactment
– Exclusively nature (innate and part of biological
heritage)
Origins of Verbal and Nonverbal
Behavior
• Types of evidence
– Comparative studies (primates, other vertebrates)
e.g., laughing, smiling, threat stare, grooming, fright
vocalizations, spacing patterns
– Child development research
stages of normal development common to all
reflexive behaviors present in all infants (crying, toe curling,
grasping)
observations of blind, deaf, and limbless children
Origins of Verbal and Nonverbal
Behavior
• Types of evidence
– Comparative studies (primates, other vertebrates)
– Child development research
– Cross-cultural studies
Origins of Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior
• Conclusions about nonverbal/verbal differences
– verbal
– nonverbal
Neurophysiological Processing
• Early/traditional views of hemispheric processing
–
–
–
–
bicameral brain function--horizontal perspective
high lateralization--strong differentiation of functions
analytic/holistic dichotomy
NV defined according to where it is processed
Neurophysiological Processing
• Contemporary views
– triune brain function--vertical perspective
• R-complex (brainstem, cerebellum)
• paleomammalian brain (limbic system-thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary,
amygdala, hippocampus, olfactory cortex
surrounding the R-complex)
• neomammalian brain (cerebral cortex)
Neurophysiological Processing
• Contemporary views
– interdependence & coordination of functions
• coordinated via corpus collosum
• relative, not absolute, dominance
• right hemisphere is essential for many linguistic
activities
• people with left hemisphere damage able to decode
with right hemisphere
Neurophysiological Processing
• Contemporary views
–
–
–
–
lability in handling other hemisphere’s functions
cultural and style differences
two hemispheres communicate with each other
dominance depends on nature of signal
• Perception by right hemisphere
melodies, music
tonal patterns
pitch, rate, volume
laughing, crying
coughing
emotional stimuli
distinguishing fingers
recognition of faces
familiar environmental noises
location of geometric forms
depth perception
recognition of space & form
topographic memory
spatial disorientation
body type distortions
letters matched to words
imagery recall strategies
• Perception by left hemisphere
vowels
spoken digits
rhythmic patterns
semantic units (words)
nonsense words
function words
letters
verbal tasks
visual verbal material
free movement during
speech
skilled movements
pictures matched to letters
subvocal rehearsal recall
strategies
music perceived as notes
• Encoding by right hemisphere
automatic speech
serial speech (alphabet)
social gestural speech
strong emotional utterances
artistic ability
model building
• Encoding by left hemisphere
free movement during speech
Relationship of Gestures to Language
• Semiotic Functions
– Ekman & Friesen approach
– Scherer linguistic approach
•
•
•
•
semantic
syntactic
pragmatic
dialogic
– McNeill information-processing approach
Relationship of Gestures to Language
• development of interactional nonverbal cues
(e.g., gestures) coincides with the development
of language
• baseball theory--stone throwing/gestures and
language development
Message Production
• gestures that relate to speech
– ones referring to the ideational process
– gestures referring to the object: depictive gestures
– gestures referring to the object: evocative kinds
Message Production
• Gestures and speech flow
–
–
–
–
hierarchical nature of language
phonemic clauses and chunking of speech
gestures preceding speech, priming the pump
illustrator gestures that trace thought
Message Production
• Nonverbal cues and cognitive effort
– indicators of cognitive difficulty and effort
– indicators of level of abstraction
Message Processing and Decoding
• Definition
– How humans acquire, store, retrieve, and use
information; how information is gleaned from
messages and interpreted
Message Processing and Decoding
• Related to:
–
–
–
–
attention and priming
comprehension and memory storage
recall
inference-making
Message Processing and Decoding
• Nonverbal cues of attention, priming and
distraction
–
–
–
–
–
vocal cues
immediacy cues
facial and gestural cues
physical appearance
environmental influences
Message Processing and Decoding
• Nonverbal cues related to comprehension,
storage and recall
–
–
–
–
–
–
paralinguistic and parakinesic cues
speech primacy gestures (illustrators)
motor primacy gestures (emblems)
incongruent messages
speaker self-synchrony
interactional synchrony
Message Processing and Decoding
• Cues in inference-making
– nonverbal impressions
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