Ormulum

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ISTORY OF ENGLISH
LECTURE 6
Middle English:
language (II)
Lei ZHU
Shanghai International Studies University
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Evidence
1. Spelling
2. Poetry meter
e.g. a. Scots dialect: a/e/o+i/y=ā/ē/ō
haiff ‘half’
neid ‘need’
noyne ‘noon’
b. Ormulum (late 12th century)
c. The Pentacost Play (c. 1470)
Ormulum
Ormulum
Ormulum
Ormulum
Ormulum
The Pentacost Play
x
/ x /
x /
x
/
4 Orthography and sound changes
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Vowels in unstressed syllables
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Vowels in stressed syllables
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Vowels in stressed syllables
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Vowels in stressed syllables
French influence
Latin influence
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Vowels in stressed syllables
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Consonants
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Consonants
French influence
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Consonants
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Consonants
French influence
4 Orthography and sound changes
• Summary of French and Latin influences
1. OE ċ > ME ch
leofliċe
>
leofliche
2. OE c > ME c/k/ck
boc
>
bock
macode
>
makede
3. OF c/s [s] > ME c/s [s]
cité
>
cité/sité
4. OE cw > ME qu
cwene
>
quene
cwic
>
quic
5. OE ū > ME ou/ow
cūþe
>
couþe
nū
>
now
6. OE u > ME o
sunu
>
sone
“lovingly”
“book”
“made”
“city”
“queen”
“quick”
“knew”
“now”
“son”
5 Grammar
• Declension
5 Grammar
• Conjugation
OE Strong verbs: 1/3 were lost in time; 40 became weak verbs.
5 Grammar
• 3rd person pronouns
5 Grammar
• Double/multiple negation
His moder
nes
naʒt þer
his mother ne-was not there
(Michael of Northgate: Ayenbite of Inwyt)
That noon of us ne speke noght a word
that none of us ne speak not a word
(Geoffrey Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales)
ne:
not:
dropped in time
standard particle of negation
5 Grammar
• Periphrasitic expressions
have + done
he hath a thousand slayn
he has a thousand slain
be + on/in + doing
he was on hunting
this church was in building
6 Vocabulary
• Germanic
1. Native English words
2. Scandinavian/Old Norse loan words
OE fisċ > ME fisch “fish”
ON fiskr > ME fisk “fish”
(See list of ON loan words)
6 Vocabulary
• French
1. Old Northern French (ONF) loan words
(11th & 12th centuries)
2. Parisian (and other) French loan words
(13th century –)
(See list of French loan words)
6 Vocabulary
• French
6 Vocabulary
• French
Stress pattern
left-handed vs. right-handed
Germanic
Romance
dominant (14th cen.)
/ x
x /
In divers art and in diverse figures.
(Chaucer: CT 2: 1460)
6 Vocabulary
• French
faux amis “false friends”
Actuellement "at the present time“
Assister à “attend”
Attendre à “wait for”
Avertissement “warning”
Blesser “wound, injure, or offend”
Bras “arm”
Caractère “nature/temperament”
(but never “a person in a play”)
Cent “hundred”
Chair “flesh”
Chance “luck”
Christian “a masculine French name”
Coin “corner”
Collège “high school”
Actually
Assist
Attend
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Bless
Bras
Character
Cent
Chair
Chance
Christian
Coin
College
6 Vocabulary
• French
words and expressions of mixed origins
French
Germanic
hybrid
gentle
false
gentle
gentle
doubt
-ry
-ess
-able
man
-hood
-ness
-ly
un-; -ed; -ly
husband
god
eat
gentleman (1275)
falsehood (1290)
gentleness (1300)
gently (1330)
undoubtedly (1500)
husbandry (1290)
goddess (1340)
eatable (1483)
6 Vocabulary
• French
words and expressions of mixed origins
French
Germanic hybrid
pray
permission
source
hazard
court
beseech
leave
head
hap
yard
pray and beseech
by leave and by permission
head and source
haphazard (1575)
courtyard (1552)
7 Describing dialect differences
• Scandinavian influence
geographical variation
• French influence
variation through time
8 Reading practice (IV)
• South Eastern dialect / Kentish dialect
Ayenbit of Inwyt (1340) by Michael of Northgate
• Northern dialect
The Bruce (ca.1375) by John Barbour
• West Midland dialect
Sir Gawayn and þe Grene Knyʒt
(late 14th century)
• East Midland dialect
The Canterbury Tales
(late 14th century)
by Geoffrey Chaucer
South Eastern dialect
Efterward saint gregori telþ þet saint boniface
uram þet he wes child / he wes zuo piteuous: þet
he yaf ofte his kertel and his sserte to þe poure uor
god. þaʒ his moder him byete ofte þeruore. Þanne
be-vil þet / þet child yzeʒ manie poure þet hedden
mezeyse. he aspide þet his moder nes naʒt þer.
an haste he yarn to þe gerniere / and al þet his
moder hedde y-gadered uor to pasi þet yer: he hit
yaf þe poure. and þo his moder com and wyste þe
ilke dede: hy wes al out of hare wytte. Þet child
bed oure lhorde: and þet gernier wes an haste
aluol.
Michael of Northgate: Ayenbite of Inwyt (1340)
South Eastern dialect
Efterward saint gregori telþ þet saint boniface uram þet he wes child / he
wes zuo piteuous: þet he yaf ofte his kertel and his sserte to þe poure uor god,
þaʒ his moder him byete ofte þeruore. Þanne be-vil þet / þet child yzeʒ
manie poure þet hedden mezeyse. he aspide þet his moder nes naʒt þer.
an haste he yarn to þe gerniere / and al þet his moder hedde y-gadered uor
to pasi þet yer: he hit yaf þe poure. and þo his moder com and wyste þe
ilke dede: hy wes al out of hare wytte. Þet child bed oure lhorde: and þet
gernier wes an haste aluol.
Northern dialect
A! Fredome is a noble thing!
Fredome mays man to haiff liking;
Fredome all solace to man giffis,
He levys at ese that frely levys!
A noble hart may haiff nane ese,
Na ellys nocht that may him plese,
Gyff fredome fail; for fre liking
Is yarnyt our all othir thing.
Na he that ay has levyt fre
May nocht knaw weill the propyrtè,
The angyr, na the wretchyt dome
That is couplyt to foule thyrldome.
Bot gyff he had assayit it,
Than all perquer he suld it wyt;
And suld think fredome mar to prise
Than all the gold in warld that is.
Thus contrar thingis evirmar
Discoweryngis off the tothir ar.
from The Bruce by John Barbour
(ca. 1375)
Northern dialect
A! Fredome is a noble thing!
Fredome mays man to haiff liking;
Fredome all solace to man giffis,
He levys at ese that frely levys!
A noble hart may haiff nane ese,
Na ellys nocht that may him plese,
Gyff fredome fail; for fre liking
Is yarnyt our all othir thing.
Na he that ay has levyt fre
May nocht knaw weill the propyrtè,
The angyr, na the wretchyt dome
That is couplyt to foule thyrldome.
Bot gyff he had assayit it,
Than all perquer he suld it wyt;
And suld think fredome mar to prise
Than all the gold in warld that is.
Thus contrar thingis evirmar
Discoweryngis off the tothir ar.
from The Bruce by John Barbour
(ca. 1375)
West Midland dialect
Sir Gawayn and þe Grene Knyʒt (late 14th century)
West Midland dialect
The grene knyʒt vpon grounde grayþely hym dresses,
A littel lut with þe hede, þe lere he discouereʒ,
His longe louelych lokkeʒ he layd ouer his croun,
Let þe naked nec to þe note schewe.
Gauan gripped to his ax, and gederes hit on hyʒt,
Þe kay fot on þe folde he before sette,
Let him doun lyʒtly lyʒt on þe naked,
Þat þe scharp of þe schalk schyndered þe bones,
& schrank þurʒ þe schyire grece, and scade hit in twynne,
Þat þe bit of þe broun stel bot on þe grounde.
Sir Gawayn and þe Grene Knyʒt (late 14th century)
West Midland dialect
The grene knyʒt vpon grounde grayþely hym dresses,
A littel lut with þe hede, þe lere he discouereʒ,
His longe louelych lokkeʒ he layd ouer his croun,
Let þe naked nec to þe note schewe.
Gauan gripped to his ax, and gederes hit on hyʒt,
Þe kay fot on þe folde he before sette,
Let him doun lyʒtly lyʒt on þe naked,
Þat þe scharp of þe schalk schyndered þe bones,
& schrank þurʒ þe schyire grece, and scade hit in twynne,
Þat þe bit of þe broun stel bot on þe grounde.
Sir Gawayn and þe Grene Knyʒt (late 14th century)
West Midland dialect
In a somur sesoun whan softe was the sonne
Y shope me into shroudes as y a shep were;
In abite as an heremite, vnholy of werkes,
Wente forth in the world wondres to here,
And say many sellies and selkouthe thynges.
Ac on a May morning on Maluerne hulles
Me biful for to slepe, for werynesse of-walked
And in a launde as y lay, lened y and slepte
And merueylousliche me mette, as y may telle.
Piers Plowman (14th century)
East Midland dialect
The Canterbury Tales (late 14th century) by Geoffrey Chaucer
East Midland dialect
The Canterbury Tales (late 14th century) by Geoffrey Chaucer
East Midland dialect
This worthy lymytour / this noble Frere
He made alwey / a manere louryng cheere
Vp on the Somonour / but for honestee
No vileyns word / as yet to hym spak he
But atte laste / he seyde vn to the wyf
Dame quod he / God yeue yow right good lyf
Ye han heer touched / also moot I thee
In scole matere / greet difficultee
Ye han seyd muche thyng / right wel I seye
But dame here as we ryden by the weye
Vs nedeth nat / to speken / but of game
And lete auctoritees / on goddes name
To prechyng / and to scoles of clergye
But if it like / to this compaignye
I wol yow / of a somonour telle a game
The Canterbury Tales (late 14th century) by Geoffrey Chaucer
East Midland dialect
Chaucer’s portrayal of the Northern dialect
The Canterbury Tales (late 14th century) by Geoffrey Chaucer
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