Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact 500-1500 AD

Byzantines, Russians, and Turks Interact
500-1500 AD
Chapter 11
 Justinian Code: The Body of Roman Law, collected and
organized by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian
 Hagia Sophia: The Cathedral of (Holy Wisdom in
Constantinople) built by Justinian
 Patriarch: Principal Bishop in the Eastern Branch of the
Christianity (Eastern Orthodox)
 Icon: A religious image used by Eastern Orthodox
 Excommunication: The taking away of a person’s right
of membership in a Christian Church
 Cyrillic Alphabet: The alphabet for “Slavic” languages
 Slavs: People from the forests North of the Black Sea
(Now Eastern European)
 Ivan III: Russian who established the Russian control
from the Mongols
 Czar: Russian emperor (Roman title for Caesar)
 Seljuks: Turkish group who started their own empire
in Turkey in the 11th century
 Malik Shah: Most famous Seljuk sultans/prime
Byzantium Becomes the New
New Rome in a New Setting
 Justinian: A New Line of Caesars
 Rome was officially divided in two in 395
 Justinian became Caesar of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527
 The Absolute Power of the Emperors
 The Byzantine Emperors controlled politics and religion
Building the New Rome
Justinian’s Code
 The Code consisted of four works aimed at created a
uniform set of laws for Byzantium
 a. The Code -
Contained 5,000 Roman Laws
 b. The Digest – Summarized the opinions of Rome’s legal
 c. The Institutes – A Textbook that taught students about the
 d. The Novellae – Any new laws created after 534
 Strange Laws
Building A New Rome
Creating the Imperial Capital
 Justinian rebuilt massive fortifications around Constantinople
 Construction of hospitals, aqueducts, and schools rivaled old
 Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom)/Hippodrome
 Reconquered most of the OLD ROMAN EMPIRE!!!!!
Constantinople’s Hectic Pace
 The City’s main streets were crowded with merchants from
Asia, Africa, and Europe
 Free entertainment provided at the Hippodrome (horse-track)
which sat 60,000 people
Life In The New Rome
Byzantium Preserves Learning
 Schools and Subjects
 Almost all children attended either monastic or public schools
 Byzantium helped to preserve ancient Greek and Roman
knowledge through the Middle Ages
The Empire Confronts Its Enemies
The Mysterious Plague of Justinian
 From 542-700 a series of plagues swept through Byzantium
 By 700, Byzantium had lost a large amount of its population
Attacks On The Empire
Attacks From East and West
 Germanic tribes, Seljuk Turks, and Russians launched
invasions of Byzantine territory between 600-1400
 Constantly attacked due to resources/trade routes
 By 1350, only immediate area around Constantinople
was controlled by Byzantium
The Division of Christianity
The Church Divides
 A Split Between Rome and Constantinople
 The head of the Eastern Church was known as the Patriarch
 In 1054, the Patriarch and the Pope had a disagreement over
religious doctrine
 Each excommunicated the other, or kicked them out of the
 The Great Schism, it forever split Roman Catholicism
with Eastern Orthodox
Division of Christianity
Roman Catholic
Eastern Orthodox
 Old
 New
 Pope
 Patriarch
 Rome
 Constantinople
Roman Catholic
Eastern Orthodox
They base their faith on
the gospel of Jesus and the
Greek or local
The Pope has authority
over all other Bishops
They use sacraments
such as a baptism
The Patriarch and other
bishops head the Church as
a group
The Pope claims
authority over all kings
and emperors
Their religious leaders are
Priests and Bishops
The emperor claims
authority over the
Patriarch and other
Bishops the empire
Priests may not marry
Divorce is not allowed
Priests may be married
They seek to convert
Divorce is allowed
under certain conditions
Roman Catholic
Eastern Orthodox
Greek or local
They base their faith on
the gospel of Jesus and
the Bible
The Pope has authority over all
other Bishops
The Patriarch and
other bishops head the
Church as a group
They use sacraments
such as a baptism
The emperor claims
authority over the
Patriarch and other
Bishops the empire
Their religious leaders
are Priests and Bishops
Authority: The Pope claims authority over all
kings and emperors
Priests may not marry
Priests may be married
Divorce is not allowed
Divorce is allowed
under certain conditions
They seek to convert
Religious Conversations
Byzantine Missionaries
Convert the Slavs
 Missionaries from the
Orthodox Church began
to convert Slavs in the
9th Century
 Cyrillic Alphabet
 Basis for Slav/Russian Lang.
Cyrillic Language
Chapter 11:2
The Russian Empire
Russians Adapt Byzantine Culture
Both Slavic and Greek
 The Land of Russia’s Birth
 Three great rivers (Dnieper, Don, and Volga) connect Russia to
the Black and Caspian Seas
 Ural Mountains
 Slavs and Vikings
 The original inhabitants of Eastern Europe were a mix between
Slavs and Vikings
 Vikings called Rus (Russia)
 Slaves invited Viking King (Rurik) to be their king
The Birth of Russia
Kiev Becomes Orthodox
 Kiev become powerful trade city (Constantinople)
 Prince Vladimir Investigates Monotheism
 Prince Vladimir converted to Orthodox Christianity in
989, and made it the official religion of Kiev
 Created link between Kiev and Byzantine Empire
Kiev’s Power and Decline
 Kiev due to trade with
Constantinople (Educated,
 Kiev held great power in
11th century, led by great
Kievan ruler:
 Yaroslav the Wise
 Married off daughters for
political power/alliances
 After his death, civil war
and crusades disrupted
Mongolian Invasion
Mongol Invasions Favor the Rise of Moscow
Mongol Rule in Russia
 In 1240, Mongol warriors destroyed Kiev, slaughtering most
 Khanate Golden Horde (Kingdom, Royal Color Camp)
 Mongols allowed Russians to keep their customs in return for
obedience and monetary tribute
 Mongol rule cut off the Russians from Western Europe, setting
them back 200 years in technology
Life Under The Mongols
1. Allowed to continue culture/religion (tax)
1. Mongol Demands: “Absolute Obedience/Massive Tributes”
2. Religious toleration
3. Separated from Western Europe/Isolated (No new
Technology/Cultural Diffusion)
4. Moscow became center of Russian government under
5. Patriarch of Eastern Church moved to Moscow, linking
religion with government
Russia Breaks Free
 By 1156 Moscow grew to
be an important city
(Volga, Dnieper, Don
 Prince Ivan I grew in power
b/c tax collector
 Convinced the Patriarch in
Kiev to move to Moscow
 Church now supported
 Ivan III: 43 year reign
 Challenged Mongol Rule,
named himself “Czar”
 Marched to battle but
both sides turned around
(Bloodless Revolution)
Chapter 11:3
Turkish Empires Rise In Anatolia
Rise of the Turks
 Nomadic Herders
 Known for their military skill/craftsmanship
 Abbasids bought Turkish child-slaves to train as soldiers
 Seljuk Turks (family/clan) grew in power
 Captured the Abbasid capital (Baghdad) in 1055 AD
 Captured Persia
 Adopted Religion, language, literature
 Shah (king)
 Eventually pushed their forces into Anatolia
 Pressured the Byzantine Empire
Challenges Facing the Seljuk
The Seljuk and the Crusaders
 Pope II launched the First
Crusade in 1095
 Christians to drive the
Turks/Muslims out of
Anatolia/Holy Land
 1099 the Crusaders captured
Jerusalem (Massacred
 Saladin lead Muslims
recaptured Jerusalem 1187
The Seljuk Face the Mongols
 Mongol Armies eventually
turned to the West
 Destroyed/Conquered/slaught
ered everything in the way
 Captured Baghdad
 Wrapped the Caliph in
blankets (Horses)
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