German U

advertisement
Section 2
World War I: A New Kind of
War
By: Dwight Clouse,
Stephanie Musselman,
Dustin College, Lynae
Fisher
WW1 Preview
Words to know
• Propaganda - Idea's,facts or rumors spread deliberatley
to further ones cause or damge an opposing cause.
• War of Attrition - Where each side tries to outlast the
oppponent.
• U-Boats - german engineeringcame up with the U-Boats
whichs means "Underwater Boats" also equipped with
torpedos for self defence.
More words to know
• Contraband - war materials supplied by a neutral nation to
a belligerant one.
• Astrocities - brutal acts of crimes, often commited against
civilians
The Belligerents:
• Central Powers
o
o
Germany, Austria – Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman.
Since their territory extend from the North Sea to the Middle East
communication was rather easy and they could move troops very
rapidly.
• Allied Powers
o
o
o
o
Great Britain, France, Russia.
They also had some advantages because of more soldiers and
greater industrial capacity.
Also had the Britain’s Navy the largest in the world.
Eventually 32 countries made up the Allied Powers.
Innovations In Warfare:
• WW1 was an industrialized war.
o Mass-produced weapons
o German U-boats (Unterseebooten- underwater
boats)
o Poison gas
o New guns : machine guns and long range artillery
o Airplanes
o British tanks
o Soldiers
o Total War
o Propaganda
German UBoats:
Machine Gun
From WW1:
WW1 Airplanes: British WW1 Tanks:
Red Baron:
Propaganda:
Early Years of the War:
• Germany attacks France- September 1914.
• Russia attacks German forces- major losses occur.
• Fighting in Gallipoli
o Russia needed guns and ammo. Great Britian and
France sent battleships to bombard the Ottoman
artillery on the Gallipoli Penninsula. EPIC FAIL, went
on shore for 8 months, both sides lost many. Allies
withdrew.
• Naval Warfare
o British set up a blockade to keep supplies from getting
to Germany. Germany set up a blockade of U-boats to
sink ships taking supplies to the British. May 1915,
German U-boats sank the Lusitania.
o Battle of Jutland in the NorthSea off the Denmark
coast.
Early Years of the War Continued:
• Naval Warfare
o British set up a blockade to keep supplies from getting
to Germany. germany set up a blockade of U-boats to
sink ships taking supplies to the British. May 1915,
German U-boats sank the Lusitania.
o Battle of Jutland in the NorthSea off the Denmark
coast.
• The Stalemate
o By late 1915 both sides had come to a stalemate. The
war had turned into a "war of attrition."
The Lusitania
• Ocean liner owned by the Cunard Line
o built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank,
Scotland
• torpedoed by a German U-boat on 7 May 1915
o sank in 18 minutes, eight miles off the Old Head of
Kinsale, Ireland, killing 1,198 of the 1,959 people
aboard (128 Americans)
• Turned public opinion in many countries against
Germany, and provoked the United States into
joining World War I.
• Considered the second most famous civilian passenger
liner disaster, after the sinking of the RMS Titanic
The Lusitania
The United States and World War I:
• President Wilson stated in 1914 that the United States
should remain neutral.
• We supplied food, raw material, and amunition to both
sides.
• However, America started mainly trading with the allies.
• Germany wanted alliance with Mexico
• Promised to help retaking Arizona, New Mexico, and
Texas.
• British intercepted and decoded the telegram.
United States Enters the War
•
•
•
•
Russia overthrew the autocratic government.
Major Allied countries moved towards democracy.
None of the central powers moved towards democracy.
1917 congress declared war on Germany
Women were often a
positive influence for the
soldiers.
Women During WWI
Women served as messengers
to get messages from one
While the men were gone, camp to another.
women worked in block mills
Many women nurses were
and on the family farms.
needed during the war because
About 80,000 women joined of a large number of soldiers
being wounded or obtaining
the Britsish army as
diseases.
noncombatants.
Odd Fact: Women started
wearing pants during WW1.
Advantages/Disadvantages
Allied Powers
• Americans - industrial and
production power
• Britain - most powerful
navy, one of the major
world powers
• "Ultra Secret"
• High resource supply
• A better balance of
technological expertise
Central Powers
• Italy - (first country to use
aircraft in military
missions) had a more
superior airforce
• Germany - larger armed
forces using modern
weapons and modern
tactics
• More enthusiastic
New Technologies of WW1
• military aviation - the single greatest change to come out
of WWI
• the tank - deciding factor in the end of trench warfare
o tanks were able to cross trenches easily
• The field phone and wireless were both used in WWI
o limited effectiveness
• The submarine - used to some extent by German
o technology was still very primative
• internal combustion gasoline engine was used
• Chemical weapons were used on a wide scale for the first
time
o with mixed effectiveness
Better Illustrations
The Harley Arrives
"Harleys have been a
part of the mobile
American landscape
almost since the first
day someone decided
to try strapping an
internal combustion
engine to a bicycle. By
the advent of WWI,
Harley Davidson was a
well known name
among several US
motorcycle
manufacturers."
The "Ultra Secret"
In 1938 a German defected from Nazi Germany with the
"Enigma machine" blue prints to Britain.
• deciphering machine for Nazi Germany who later sold
these to their allies, the Japanese
We could decipher their messages and translate them to
English usually before their own people could.
Why Join The War?
The Zimmerman Note
Telegram between Germany and Mexico
The Lusitania
Sunk by German submarine
The U-Boat
• U-boat (undersea boat) refers to military submarines
operated by Germany
• particularly in World War I and World War II
• most effectively used in an economic-warfare role
(Commerce raiding), enforcing a naval blockade against
enemy shipping
• the primary targets of the U-boat campaigns in both wars
were the merchant convoys bringing supplies from the
British Empire and the United States to the islands of
Great Britain.
• Austrian submarines of World War I were also known as
U-boats
The Zimmerman Note
• Supposedly intercepted by the British that came from
Germany to be sent to Mexico
• Mexico "could reclaim Texas if Mexico helped the Axis to
defeat the US."
o Later, the note was argued to be phony when (after the
war) British authorities failed to produce the actual
telegraph but it did inflame anti German feelings in the
USA and helped the president decide to declare war.
Rare WW1 Footage
Review Question #1
What Avantages did each side have during
WW1?
Review Question #2
How did each new technology affect the
way in which WW1 was fought?
Review Question #3
What led the United States to join the
Allied Powers?
The End
Thanks For Watching!
Download
Related flashcards

World War I tanks

24 cards

World War I

26 cards

Create Flashcards