Processes, Threads, Processors

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Process/Thread/Virtual Machine
ECE7610/7650
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Outline
• Process and Thread
– Abstraction of execution entity
• Software vs HW Implementation
– User-level and Kernel-level
– Hyper-threading and multi-core
• Virtual Machines
– Another layer of abstraction of exec entity
• Scheduling Policies/Disciplines
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Process Model
• Process: a program in
execution
– IE to web browsing, outlook to
read email, word to write
reports
• Process is a full blown
virtual machine, defining its
own address space and
maintains running state
– Address space: the set of
memory locations that can be
generated and accessed
directly by a program;
enforced by hw for protection
– I/O part of the machine is
accessed through OS calls.
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Under the Hood
• Process Control Block (PCB): a key
data structure that maintains info
associated with each process:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Process state
Program counter
CPU registers
CPU scheduling information
Memory-management info
Accounting information
I/O status information
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Process State
• As a process executes, it changes state
–
–
–
–
–
new: The process is being created.
running: Instructions are being executed.
waiting: The process is waiting for some event to occur.
ready: The process is waiting to be assigned to a process.
terminated: The process has finished execution.
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Context Switch
• When CPU switches to
another process, the
system must save the
state of the old process
and load the saved state
for the new process.
• Context-switch time is
overhead; the system
does no useful work
while switching.
• Time dependent on
hardware support.
PCB
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Process Schedulers
• Long-term scheduler (or job scheduler) – selects which processes
should be brought into the ready queue.
– Invoke infrequently (seconds, minutes)
– Control the degree of concurrency
• Short-term scheduler (or CPU scheduler) – selects which process
should be executed next and allocates CPU.
– Invoke frequently (millisecond) enough to provide a perception of
concurrent execution on single core system; must be fast
– Optimize throughput, average response time, slowdown, revenue, etc
– Slowdown is a normalized queuing delay w.r.t. exec time
– On multiprocessor or multi-core system, real concurrent execution
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Interprocess Comm (IPC)
• Processes are usually communicate by sending msgs back
and forth via the OS
• Processes can share a segment of physical memory by
mapping it to their address spaces
– data in the segment can be accessed by processes for faster IPC
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Thread and Multithreaded Proc
• A thread of control is a seq of instructions being executed within
a process context. Each has its own logical control flow (pc)
• A multithreaded process has two or more threads within the same
context. They share code, data in heap, and kernel context(open
files, timers, etc)
• Each thread has its own id.
Thread 1 (main thread)
Shared code and data
Thread 2 (peer thread)
shared libraries
stack 1
stack 2
run-time heap
read/write data
read-only code/data
Thread 1 context:
Data registers
Condition codes
SP1
PC1
0
Kernel context:
VM structures
Open files
Signal handlers
brk pointer
Thread 2 context:
Data registers
Condition codes
SP2
PC2
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Logical View of Threads
• Threads associated with a process form a pool of peers.
– unlike processes which form a tree hierarchy
Threads associated with process foo
Process hierarchy
P0
T2
T4
T1
P1
shared code, data
and kernel context
sh
T5
sh
sh
T3
foo
bar
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Process vs Threads
• Processes are typically independent, while threads
exist as subsets of a process
• Processes carry considerable state info, whereas
multiple threads within a process share state as well
as memory and other resources
• Processes have separate address space, whereas
threads share their address space
• Processes interact through system-provided IPC
• Context switching between threads is an order of
magnitude faster than context switching between
processes
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Why Multithreading
• Improve program structure
– e.g. producer-consumer problem
• Efficiency
–
–
–
–
Creating a process calls into OS, which duplicates entire address space
Synchronizing processes need to trap into the OS, too.
Threads could be created in user-space
Threads could be synchronized by monitoring shared variables
• Match multi-core and multiprocessor arch
• Improve application responsiveness
– overlapping I/O
• e.g. Multithreaded clients, fast file read/write
– asynchronous event handling
• e.g. network-centric server , GUI
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Outline
• Process and Thread
– Abstraction of execution entity
• Software vs HW Implementation
– User-level and Kernel-level
– Hyper-threading and multi-core
• Virtual Machines
– Another layer of abstraction of exec entity
• Scheduling Policies/Disciplines
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Design Issues for Multithreading
• Thread management:
– thread creation and termination
• Thread synchronization:
– mutex, condition variable
– semaphore, reader/writer
– monitor
• Thread scheduling
– in a way similar to process scheduling
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Implementation
• User space implementation (green threads)
– Transparent to OS kernel
– Runtime system manages threads in userspace
– E.g. Java Runtime Enviroment
• Kernel space implementation
– Thread becomes a basic unit of OS’s resource management
– e.g. Window, Solaris, Linux
• Hardware implementation: Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT)
– Duplicate certain CPU sections (arch. states) to make a
processor appear as multiple “logical” processors
– E.g. Intel’s Hyper-Threading Technology (HTT)
© C. Xu 1998-2010
User Space Implementation
• Runtime system is a collection of procedures
that manage threads
– create/terminate threads, synchronization,
schedule
– RTS maintains a table per process with each
entry per thread
• thread’s registers, state, priority, etc.
– Switch threads when a thread be suspended
• switch register values
• switch stack pointer and program counter
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Kernel Space Implementation
• Threads are managed by kernel
– creation/termination are through system calls.
– Thread table is maintained in the kernel space
• Threads are scheduled as processes
– when a thread is blocked, the kernel run another thread
from the same proc or a different proc
• but, relatively heavier
– Solution: thread recycling (create more kernel level
threads than available processors); But
– Idle kernel threads, priority problems, deadlock
introduced by blocked kernel threads
– Kernel doesn’t know which threads to take away
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Pros and Cons of User Threads
• Lightweight: an order of magnitude faster than kernel
trapping (procedure call ~10ns vs system call ~5us)
• flexible in scheduling threads of a process in userspace
• Cons:
– how to implement blocking system calls
• A blocking call may stop all threads of a process
• Wrap a blocking call with a jacket: e.g. SELECT, MPI_Test()
• No true parallelism without support from kernel thread
– Information barrier between library and kernel
• A thread holding lock could be scheduled out by kernel
• A thread of high priority could be scheduled out by kernel
• Hard for time-slicing scheduling
– no clock interrupts to threads
– Java thread scheduling is left up to implementation
• round-robin in Solaris vs time-slicing in Windows
• robust code: yield or sleep()
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Hybrid User/kernel-Space Impl.
• M-1 model (user-level): all app-level threads map to a single kernel-level
scheduled entity. portable, easy to programming, but no concurrency
• 1:1 model (kernel-level): user-level threads are in 1-1 correspondence with
schedulable entities in the kernel. Each user level thread is known to the
kernel and all threads can access the kernel at the same time but, hard to
program.
Linux, Solaris 5.9 and later, NetBSD5, FreeBSD 8
Solaris 5.2 to 5.9, NetBSD2 to 4, FreeBSD 5 and 6
© C. Xu 1998-2010
N-to-M Model:
• M:M model (2-level model) to minimizesprogramming effort while
reducing the cost and weight of each thread.
• Threads, Lightweight Process, Processor
– user threads over lightweight processes(lwp)
– LWP, supported by kernel-thread, over CPU
• A program can create any number of threads. It relies on user-level threads
library for scheduling. Kernel only needs to manage currently active
threads.
• But, complexity, priority inversion, suboptimal scheduling
© C. Xu 1998-2010
M-to-M Thread Model
• Solaris 5.2 to 5.8, NetBSD 2 to Net BSD 4, FreeBSD 5 to 7
• Create user-level threads via library libthread
• User can specify how many LWPs should run these userlevel threads
– thr_setconcurrency(new_level) and thr_getconcurrency()
• User can bind threads to LWPs, or leave it to the library to
schedule
– unbound vs bound
• User level thread library libthread schedules the threads on
the LWPs
– preemptive scheduling: thr_setprio() and thr_getprio()
• Kernel schedules the LWPs on the available CPUs
– each LWP has a unique interval timer and alarm
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Simultaneous Multithreading
• SMT (Hyper-threading in Pentium 4):
duplicate certain sections of the
processor, mainly those for storing the
architectural states, but not duplicating
the main execution resources
– Make it appear to OS as multiple “logical”
processors
– When the execution part is not used due to
memory stall, another task can be
scheduled for execution
RAM
CPU
• Transparent to OS and programs. But
SMP support needs to be enabled to
take advantage of HTT
• Cons: not energy efficient
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Multicore Architecture
• Combine 2 or more independent
cores (normally CPU) into a
single package
• Support multitasking and
multithreading in a single physical
package
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Hyperthreading vs Multicore
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Multithreading on multi-core
David Geer, IEEE Computer, 2007
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Outline
• Process and Thread
– Abstraction of execution entity
• Software vs HW Implementation
– User-level and Kernel-level
– Hyper-threading and multi-core
• Virtual Machines
– Another layer of abstraction of exec entity
• Scheduling Policies/Disciplines
© C. Xu 1998-2010
What is Virtualization
• In computing, virtualization is an abstraction layer (sw) that hides
physical characteristics of computing platform from the users, instead
showing another abstract, emulated computing platform [wikipedia]
• Machine virtualization is about the creation and management of VMs
on a “real” machine
– E.g. Java Virtual Machine to accept java bytecode in the form .class
files.
– Virtual PC allows Windows app to be run on Mac/PowerPC
– SunPC sw emulates a PC hw environment on Solaris/SPARC [10 years
ago]
– How about Cygwin, which provides Linux-like environment for
Windows?
– etc
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Computer Systems Arch
Application Programs
Runtime Libraries
Operating System
drivers
Memory
mng
sched
Execution Hardware
Memory Translation
System Interconnect
(bus)
Controllers
I/O devices
and networking
Controllers
Main
memory
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Computer Systems Arch (cont’)
• Instruction set arch. (ISA), introduced in IBM 360 series in
early 60’s, provides an interface between HW and SW, so that
hw could be implemented in various ways
– Various models provides different perf/price levels
– ISA makes SW portable in the same series.
• OS provides a first layer of abstraction, that hides specifies of
the hw from programs.
– ISA provides an interface
Application Software
OS
System ISA
User ISA
ISA
Machine
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Application Binary Interface
• From the perspective
of a user process, the
machine is a
combination of the OS
and the underlying
user-level HW, defined
by the ABI interface
Application Software
System Calls
User ISA
ABI
Machine
Application Binary
Interface
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Virtual Machine
• A VM executes sw in the same manner as the machine for
which the sw was developed.
• VM is implemented as a combination of a real machine and
virtualizing software
– The VM may have different resources different from the real machine
either in quantity or type (cpu, mem, I/O, etc)
– A VM often provides a less perf than an equivalent real machine
running the same sw
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Virtualization
• Mapping of virtual resources or state (e.g.
registers, memory, files, etc) to real resources
• User of real machine instructions and/or system
calls to carry out the actions specified by VM
instructions and/or system calls (e.g. emulation of
the VM ABI or ISA)
• Two types of VM
– Process VM, running as a user process
– System VM, running as a OS
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Process VMs
• Process-level VMs provide user apps
with a virtual ABI env for
– Replication, emulation, and optimization
• Types of process-level VMs:
– Multiprogramming
– Emulators and Dynamic Binary
Translators
– Same-ISA Binary Optimizers
– High-Level Language Virtual Machine
© C. Xu 1998-2010
HLL Process VM
(a) Platform-dependent code is distributed in traditional systems
(b) In HLL Process VM like JVM and MS common language
infrs (CML): portable immediate code is interpreted by a
platform-dependent VM
–
bytecode intermediate ISA, stack arch, runtime lib support
© C. Xu 1998-2010
System Virtual Machine
• VM monitor (VMM): provide a
complete exec environment supporting
multiple user processes, providing
them with access to I/O devices, and
supports GUI if on the desktop
© C. Xu 1998-2010
System VMs Architecture
• Two types of VMM: hypervisor
versus hosted VM arch
• Hypervisor (bare-metal) arch:
– VMM is placed on bare HW, and
VMs fit on top
– VMM runs in the most highly
privileged mode, and VMs run
with lesser privileges
– VMM intercepts and impl all the
guest OS’s actions that interact
with HW resources  efficient
– But, reinstallation, I/O device
drivers must be available in VMM
Window apps
Linux apps
Windows
Linux
VMM
IA-32
© C. Xu 1998-2010
System VM Arch: Hosted VM
• Place virtualizing sw on top
of an existing host OS
• Easy in management
(installation), relying on Host
OS for device drivers
Guest Apps
• But, less efficient
Guest OS (win)
Apps
VMM
Host OS
(e.g. Linux)
hardware
© C. Xu 1998-2010
OS vs Runtime Library
• RT Library
• OS
– Processes, each has an illusion of
the machine
– Multitasking: context switch
between the illusions
– System API (calls) to be called
by apps
– Ops in privileged mode permit
the direct manipulation,
allocation, and observation of
shared hw resources like CPU,
mem, and I/O
– Runtime: program
execution duration , vs
compile-time
– RT library: functions for
I/O, mem, math, errorchecking, etc , which are
performed at runtime
• compiler-specific and
platform-specific
– Implementation of RT
library needs access to OS
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Virtualization Usage Models
• Reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) by server
consolidation
– Increased systems utilization (current servers have less than
10% average utilization, less than 50% peak utilization)
– Reduce hardware (25% of the TCO)
– Space, electricity, cooling (50% of the operating cost of a
data center)
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Vir Usage: Dynamic Datacenter
• Simplify management for perf. and availability
–
–
–
–
Dynamic provisioning on demand
Workload management/isolation
VM migration
Reconfiguration
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Vir Usage: Client Centralization
• Virtual desktop
consolidation
• VM streaming
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Vir Usage: Security
• Packet inspection through a vm security appliance
• Env isolation & “disposable VMs”
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Other Vir Usage Models
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mixed-OS envs
Legacy applications
Multiplatform application development
New system transition
System sw development
OS training
Help desk support
OS instrumentation
• Virtualization protects IT investment
• Virtualization is a true scalable multi-core work load
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Inside the VMM
• Resource Virtualization
– Processor
– Memory
– Device and I/O
• Inter-VM Comm
– Event channel
– Datagram channel
– Shared mem mapping
© C. Xu 1998-2010
CPU Virtualization
• Execution of the guest instructions
– Direct native execution, but not always possible
• “A virtualizable arch allows any instruction inspecting/modifying
machine state to be trapped when executed in any but the most
privileged mode.” (Popek & Goldberg’1974)
• X86 is NOT
Applications
Applications
User Library
User Library
Kernel
Hardware
Conventional Arch
User Space
(unprivileged)
Kernel Space
(privileged)
Kernel
VM Monitor
Hardware
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Virtualization Arch
Sufficient Conditions for Vir
– Classification of Instructions:
– Privileged instruction traps if the machine is in user
mode and does not trap if in system mode
– Control-sensitive instructions attempt to change the
configuration of resources in the system
– Behavior-sensitive instructions: results produced depend
on the configuration of resources
– A VMM may be constructed if the set of sensitive
instructions is a subset of the privileged instructions
– Intuitively, it is sufficient that all instructions that could
affect the correct functioning of the VMM (sensitive
instructions) always trap and pass control to the VMM.
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Challenges of X86 Virtualization
• IS-32 contains 16 sensitive, but non-privileged
instructions
– Sensitive register instructions: read or change sensitive
registers and/or memory locations such as a clock register or
interrupt registers:
• SGDT, SIDT, SLDT, SMSW, PUSHF, POPF
– Protection system instructions: reference the storage
protection system, memory or address relocation system:
• LAR, LSL, VERR, VERW, POP, PUSH, CALL, JMP, INT n,
RET, STR, MOV
• E.g. IA-32 POPF instruction pops the flag registers
from a stack held in memory.
© C. Xu 1998-2010
X86 Virtualization
• Full virtualization using binary translation to trap
and virtualize the execution of certain instructions
– VMware Virtual Platform (patent for BT in 1998)
• OS assisted vir or Para-virtualization
– Xen
• Hardware assisted virtualization
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Full Virtualization
• User level codes are executed directly on the processor
• Translate kernel code to replace non-virtualizable instructions
with new sequences of instructions that have the intended
effects on the virutal haredware.
X86 privileged level arch w/o virtualization
Binary translation
© C. Xu 1998-2010
OS-assisted Vir (Para-Vir)
• Modify the OS kernel to replace non-virtualizable
instructions with hypercalls that comm directly with the
virtualization layer hypervisor
• Hypervisor also provides hypercall interfaces for other
critical kernel ops such as mem management, interrupt
handling and time keeping
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Hardware Assisted Virtualization
• Intel Virtual Technology (VT-X) and AMD’s AMD-V
• A new CPU exe mode that allows VMM to run in a new root
mode below ring 0
• Privileged and sensitive calls are set to automatically trap to
the hypervisor
51
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Memory Virtualization
• Native platform (without VMM) :
– OS keeps maps from virtual address space to real memory which is
physical memory (tranlsate-lookup table)
• Virtualized platform (with VMM):
– Guest’s real memory must undergo further mapping to determine
address in physical memory of host hardware
© C. Xu 1998-2010
I/O Virtualization
• Manage the routing of I/O requests between virtual devices
and the shared physical hardware
• For a given I/O device type, construct a virtual version of
the device and then virtualize I/O activity directed at the
device
• When guest VM makes request to use virtual device,
request is intercepted and converted to the equivalent on the
physical device
• Different treatments for different devices:
– Partitioned devices: disk
– Dedicated devices: mouse, console, keyboard…
– Shared devices: network adapter
© C. Xu 1998-2010
VMWare Arch
• VMM doesn’t have access to I/O devices
• I/O belongs to “host OS”
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Xen 2.0 Arch
• Para-virtualization
• I/O through VM0
VM0
VM1
VM2
VM3
Device
Manager &
Control s/w
Unmodified
User
Software
Unmodified
User
Software
Unmodified
User
Software
GuestOS
GuestOS
GuestOS
GuestOS
(XenLinux)
(XenLinux)
(XenLinux)
(Solaris)
Front-End
Device Drivers
Front-End
Device Drivers
Front-End
Device Drivers
Back-Ends
Native
Device
Drivers
Control IF
Safe HW IF
Event Channel
Virtual CPU
Virtual MMU
Xen Virtual Machine Monitor
Hardware (SMP, MMU, physical memory, Ethernet, SCSI/IDE)
© C. Xu 1998-2010
Xen 3.0 Arch
• Full virtualization on VT-x machines
AGP
ACPI
PCI
x86_32
x86_64
IA64
VM0
VM1
VM2
Device
Manager &
Control s/w
Unmodified
User
Software
Unmodified
User
Software
Unmodified
User
Software
GuestOS
GuestOS
GuestOS
(XenLinux)
(XenLinux)
(XenLinux)
Unmodified
GuestOS
(WinXP))
Back-End
SMP
Native
Device
Drivers
Control IF
Front-End
Device Drivers
Safe HW IF
Front-End
Device Drivers
Event Channel
Virtual CPU
Front-End
Device Drivers
VT-x
Virtual MMU
Xen Virtual Machine Monitor
Hardware (SMP, MMU, physical memory, Ethernet, SCSI/IDE)
© C. Xu 1998-2010
In Summary
• Process and Thread
– Abstraction of execution entity
• Software vs HW Implementation
– User-level and Kernel-level
– Hyper-threading and multi-core
• Virtual Machines
– Another layer of abstraction of exec entity
• Scheduling Policies/Disciplines
© C. Xu 1998-2010
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