Finding * * * * * * * in Teaching Intelligible Pronunciation Zhang Hong (张虹) School of Foreign Languages Southwest University outline • • • • • 1. 2. • • • Welcome & introduction Objectives Take-aways Questions you have What to teach? How to teach? Segmental phonemes (consonants and vowels) Suprasegmental features Techniques and activities Classroom language Debriefing: Questions and comments Objectives • Provide you with a chance to “think afresh” about teaching pronunciation in your context; • Offer you some ideas from the research and from other teachers’ experience with teaching pronunciation; • Use this workshop to demonstrate some approaches and techniques in teaching pronunciation; • Have some fun! Take-aways • You will leave with at least one (hopefully more than one) new strategy for teaching pronunciation; • You will take away a clearer understanding of your colleagues’ thinking and their successes in teaching pronunciation; • You will exit this workshop with a renewed feeling of excitement and energy about teaching pronunciation; • You will go out of this room with a great appetite for supper. What problems do you have in teaching pronunciation? • Write No. 1 and No. 2 problem in your teaching pronunciation without speaking to anybody else. • Possible answers: 1. Pronunciation teaching is not attached importance to. 2. I have problems with pronunciation, too. 3. When to teach pronunciation? ……. Possible problems of pronunciation 1. Using the wrong sound(发音错误) • copy vs. coffee (Korean) • sheep vs. ship (Chinese) beach vs. bitch 2. Leaving sounds out (吞音) • children’s programme • window —— widow 3. Adding sounds • student • good 4. Putting stress on the wrong syllable in a word record v./n. perfect adj. / v. fifteen vs. fifty 5. Putting stress on the wrong word in the sentence • My sister likes apples. • My sister likes apples. • My sister likes apples. • My sister likes apples. 6. Using the wrong intonation pattern • Come on. That won’t hurt. (encouragement?) 7. Combined problems The National English Curriculum What/how to teach?(I) Teaching consonants • Pronouncing the 24 consonants • Steps of focusing on a sound 1. Say the sound alone (presentation orally and in a written form). 2. Get students to repeat the sound in chorus. 3. Get individual students to repeat the sound. 4. Explain how to make the sound (visually and verbally) 5. Students practice. 6. Say the sound in a word. 7. Say the sound in meaningful context. 8. (Contrast it with other sounds.) Description of consonants • What parts of the mouth are used? • How the sound is made? • Whether or not a sound is made in the throat 1.With a sound in the throat (voiced) 2.Without any sound in the throat (voiceless) Practice: fairy; zoo; think What/how to teach?(II)——Vowels • 12 monophthongs • 8 diphthongs Descriptions of vowels • How far front or back the tongue is in the mouth; • How high or low the tongue is in the mouth; • How rounded or spread the lips are; • Whether or not the tongue moves during production of the vowel sound; • In many accents of English, for vowels which are produced without moving the tongue, there may also be a difference in length of the vowel (short/long vowels). What/how to teach?(III)——suprasegmental features • Stress within words 1. the same word with different parts of speech e.g. import n./v. 2. Compound nouns e.g. White House; blueberries 3. Compound verbs e.g. make up; turn on 4. Suffixes (1) stress-preserving: entertain-----entertainment (2) stress-attracting: cigar----cigarette (3) stress-shifting: educate----education Rhythm, stress and intonation within sentences • Jack and Jill went up the hill To fetch a pail of water. Jack fell down and broke his crown And Jill came tumbling after. • Jack and Jill went up the hill To fetch a pail of water. Jack fell down and broke his crown And Jill came tumbling after. • English tones include rising, falling and falling-rising. 1. Falling Tone Statement (or wh-question) Definiteness End of a list e.g. We need milk, eggs, and sugar. 2. Rising Tone Yes-no question Indicating surprise End of an item (but not the last one) in a list 3. Falling-Rising Tone Indicating uncertainty, hesitation e.g. I think so. Indicating encouragement e.g. Come on! This won’t hurt! Indicating syntactic break in the middle of a sentence Pause, speed and key • When we use long sentences, we tend to break them into chunks, and we pause briefly between chunks. • To make our speech more interesting and easier to understand, it is necessary to vary the speed. • A higher key: 1. To indicate excitement or other emotional response e.g. Look! He’s coming, he’s coming! 2. To begin a new topic on a higher key e.g. Ok. Well, I guess that’s all on that subject. Now another thing we need to talk about is… • A lower key: 1. To add a bit of nonessential information e.g. Now, when Sam took the course —— he’s my cousin—— he hound it fascinating. 2. To signal that we are about to end our turn in a conversation e.g. It took us a long time to get over that. Well, I guess that’s all I know about it. contractions (1) Some contractions sound the same but have different grammar. e.g. He’s great. / He’s been great. He’d gone. / He’d better go./He’d go. (2) Some contractions are irregular in pronunciation. e.g. I don’t know. / I dunno. You have to go. / You hafta go. I want to go. /I wanna go. (3) Some contractions have a sound change when spoken on the palate. Did you help…./ Didja help… Can’t you help…/ Can’tcha help? reductions (1) Function words such as “and” and “of” drop their final consonants. • cup of coffee / cuppa coffee • ham and eggs/ ham ‘n eggs (2) Vowel “i” of the words “it” and “is” is sometimes dropped at the beginning of a sentence. • Is that your car? / ‘zat your car? • It’s my car./ ‘ts my car. (3) The “h” and “v” are dropped in the auxiliary verb “have” in past models, thus reducing it to schwa. • He could/should have come./ He coulda/shoulda, come. Project English 七年級上冊 In each book: 4 units (4 titles) 3 topics under each unit (12 topics in total) 4 sections in each topic (A, B, C, D) Look, listen and say Look and say Look, listen and learn Look, say and match Listen, say and write Listen, read and say Listen and follow/say, and then mark the intonation Read and match Read and understand Listen and number/circle/match 七年级（上）Unit 1 Getting to Know You Topic 3 Section D 3a Grammar focus e.g. Is that a/an…? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. It’s an orange. 七年级（上）Unit 2 Looking Different Topic 1 Section C 1a Read and understand I am a boy. I’m thirteen years old. I come from England. I’m a student. I have a round face, a big nose, a small mouth and small eyes. I have a sister. Her name is Amy. She is twelve. She is a student, too. My sister and I look different. She has a round face, a small nose, a small mouth and big eyes. We are in the same school, but in different grades. Techniques, activities and games of teaching pronunciation——using mutisensory modes I. Visual and autitory reinforcement • • Accustoming the ears—— minimal pairs(最小对 立体) Repeated exposure to the problem sounds in contexts where the meaning is clear from nonauditory clues is most likely to succeed. e.g. Choose the right picture Solving a mystery e.g. A witness to a smuggling operation claims to have seen something suspicious one night by the coastline. The police ask him what exactly he thinks he saw and he replies: I think it was a sheep. or I think it was a ship. 2. Playing with the tongue e.g. zzzzzzzz sssssssssssss 3. Associating with a set phrase or a sentence e.g. /ei/ The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain. 4. chant Chant: • • • • • • • Funny valentine Boys are silly. Girls are smart. I love you with all my heart. Boys are noisy. Girls are cute. You like me, and I like you. Mama loves coffee; Papa loves tea. I love my teacher and my teacher loves me. The birds won’t sing, the stars won’t shine, if you won’t be my valentine. II. Tactile reinforcement e.g. vocal cords feel; mirrors (for vowels); III. Kinesthetic reinforcement • Having listeners identify the number of syllables by holding up the corresponding numbers of fingers as they pronounce multisyllabic words or phrases. e.g. introduction • Exercises that focus on the pronounced rhythmic beat or stress timing of English. While the teacher reads the passage aloud, students can clap, snap their fingers, or tap out the rhythm. e.g. Birds eat worms. The birds eat worms. The birds eat the worms The birds will eat the worms. The birds will have eaten the worms. An example of teaching pronunciation Snow, snow Falls slow On my window That is yellow. Classroom English • • • • • • Beginning the class Simple instructions Ending the class Spontaneous situation Classroom management Error correction and feedback Guess the missing word in the title! Suggestions for teaching pronunciation • • • • • • Speak English as frequently as possible! Listen more & practice more! Teachers become confident! Using various resources! Presentation! Use body language to facilitate your pronunciation teaching! • Cater for students’ different learning styles! Debriefing: questions and comments • How might you be able to adapt or use some of these ideas? • What would you suggest I do differently the next time? References • Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., & Goodwin, J. M. (1996). Teaching pronunciation. CUP. • Poedjosoedarmo, G. (2007). Teaching pronunciation: Why, what, when and how. Beijing: People’s Education Press. • 北京市仁爱教育研究所. 2007. 英语（七年级 上册）. 长沙：湖南教育出版社. • 王蔷. 2006. 英语教学法教程. 北京：高等教育 出版社.