Havisham - Mrs Ruxton

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‘Havisham’
Dramatic Monologue
Dramatic monologue refers to a type of poetry.
These poems are dramatic in the sense that they have a theatrical quality;
that is, the poem is meant to be read to an audience.
A monologue means that these are the words of one solitary speaker with
no dialogue coming from any other characters. Think of one person
standing alone on a stage speaking to an audience.
Dramatic Monologue
Poets write dramatic monologues to express a point of view through the
words of a character.
However, the tricky part is that often the opinions stated by that character
are not the same as the views of the poet.
Most of the time, the speaker is trying to convince someone of something,
and may or may not be telling the whole truth.
Sometimes what the speaker doesn't say is just as revealing and interesting
as what he or she does say in the poem.
Dramatic Monologue
The speaker has a listener within the poem, but we too are his / her listener, and
we learn about the speaker’s character from what the speaker says.
In fact, the speaker may unintentionally reveal certain aspects of his / her
character – often unsavoury.
Each dramatic monologue should display:
1) a speaker
2) an identified audience
3) an occasion
4) an interplay between speaker and audience, which takes place in the present
5) revelation of character
Dramatic Monologue
Duffy’s monologues typically consist of an uninterrupted narrative spoken
by a single character to a specific audience.
It is important to remember that the speaker is not the poet herself, but
rather a persona created by Duffy.
Duffy creates a living, breathing human being (often the wife of a famous
historical person) with a complex personal history and view of the world.
‘Havisham’
• The speaker in the poem is the character of
Miss Havisham, taken from the Dickens novel
‘Great Expectations’.
• In the novel, she is deserted at the altar on
her wedding day by her husband-to-be.
• She is completely devastated and never
recovers.
• She continues to wear her decaying wedding
dress, adopts a daughter and brings her up
teaching her to hate all men.
‘Havisham’
Pip is a poor orphan who lives with his sister. He is not treated well as the
family is struggling.
Pip gets invited unexpectedly to the house of a rich old woman in the
village, Miss Havisham.
We are going to read an extract from the novel describing Pip’s first
meeting with Miss Havisham.
The first encounter:
This was very uncomfortable, and I was half afraid. However, the only thing to be done
being to knock at the door, I knocked, and was told from within to enter. I entered,
therefore, and found myself in a pretty large room, well lighted with wax candles. No
glimpse of daylight was to be seen in it. It was a dressing-room, as I supposed from the
furniture, though much of it was of forms and uses then quite unknown to me. But
prominent in it was a draped table with a gilded looking-glass, and that I made out at first
sight to be a fine lady's dressing-table.
Whether I should have made out this object so soon, if there had been no fine lady sitting
at it, I cannot say. In an arm-chair, with an elbow resting on the table and her head leaning
on that hand, sat the strangest lady I have ever seen, or shall ever see.
She was dressed in rich materials - satins, and lace, and silks - all of white. Her shoes were
white. And she had a long white veil dependent from her hair, and she had bridal flowers in
her hair, but her hair was white. Some bright jewels sparkled on her neck and on her hands,
and some other jewels lay sparkling on the table. Dresses, less splendid than the dress she
wore, and half-packed trunks, were scattered about. She had not quite finished dressing, for
she had but one shoe on - the other was on the table near her hand - her veil was but half
arranged, her watch and chain were not put on, and some lace for her bosom lay with those
trinkets, and with her handkerchief, and gloves, and some flowers, and a prayer-book, all
confusedly heaped about the looking-glass.
It was not in the first few moments that I saw all these things, though I saw more of them in
the first moments than might be supposed. But, I saw that everything within my view which
ought to be white, had been white long ago, and had lost its lustre, and was faded and
yellow. I saw that the bride within the bridal dress had withered like the dress, and like the
flowers, and had no brightness left but the brightness of her sunken eyes. I saw that the
dress had been put upon the rounded figure of a young woman, and that the figure upon
which it now hung loose, had shrunk to skin and bone.
Once, I had been taken to see some ghastly waxwork at the Fair, representing I know not
what impossible personage lying in state. Once, I had been taken to one of our old marsh
churches to see a skeleton in the ashes of a rich dress, that had been dug out of a vault under
the church pavement. Now, waxwork and skeleton seemed to have dark eyes that moved and
looked at me. I should have cried out, if I could.
"Who is it?" said the lady at the table.
"Pip, ma'am.”
"Pip?”
"Mr. Pumblechook's boy, ma'am. Come - to play."
"Come nearer; let me look at you. Come close.”
It was when I stood before her, avoiding her eyes, that I took note of the surrounding
objects in detail, and saw that her watch had stopped at twenty minutes to nine, and that a
clock in the room had stopped at twenty minutes to nine.
"Look at me," said Miss Havisham. "You are not afraid of a woman who has never seen the
sun since you were born?”
I regret to state that I was not afraid of telling the enormous lie comprehended in the
answer "No."
"Do you know what I touch here?" she said, laying her hands, one upon the other, on her
left side.
"Yes, ma'am." (It made me think of the young man.) "What do I touch?"
"Your heart."
"Broken!"
Miss Havisham’s only companion is Estella, her
adopted daughter. Estella is beautiful, and Pip
develops a strong infatuation, an infatuation that
turns into love as he grows older.
But it is unrequited love, as Miss Havisham has
made it her dark life's project to raise Estella as a
cruel-hearted girl who will break men's hearts,
satisfying Miss Havisham's own desire to spurn
love.
Now you are going to read the poem
Havisham
Beloved sweetheart bastard. Not a day since then
I haven’t wished him dead. Prayed for it
so hard I’ve dark green pebbles for eyes,
ropes on the back of my hands I could strangle with.
5
Spinster. I stink and remember. Whole days
in bed cawing Nooooo at the wall; the dress
yellowing, trembling if I open the wardrobe;
the slewed mirror, full-length, her, myself, who did this
to me? Puce curses that are sounds not words.
10 Some nights better, the lost body over me,
my fluent tongue in its mouth in its ear
then down till I suddenly bite awake. Love’s
hate behind a white veil; a red balloon bursting
in my face. Bang. I stabbed at a wedding cake.
15 Give me a male corpse for a long slow honeymoon.
Don’t think it’s only the heart that b-b-b-breaks.
Form and structure
The poem is written in four unrhymed stanzas. Duffy has said that she enjoys the
way stanzas help her to concentrate and fix her ideas more effectively, and has
described them as being almost like mini-canvases.
The lack of rhyme and the presence of enjambment help to create a more defined
voice in the poem. However, while this can often produce a more natural, realistic
speech pattern, in this case it has the opposite effect: Havisham’s voice is choppy and
stilted, which emphasises the lack of order and structure to her thoughts.
Similarly, although at first glance the poem looks fairly regular, there is no fixed
meter. This, and the occasional slightly off-kilter half rhymes and assonance, help to
reinforce this lack of logic and the erosion of the speaker’s psyche.
You are now going to discuss questions on the
poem in groups and take notes of your ideas.
Try to answer them as fully as possible, and be
ready to share your ideas with the class.
Feedback
Group Discussion Questions
Title
1. Why does the poet omit Miss Havisham's title and refer to her by her surname only?
Verse 1
2. What does the oxymoron in line one reveal about her feelings?
3. Explain the image ‘dark green pebbles for eyes.’
4. Explain the image ‘ropes on the back of my hands.’
Verse 2
5. Why does the poet write “spinster” on its own? What does Miss Havisham think
about this word and its relevance to her?
6. What is her attitude to the fact she is unmarried?
7. Comment on the use of the word ‘stink’.
8. Comment on the use of the word ‘cawing’.
9. What is the effect of “Nooooo”? Why is the word written in this way?
10. Comment on the last line – can you explain the structure?
Group Discussion Questions
Verse 3
11. What connotations are there for ‘puce’ (dark red)?
12. What is the speaker describing in lines 10-13?
13. What might this reveal?
Verse 4
14. What could the ‘red balloon’ symbolise and what is the significance of it bursting?
15. Comment on the use of onomatopoeia.
16. What is the tone of this verse?
17. What is the effect of “b-b-breaks” in the final line? Why is repetition used in this
way?
Group Discussion Questions
The whole poem
18. The poet is effectively exploring a number of themes in this poem. What do you
think they are?
19. How far does the poet want us to sympathise with Miss Havisham?
20. Does the reader have to know about Great Expectations to understand the poem?
21. Does Miss Havisham have a fair view of men? What do you think of her view of
being an unmarried woman?
22. Perhaps the most important part of the poem is the question “who did this / to
me?” How far does the poem show that Miss Havisham is responsible for her own
misery, and how far does it support her feelings of self-pity and her desire for
revenge?
You are now going to annotate a copy of the poem.
You don’t have to write down every single word, but you must
take detailed notes for everything that is on the slides.
Make sure your writing is not too big so that you can fit in all
the annotations.
You will use these notes for exam revision, so make them good!
Themes
The key theme in this poem is the corrosive nature of hatred on the human psyche. In
giving Miss Havisham a voice outside of Dickens’ novel, the poet is able to crystallise
perfectly how the single event of being jilted can completely shatter and destroy a human
being, and erode any love or compassion that could once be felt.
The mood throughout is bitter and caustic as Duffy clearly conveys how love can quickly be
replaced with hatred and violence.
The wedding imagery, the cake, the dress and the honeymoon, are all used to reinforce
how quickly experiences and events associated with joy can be soured and become toxic
symbols to feed and nourish hatred instead of love.
The title of the poem, her
unmarried surname, reveals
her self- loathing and
bitterness at being denied
the epithet of Mrs and being
forced to live the remainder
of her life as a spinster.
‘Havisham’
Reveals without
ambiguity the focus of
the speaker’s hatred and
emphasises the expletive
Alliteration of `b’
and `p’ sound
suggests ANGER
Oxymoronic minor
sentence shows
combination of feelings
– love and hate
Heavy emphasis here
perhaps indicating her
negative / aggressive
feelings are now the
dominant ones
Note the lack of
exclamation mark –
suggests she is serious and
seemingly no longer angry?
Beloved sweetheart bastard. Not a day since then
I haven’t wished him dead. Prayed for it
Enjambment
– run on lines
i.e. the wedding day
The words are
Religious reference – ironic –
almost being spat
usually we pray for positive
so hard I’ve dark green pebbles for eyes,
out, helping to
things
create the
caustic, bitter
ropes on the back of my hands I could strangle with.
tone that runs
through the
poem
Highlights the
intensity of her
vengeful desires.
This entire stanza is a kind of curse, detailing the
extent to which she wishes her former lover dead
through the all-consuming nature of her hatred.
She has prayed
so earnestly
for his death,
with her eyes
tightly shut
and her hands
clasped
together, that
her eyes have
become dark
green pebbles
and the veins
on the back of
her hands
protrude like
ropes.
She is literally stuck in time,
paralysed as a ridiculous
parody or imitation of a
bride whose love has been
rejected by her fiancé.
Metaphor represents her
jealousy and bitterness
Beloved sweetheart bastard. Not a day since then
I haven’t wished him dead. Prayed for it
so hard I’ve dark green pebbles for eyes,
Hardened emotions? Dark for her
evil thoughts of revenge? Green link with jealousy? Lack of
transparency – might highlight the
way she conceals her true feelings
ropes on the back of my hands I could strangle with.
Duffy clearly exposes the
terrible, corrosive effects of such
an experience on the human
psyche.
Metaphor used
to emphasise
the strength of
her hands.
Image of a pebble –
suggests hardness
and cruelty
Theme of violence
in the poem
Metaphor represents her ageing,
as well as the years spent
‘wringing her hands’ with emotion
/ anger / nerves
Negative
spoken like a profanity or insult
connotations
One word sentence placed at start
Denotes her
of stanza so it stands out - this is
bitterness
what society sums her up as
She sees
her life as
decay and
memories
Literally true because she has
never washed since her wedding
day? Or low self esteem?
Spinster. I stink and remember. Whole days
Observation of what she is
now (literally) – and a
suggestion of what was
wrong (metaphorically) with
her to be dumped?
‘Spinster’ is
isolated in a
sentence on its in bed cawing Nooooo at the wall; the dress
own to
Further emphasises
emphasise Miss
her isolation
Havisham's own yellowing, trembling if I open the wardrobe;
feelings of
isolation in a
society in which the slewed mirror, full-length, her, myself, who did this
women were
Avian (bird) terminology
The cry of
Makes her
often defined by a crow
New word (neologism)
used to show how she
sound like an
their marital
used to represent pain feels demeaned or
creates
animal, reveals
status
Emphasises primitive
rejected by her lover who
gothic
the extent of
rawness of emotions
has flown the nest?
imagery
her anguish
Double meaning – the dress trembles, as if waiting to be put
back away (personification) OR she literally trembles when
looking at her wedding dress. Perhaps she is frightened of
looking in the mirror and seeing what she has become.
As though it is someone else who has
done this; she can’t believe that the
woman in the mirror would do this.
Split personality? Disturbed?
Highlights
Spinster. I stink and remember. Whole days
how much
time has
passed;
in bed cawing Nooooo at the wall; the dress
imitates her
emotional
atrophy and
yellowing, trembling if I open the wardrobe;
reflects decay
Violence
She is unable to identify
herself – ‘he’ made her an
‘object’ and she now fights
to regain her sense of self
the slewed mirror, full-length, her, myself, who did this
Double meaning – past tense of ‘slay’ suggesting
she has smashed the mirror in anger / also
means drunk, suggesting she is unable to see her
true reflection through the blur of alcohol
The world that she once knew and felt
she belonged to is now similarly
unfamiliar and strange
Sounds like she
no longer
recognises
what she has
become – she
has been
profoundly
changed by
rejection
This stanza emphasises just
how entirely out of place and
alien she feels inhabiting her
new persona as a spinster.
In this stanza, the construction and order of the lines and
words is deliberately jumbled and confused to
emphasise the speaker’s irrationality and her muddled,
tormented state of mind.
Spinster. I stink and remember. Whole days
in bed cawing Nooooo at the wall; the dress
yellowing, trembling if I open the wardrobe;
the slewed mirror, full-length, her, myself, who did this
She presents herself as the victim - this
was a wrong that was done to her and
she is determined to exact revenge.
The irony is that this quest and lust for
vengeance is utterly self destructive
and only exacerbates her pain.
She asks who
has made her
this way
Connotations?
Dried blood? Disease?
Synaesthesia, when one sense, in this
case sight, is used to describe another,
the sounds of the speaker’s curses
Purplish - red
to me? Puce curses that are sounds not words.
Enjambment reinforces the
continuation of Some nights better, the lost body over me,
her suffering
and conveys
the idea of run my fluent tongue in its mouth in its ear
away emotions
and a lack of
control. Evokes then down till I suddenly bite awake. Love’s
a troubled,
Abrupt change in
restless mind?
Suggests that at
direction, a glimpse at
night she is able to
the softer side of the
dream
speaker
Her hatred has left her
almost mute, unable to
articulate her emotions
through language, and
instead she can only
vocalise her bitter anger
through sounds not words
(compare with line 6)
References to
sexual relationship
with the man she
might have married
The dream
continues and the
love making is easy
and poetic
to me? Puce curses that are sounds not words.
Some nights better, the lost body over me,
my fluent tongue in its mouth in its ear
Her sexual fantasy / dream
reveals she cannot rid
herself of her desire
/affection which now
torments her in the living
nightmare of her waking
existence
In contrast to her ineptitude with
language now, she recalls how
when she could skilfully use her
‘fluent tongue’ to seduce her
lover
then down till I suddenly bite awake. Love’s
…and therefore
makes it easier for
her to continue to
hate him.
This creates a sense of
distance from him, while
simultaneously
depriving him of his
humanity…
She tries to make
him the ‘object’ by
using ‘its’ rather
than ‘his’
Even here, though,
the strength of her
hatred continues to
permeate and sour
all of her most
pleasant memories.
Violence
The act of violence is
‘sudden’ in the dream
and the suddenness
wakes her
When she wakes
the hatred and
anger return
to me? Puce curses that are sounds not words.
Some nights better, the lost body over me,
It also wakens us,
the reader, to the
viciousness of the
dreamed attack
my fluent tongue in its mouth in its ear
then down till I suddenly bite awake. Love’s
or, even more sinisterly, that
she fantasises about
inflicting pain on her lover by
biting him
‘bite’ could also imply that she
bites her tongue in her sleep,
helping to explain her current
inability to articulate herself…
The use of the present tense
in the verb ‘bite’ reminds us
that, despite the passing of
years, her anger and
bitterness have not abated
and are just as raw today as
when she was first jilted
This exposes
There is something almost
‘Hate’ is the only
just how
possessive, distinctive about the
emotion she is
inextricably
specific and enduring type of
now able to feel
linked these
hate that is provoked through the
two seemingly
betrayal of love
opposing
hate behind a white veil; a red balloon bursting
emotions are
‘Love’s hate’
- Use of
oxymoron to
show the
unstable
mixture of
Havisham’s
feelings
in my face. Bang. I stabbed at a wedding-cake.
Give me a male corpse for a long slow honeymoon.
Don’t think it’s only the heart that b-b-b-breaks.
Without it she would be
utterly numb and so in
many ways it is only by
preserving and nurturing
her loathing and hatred
that she has a purpose to
her life
Triple meaning – 1) ‘white’
suggests innocence / virginity,
2) ‘white veil’ represents the
wedding, 3) ‘veil’ is something
that the speaker hides behind
hate behind a white veil; a red balloon bursting
in my face. Bang. I stabbed at a wedding-cake.
She clearly identifies
herself as the wronged,
innocent party in this
image, but she cannot
maintain it for any
length of time
Immediate contrast - suggests
celebrations that did not take
place, ‘red’ suggests anger.
Give me a male corpse for a long slow honeymoon. This is used to express her
Don’t think it’s only the heart that b-b-b-breaks.
Shows how
fragile love
can be
Alliteratio
n might
symbolise
her broken
heart
Alliteration of `b’ sound suggests ANGER…
…and emphasises the suddenness and shock
of this experience as her dreams were so
abruptly and irrevocably shattered.
embarrassment (the veil
concealed this)
This violent metaphor
represents the speaker’s
heart and the rage and hatred
that now consumes her.
She subverts our usual
associations of the
honeymoon with joy and
happiness into something
much more menacing
Short sentence for effect – also
represents the shock she
experienced
Violence
One word sentence /
onomatopoeia - emphasises
power / suddenness of her
realisation.
hate behind a white veil; a red balloon bursting
Subverts our usual happy
associations of weddings
‘Long’ + ‘slow’ –
into another violent image
combination of
- ‘stabbed at a weddingenjoyment and in my face. Bang. I stabbed at a wedding-cake.
cake’ shows literally her
torture
anger and it
Give me a male corpse for a long slow honeymoon. metaphorically shows her
This command is
opinion on marriage
a morbid,
macabre, erotic Don’t think it’s only the heart that b-b-b-breaks.
As the cake lies there
perverse
decaying, it reminds us
Sinister, dark imagery, reference to death links to idea that the
request. She is
that, like Miss Havisham, it
‘honeymoon’ would provide the long painful death she wants
deeply
too has never fulfilled its
disturbed,
purpose and, like her, the
She would rather have him dead than have him
vengeful and
cake continues to stagnate
reject her – shows how bitter and twisted she is
malevolent.
and atrophy
This hatred and
anger have
consumed and
destroyed every
other aspect or
facet of her
personality so
that she is now
little more than
an empty husk
hate behind a white veil; a red balloon bursting
in my face. Bang. I stabbed at a wedding-cake.
Give me a male corpse for a long slow honeymoon.
Don’t think it’s only the heart that b-b-b-breaks.
She suggests that her life and her
mind have broken as a result, not
just her heart
The last line
is more
poignant
Sobbing and suggestion
of violence – a veiled
threat
Stammered words to
suggest a kind of
emotional collapse
Use of plosive ‘b’ in a stuttering style, suggests the is
breaking down again and highlights her emotional
and psychological fragility
You are now going to work in groups to produce a poster on
an aspect of the poem which will form part of a wall display.
You will be asked to produce notes on one or more of the
following aspects of the poem:
 What is the poem about?
 Who is the speaker? - are they dramatised (a character)
 Who is being spoken to or addressed?
 What is being spoken about?
 Theme(s) of the poem - what is it really about?
 Setting/culture - where’s the poem set? Which culture is it from/about?
 Where does the poem “get to” from start to end?
‘Havisham’ - MITSL
Meaning
Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure,
Language
Always link everything to meaning. Ask yourself how does this
contribute to the meaning? Why has the poet used this technique?
Structure
 Rhyme - is there a rhyme scheme? Couplets? Internal rhyme?
 Rhythm - how many syllables per line? Is it regular or free verse? Why are some different
How would the poem be spoken? (angry, sad, nostalgic, bitter,
humorous etc)
lengths?
Tone
Language
 Stanzas - How many? How do they change? Is there a narrative?
 Lines - how many are their in each verse? Do some stand out?
 Enjambment - do the lines “run on” to the next line or stanza?
 End stopping - does each line finish at the end of a sentence?
 Form - does the poem have a shape to it?
 What kinds of words are used?
 Puns - a pun is a play on words - “Shear Class!” if Shearer scores.
 Connotation - associations that words have (as "stallion" connotes a certain kind of horse with
certain sorts of uses)?
 Double meanings - “butts in” - putting bottoms in or interrupting.
 Ambiguity - is the word or phrase deliberately unclear? Could it mean opposite things or many
different things?.
Imagery
 Alliteration - the repeating of initial sounds.
 Assonance - is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within consecutive words as in,
'rags of green weed hung down...'.
 Metaphor - comparing two things by saying one is the other.
 Simile - comparing two things saying one is like or as the other.
 Personification - giving something non-human human qualities.
 Onomatopoeia - words that sound like the thing they describe.
 Repetition - does the poet repeat words or phrases?
 Word order - are the words in an unusual order – why?
 Adjectives - what are the key describing words?
 Key words and phrases - do any of the words or phrases stand out? Do they shock? Are
the words “violent” or “sad” etc?
 Slang or unusual words and misspellings - Does the poet use slang or informal
language? Are American words used?
 Intertextuality - does the poem reference another text?
 Style - does the poet copy another style? (Newspaper, play etc)
 Characters - if there are characters how do they speak?
‘Havisham’ - MITSL
Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure,
Language
Meaning
 What is the poem about?
 Who is the speaker? - are they dramatised (a character)
 Who is being spoken to or addressed?
 What is being spoken about?
 Theme(s) of the poem - what is it really about?
 Setting/culture - where’s the poem set? Culture it is from/about?
 Where does the poem “get to” from start to end?
‘Havisham’ - MITSL
Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure,
Language
Structure
 Rhyme - is there a rhyme scheme? Couplets? Internal rhyme?
 Rhythm - how many syllables per line? Is it regular or free verse? Why
are some different lengths?
 Stanzas - How many? How do they change? Is there a narrative?
 Lines - how many are their in each verse? Do some stand out?
 Enjambment - do the lines “run on” to the next line or stanza?
 End stopping - does each line finish at the end of a sentence?
 Form - does the poem have a shape to it?
‘Havisham’ - MITSL
Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure,
Language
Imagery
 Alliteration - the repeating of initial sounds.
 Assonance - is the term used for the repetition of vowel sounds within
consecutive words as in, 'rags of green weed hung down...'.
 Metaphor - comparing two things by saying one is the other.
 Simile - comparing two things saying one is like or as the other.
 Personification - giving something non-human human qualities.
 Onomatopoeia - words that sound like the thing they describe.
 Repetition - does the poet repeat words or phrases?
Language
 What
kinds of words are used?
 Puns - a pun is a play on words - “Shear Class!” if Shearer scores.
 Connotation - associations that words have (as "stallion" connotes a certain kind of horse
with certain sorts of uses)?
 Double meanings - “butts in” - putting bottoms in or interrupting.
 Ambiguity - is the word or phrase deliberately unclear? Could it mean opposite things or
many different things?.
 Word order - are the words in an unusual order – why?
 Adjectives - what are the key describing words?
 Key words and phrases - do any of the words or phrases stand out? Do they shock? Are the
words “violent” or “sad” etc?
 Slang or unusual words and misspellings - Does the poet use slang or informal language?
Are American words used?
 Intertextuality - does the poem reference another text?
 Style - does the poet copy another style? (Newspaper, play etc)
 Characters - if there are characters how do they speak?
‘Havisham’ - MITSL
Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure,
Language
Tone
 How would the poem be spoken? (angry, sad, nostalgic, bitter,
humorous etc)
‘Havisham’ - MITSL
Meaning, Imagery, Tone, Structure,
Language
Always link everything to meaning.
Ask yourself how does this contributes to the meaning?
Why has the poet used this technique?
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