File - fhsenglishrevise

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English Language
SECTION A
Audience
Key aspects that would have been chosen to appeal to the target
market:
• Presentation: colour, pictures, diagrams, front style and size
• Language: level of difficulty, variety of vocabulary, sentence
structure
• Content and style
• Target audiences can be characterized by:
- Age
- Background
- Gender
- Interests
- Location
- Beliefs
Purposes
By identifying the purpose and audience, it will be easier to understand
why certain language or presentational features have been used.
Purposes of texts include:
Inform
Explain
Describe
Argue
Entertains
Advise
Persuade
Review
Reading between the lines
• You need to not only analyse the words on the page
but the:
- Use of colour, fonts and images
- Position or layout of particular features or
information
- Headlines, sub-headings, pull quotes
Selecting and using information
• To support points made in your answers, you need
to refer directly to the text
• Any ideas you put forward must come from the text
itself (interpret the meaning of the text)
• Avoid long quotes. Use short, snappy and
purposeful evidence.
How to quote
• Quotations that are fluently ‘embedded’ into
sentences are more stylish and sophisticated.
• For longer quotes, place a colon at the end of your
comment. Then start a new line and indent the
quotation.
Perspective
• Perspective means ‘attitude’ or ‘standpoint’.You can establish the
view point of a well-written text by reading the first and last
paragraphs and the topic sentence of each paragraph.
• They should guide the reader through their argument through the
careful structure of their writing.
What to look for:
- Emotive language
- Strong first sentence clearly portraying view point
- Sarcasm
- Criticism
- Presenting other view point (to disprove)
- Sentence structure/length for effect
Reports
• A report is usually written for a specific audience
• The purpose of a report is to pass on specific
information about a particular issue or investigation,
so that others may take action using the findings of
the report.
• A newspaper report gives information
Formal reports
• Formal reports follow a clear structure:
Introduction -> explanation of the research
undertaken-> summary of findings-> conclusions or
points for action
What to look for:
- Percentages used to emphasize strength of feelings
- Result summaries for readers
- Solutions
Newspaper reports
• Newspaper reports are normally written in an
impersonal style
• The writer will provide facts- opinions will often come
from ‘sources’ or people whose words are being
reported through direct quotation
What to look for:
- Emotive language which engages the reader
- Quotes in headlines which can indicate bias
- Summing up in last paragraph
- Quotations from ‘the other side’ to balance argument
Feature articles
• Feature articles provide more of a considered view
or interpretation of an event or issue
What to look for:
- Pronouns ‘we’, ‘our’
- Strong opening sentence- shows view
- Emotive language
- Concluding sentence
Advertisements- presentation
• If the form of the advert is an advert, the purpose will be
clearly to persuade, however the target audience will need to
be considered
Presentational features to look for:
- Use of images
- Use of colour
- Font style, size and colour
- Use of text- layout, organisation and language
- Logos , slogans, shapes
• You need to show you are able to evaluate the presentational
features
Advertisements
Structuring your answer
1. Links purpose to presentation
2. Analyse features and their effects
3. Explain effect of reader
4. Show connection between presentational features
and written text/ purpose
Leaflets
• Presentational features such as sub-headings and bullet
point lists are often used to break the information down
into short pieces of text. The use of images and colour
also helps to convey the message
• Leaflets use presentational features in order to allow the
information to be read very quickly
• Commenting on the effect of individual language
choices and layout features is necessary but it if you can
demonstrate how elements of the text, use colour and
image, etc. connect and work together, you will gain
more marks.
Leaflets
• Start by analysing the leaflet’s purpose and audience.
What to look for:
- Images- What do they show, how does it connect to the
subject of the leaflet, does the size of the image have any
significance?
- Information-What information is given, where is it displayed,
how is it displayed, does the font have an impact on the
reader, are capital letters used for emphasis?
- Colours- How does this appeal to the target market, does it
help enforce the message of the leaflet, does it reinforce the
company’s purpose, does it help the leaflet to achieve its
purpose?
Diaries
• Personal diaries are written in the first person and are
informal in style. They include personal recollections.
• Diaries written for publication, record events of public
interest and can be more formal in style but are usually
in the first person.
What to look for:
- Purpose to the diary entry
- Opinions
- Emotive language
- Exaggeration
Blogs
• Unlike diaries, blogs can have more colloquial
language and the writer has a sense of the wider
audience and the content and tone of the blog
matches this, rather than being more personal and
private
Biographies and autobiographies
• A biography will be written in third person and an autobiography
will be written in first person and organisation is normally
chronological.
• Biographies contain events from the person’s past
• The purpose of biographical writing is usually a mixture of
entertaining and informing the reader.
What to look for
- Imagery
- Sentence structure/length for effect
- Dramatic language
- Language style (formal/informal)- Why e.g. colloquial language to
remind the reader that it is a childhood anecdote
Travel writing
• Travel writing can be factual but can also give individual
interpretations of the experience
• Travel writing entertains and informs the reader
• Although factual in content, there will be an element of bias in
travel writing
What to look for:
- Different language techniques that the travel writer uses to convey
information to the reader
- Be aware of the attitudes or feelings that the travel experience
causes in the writer.
- The first sentence- it usually sets the tone of the writing and can be
quite dramatic.
Reading reviews
• The first thing to look for in a reviews is at whether it is
biased or unbiased
• A review provides a description and an evaluation of an
event, an object or publication.
• The purpose of a review is to provide a clear overview
and an evaluative judgement or recommendation.
• They are written for a clear audience.
What to look at:
- Language and structure and how they are used to present
a particular point of view
Web Page
• A web page uses particular layout conventions and presentational
features to help you skim and scan the page for specific information
• A webpage has to be immediately appealing and accessible
otherwise the reader will just skip to another site
What to look for:
- Images
- Colours- bright colour used to highlight offers?
- Live links to help find information faster
- Contact details- Where are they placed, how are they presented?
- Logos
- Use of celebrities
Information texts
• Often use sub-headings or other organisational
features to guide the reader easily through the
material
• Its main purpose is to provide information. The
language is usually impersonal, quite direct and
clearly organised.
• They will have a target audience
Analysing presentational features
• When commenting on presentational features, you need to explain how they work
with each other to create an overall effect, not just what effect they have
individually.
Headline
The main heading in a newspaper story, designed to draw the reader’s attention
Strapline
A second, introductory headline, below the main one, adds more information to the headline
Subheading
Often used to summarise sections of the text or break it up into smaller sections, allowing the reader to
skim over the text and see the overall point
Font
Style and colour can vary throughout a text. Often it us possible to draw conclusions from the choice of
colour-scheme or font style
Capitals
Capitals are often used to stress and reinforce particular words or phrases
Caption
The text under a photograph or diagram which explains it
Standfirst
The introductory in an article or report, which could be in bold print or with the first word capitalised
Pull-quote
A quotation which is lifted from the article and set apart, in larger or bold type
Bold, italics,
underline
Different ways of making certain words stand out
Slogan
A memorable word or phrase, designed to create interest
Logo
Emblem to represent a product or company
Photographs and
graphics
Used to add depth to the story or more information
Inference
• There are a variety of ways in which language can be
used to infer meaning other than the surface
meaning. One technique to look for is IRONY.
Irony can be created through:
- Rhetorical techniques
- Exaggeration and understatement
- Quotations
Inference
• Another technique to look for is HUMOUR.
Ways to infer meaning:
- Language
- Structure and organisation of text
- Pictures and other presentational features.
• Pictures and the layout of text can imply meaning
the same way that language does
Analysing language- Key features
Language features to analyse
- Sentence and paragraph types
- Significant vocabulary
- Punctuation
- Imagery
- Imagery and other linguistic devices
- Style of language
Analysing language- Sentences
• Short sentences can suggest speed or excitement e.g. He ran
forward.The ball fell at his feet. He shot.
• They can also indicate surprise or despair e.g. Her inspiration
stopped. Her career ended.
• Long sentences can indicate calm e.g. The sergeant reported that
right along the river, teams of men and women were at last preparing
to return to their headquarters for a much needed break.
• Or they can build to a climax e.g. The crowds gasped as the top of
the mountain blew away, clouds of ash shot hundred of feet into the
sky and rivers of lava, terrifying in the early daw, shot upwards, then
cascaded down into the valley.
Analysing language- Paragraphs
• Very short paragraphs can be used to attract the
reader’s attention, to attract the reader’s attention,
to pick out the main details in an article or to offer a
‘punchy’ idea. Popular newspaper articles often have
short paragraphs so that they can be read more
easily.
• Longer paragraphs provide more detail and analysis.
Articles in more serious newspapers often have
longer paragraphs.
Analysing language- Significant
vocabulary
• The kind of vocabulary can tell you about the purpose of the text
- Imperative verbs such as ‘follow’ and ‘begin’ suggest instructional or
advisory writing
- Connectives like ‘since’ and ‘because’ are typical of explanatory
writing because these connectives link ideas together
- Connectives such as ‘however’, ‘nevertheless’ and ‘indeed’ tend to
be used in persuasive or argumentative writing where are point of view is
being expressed
• The kind of vocabulary can also tell you about the audience for the text.
- More complex language indicates that the text is aimed at a more
intelligent readership
- A text containing specialist vocabulary will be aimed at those with a
special interest in that area
- Slang and colloquialisms could indicate a teenage target audience.
Punctuation
The inverted commas indicate it may not have happened, but
show that someone has offered that opinion
Ellipsis indicates that there are many things we could do. An
ellipsis can also end a sentence leaving the conclusion to our
imagination.
The double exclamation mark is to attract
attention and suggest excitement, humour or
even surprise.
Similes, metaphors, linguistic
techniques and style
• Look for similes, metaphors, alliteration and onomatopoeia.
• Text can have a formal or informal style
Stylistic techniques
- Rhetoric
- Emotive language
- Irony (subtle mockery)
- Exaggeration
- Contrast
- Colloquial language
- Ambiguity
- Examples, anecdotes or quotations
- Humour
- Lists
Comparing language
•
•
-
When comparing language, consider:
Levels of difficulty
The different tones
The different kinds of language features required for different
purposes
Decide how the writer has used language to meet the needs of
the form, purpose and audience. Look at:
Sentences and paragraphs
Significant vocabulary
Punctuation
Imagery and linguistic features
Comparative response- paragraph
structure
Compare the purposes (and audiences) of each text
Identify a technique used in both texts
Analyse the use of the technique in Text 1
Explain the effect on the reader in Text 1
Use of comparative connective
Analyse the use of the technique in text 2
Explain the effect of the reader in text 2
- The conclusion should NOT be long and
should sum up your ideas whilst still focusing on
the question
Connectives
Comparative connectives
Similarly
In contrast
While the first text
Just as
Whereas
The second text
Likewise
On the other hand
When we turn to
Also
But
In comparison
So
However
The second text, though
Alternatively
Cause, effect, emphasising and illustrating connectives
Because
So
Therefore
Thus
Consequently
For example
Such as
For instance
As revealed by
In the case of
Above all
In particular
Especially
Significantly
Indeed
Notably
What to expect
•
•
•
•
The whole paper is 2 hours 15 minutes long.
It is divided into 2 sections
Section A is the reading section
You will be given 3 sources in an extract book and
asked to answer 4 questions using the source material
• Questions 1-3 are worth 8 marks and focus on 1 f the
source texts.You should spend 12 minutes answering
each of these questions
• Question 4 is worth 16 marks and will ask you to
compare 2 of the source texts.You should spend 24
minutes answering this question
Types of questions
•
-
The questions will usually test your ability to:
Find information (Information retrieval) 8 marks
Write about presentational features 8 marks
Analyse what is being suggested or inferred 8 marks
Compare how language is used in two texts 16 marks
APPLE- General analysis of nonfiction texts
audience- who is it for? How do you know
purpose- Why has is been created? What message(s) is given?
presentation- Features, images, layout. How do they
relate/ support the text?
language- Consider vocabulary, tone, stylistic devices,
phrasing used and structure of sentences.
effect on audience- Has the writing achieved its purpose
for the audience?
A FOREST- Language Devices to look
for:
alliteration
acts
pinions
repetition
exaggeration and Emotive language
statistics
triples
CODFISH- Presentational features to
look at:
colours
organisation
data/ diagrams
font/ Italics/ Bold
images/ Pictures
slogans/ catchphrases
headings/sub-headings
FIFAT- How reliable and authoritative
is the text
Very
F
I
F
A
T
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Very
Factual
Opinionated
Impersonal
(Unbiased)
Personal
(Biased)
Formal
Informal
Authoritative
Unreliable
Trustworthy
Untrustworthy
Find non-fiction
texts such as
articles, adverts,
flyers, leaflets
etc. and practice
using this grid to
find how reliable
and authoritative
the text is.
SECTION B
What to expect
• You will be asked to complete 2 non-fiction writing
tasks; the first worth 16 marks and the second 24
marks
• Aim to spend 25 minutes on the shorter writing
task and 35 minutes on the longer task.
• A clear purpose, form and audience will be given in
each task, however if no audience is mentioned,
then use the examiner as your audience (formal
writing)
Structure and paragraphs
• Start each new paragraph with a topic sentence.
• The remaining sentences in the paragraph should develop the idea
in more detail
• Link your paragraphs using connectives to make the shift from one
idea to the next smoother
• Start by introducing what you intend to discuss in tour writing in a
way which engages the reader.
• Develop your response in the next 3 or 4 paragraphs, expanding
your ideas
• Sustain your view point
• Keep the same style throughout
• End by emphasising your view point.
Sentences
• Use a mixture of sentence structures; simple,
compound, complex, questions and exclamations
Simple sentences
- Can be used one after another to add excitement
- Can be used to build tension
- Can also relieve tension
- A simple sentence after a series of longer sentences can
pull the reader up short and make a quick but
powerful point
Compound sentences
Compound sentences
- A compound sentence is 2 simple sentences joined
together with either a semi-colon or a conjunction.
Each part of the sentence could stand on its own.
- The second part of a compound sentence is linked
to the first part by the subject matter as well. It is
used to add extra information about the first part of
the sentence.
Complex Sentences
Complex sentences
- A complex sentence has one main clause, which
contains the main point of the sentence, and at least
one subordinate clause. A subordinate clause links to
the main clause but cannot stand on its own as a
sentence. It often starts with ‘who’ or ‘which’
e.g. The boy, who was alone at last, walked across
the field that led to the farm.
Questions, commands and
exclamations
• Questions, commands and exclamations should be used
sparingly, so that they have an impact.
• They can be used very effectively in writing to argue,
persuade or advice.
• In a piece of writing to argue, persuade or advice, you
should try to open or end the piece with a rhetorical
question.
• Commands are a good way of addressing the reader
directly.
• Exclamations show strong emotional reactions
Punctuation
Commas
- Used to separate a list
- To add clauses or phrases
- To separate a phrase that adds extra information or
detail.
Speech marks
- Punctuation at the end of speech is placed before the
final speech mark
- There should be only one speaker for each paragraph
Punctuation
Apostrophes
- Used to show possession
- To show a contraction (can’t)
Colons
- Used to introduce a list
- Introduce an explanation e.g. “I’m sorry I didn’t show up: I
had a heavy cold and my head hurt.”
Semi colons
- Used to indicate a short pause between 2 clauses or simple
sentences that are equally important.
- To separate phrases in a complicated list
Punctuation
Ellipses
- Used to create an idea that a situation will continue
forever.
e.g. It seems that tis cycle of bullying will continue
forever…
- To allow the reader to decide what might fill the
space
Language to engage reader
• Select vocabulary that is appropriate to the form,
the purpose and the audience.
• Use a wide range of vocabulary
• Use a range of connectives
• Use adverbs to provide more information
• Try to avoid nouns and verbs that sound very
general
Using language creatively
Imagery
- Similes make a comparison using ‘like’ or ‘as’
- Metaphors state things that are not literally true, but the comparison has a
strong effect
- Personification is a particular type of metaphor, giving inanimate objects
‘life’, often human characteristics
Clichés
- Avoid clichés. A cliché is an over-used phrase and this makes them less
effective.
Stylistic techniques
- Onomatopoeia is a way of capturing sounds in words. It is the term we use
when a word sounds like the sound it is describing
- Alliteration is when words begin with the same letter or sound
Irony
- It can be used in a humorous way
- It can be used for serious effect
Evidence, statistics and quotations,
Rhetoric and humour
• Using material which seems factual and the result of
research really makes your writing sound powerful
Rhetoric and humour
- Using humour engages your reader and is very
effective in writing to argue and persuade as it helps to
‘break down’ any barriers between you and the reader
Rhetoric is used to engage and persuade.
Rhetorical devices
• Rhetorical questions
• Lists of 3(sometimes adjectives for powerful effect)
• Direct address with use of the inclusive pronoun ‘we’
and ‘us’
• Assuming your audience’s agreement
• Appearing to agree with, or flatter, your opposition to
help win them the round
• Repetition of key words or phrases
• Exaggeration to make your point more strongly
The opening and ending
•
•
Try to open your writing with:
A short piece of conversation
An anecdote
A description
A rhetorical question
Your final paragraph should always leave your reader
with a clear impression of your ideas and your point of
view. It should link back to the introduction to round
off your writing.
Writing letters
• Put your address at the top right hand side
• Put their address on the top left hand side
Signing off
- If you are writing to someone you don’t know, you
should use ‘Dear Sir/Madam’ and end with ‘yours
faithfully’
- If you are writing to a named person or someone you
know formally you should use Dear Mrs Jones or Dear
Customer Services Manager and end with yours
sincerely.
Writing reports
• A report is usually a mainly factual account of a
recent event or set of circumstances
• It should be a mixture of facts and opinions
Writing articles
• An article has a clear purpose: to discuss or express
ideas, usually from a particular point of view
• You should also consider layout and presentational
features such as a headline, strapline and subheading
Writing to argue
Introduction
Development
• Where the
writer states
what their view
point is
Development
• Where
anecdotes or
experiences are
used as
evidence
Counterargument
rebuttal
• Where the other side
of the argument is
mentioned, only to be
dismissed or
disproved
• Where
statistics and
‘expert’
witnesses are
used as
evidence
Conclusion
• Where the writer
ends the argument
with a ‘punch’
Writing to persuade
•
-
Use techniques such as:
Effective structuring of ideas
Emotive language
Examples and anecdotes
Rhetoric devices
Writing to persuade
Introduction
• Catch your readers attention straight away
• State why you are writing in an interesting and friendly way
• Involve the reader and make sure that what you say is relevant to them
• Show that you have the authority to write on this topic (sound reasonable and trustworthy)
• Uses rhetorical question
• Choose your vocab with precision and care
4/5 Body paragraphs
• Introduce each paragraph with a clear and interesting topic sentence
• Think of using one further rhetorical question but make it subtle
• Discuss only ONE point per paragraph
• In one paragraph use an anecdote
• Be personal
• Link your points and develop them fully
• Acknowledge the main opposing view but with care, subtlety and tact- counter it
• Add authority- quote an expert, a survey or something to prove it works
• Use vivid description
Conclusion
• Add power by adding a few rhetoric devices
Writing to persuade
Conclusion
• Re-emphasize the common ground and why
your review is worthy of consideration
• Make sure your reader knows precisely what
you would like to happen next
• Only if appropriate to your audience and for
your purpose, end with an emotional plea
Writing to inform
• You should concentrate on:
- Choosing information to suit your purpose
- Organising your ideas into clear
- Writing an effective opening and ending
- Including facts and opinions
- Creating the right tone for your audience and purpose
What is the examiner looking for?
- Have you provided your audience with what it needs, wants, or might like to know and
nothing more?
- Have you given relevant details that are clear, fair and balanced – whether as facts or
opinions?
- Are the details given in a straightforward and unambiguous manner? - Language that informs
should rely on its denotation for meaning, i.e. its literal meaning, rather than
- connotation, i.e. suggested meaning.
- Are the relevant '5W+H' questions being answered, i.e. who, what, why, where, when and
how?
- Is the writing engaging and interesting to its audience, i.e. is its style lively?
- Is the detail given sufficient (i.e. not too much or too little).
Writing to inform
• CREATE A STRONG OPENING
- Begin with humour to engage your audience
- Or an account from personal experience which
gives a context for your writing
Writing to explain
• Give reasons for what happened, or how you feel, or
why something is important.
Present a
situation
Explain the
cause
Explain the
effect it had.
• You need to use casual connectives such as:
As a result of this
It might be
This meant that
The reason could have been
This is because
It may be that
As a consequence
Perhaps
Therefore
Possibly
Writing to review
First part
Explains the topic for review in a short summary or synopsis
Second part
Goes into more detail giving some examples that provide more
information about your topic and why you liked or didn’t like it.
You might also like to compare the topic with others
Final part
Give your overall recommendation- your view on whether or not
your reader will appreciate the item you are reviewing.
Writing to review
Positive
General
Negative
Irresistible
Plot
Bewildering
Hilarious
Type
Disappointing
Classic
Form
Superb
Hype
Unbelievable
Effects
Imitation
Suspense
Mood
Captivating
Typical
Clichéd
Impressive
Scenes
Excessive
Writing to advise
Present the
subject clearly
Offer advice
which is logical
and convincing
Demonstrate
benefits of
following your
advice
• Your tone needs to fit your purpose and audience.YOU ARE ADDRESSING
YOUR READER DIRECTLY
Language Features you can use
- Commands e.g. Make sure you add… Don’t forget to visit…
- Verbs like must and should which encourage the reader to act
- Softer verbs like can and may or could and might which give suggestions
- If…. (then)… sentences shows what would happen if you follow the advice.
RHETORIC- Used to engage and persuade
Rhetorical questions
Hyperbole
Emotive Language
Triples
Opinion as fact
Repetition
Involve the audience
Comments from experts
A COAST MAP- Used for writing and
analysing a piece to describe
Alliteration
Colours
Onomatopoeia
Assonance
Similes
Triples
Metaphors
Adjectives
Personification
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