GCSE English Language Mrs J Gibbs 2014 Exam Date 15th December (TBC) 2014 We have 15 lessons until your exam. We have 8 flexi sessions until your exam (mons/weds) This lesson will help you to: Understand the mark scheme of the exam Understand how to manage your time Identify and practice the key skills needed to answer Question 1 Preparing for Section A Each of you has been given a table with information about how to use your time in the exam. Generally if your target grade is a C or above you will sit the Higher tier Your teacher decides which tier you will be entered for based on your performance in class and CCA tasks. Even if you have a high target grade, you may be entered for the Foundation tier in June so that you gain at least a C. Then, if you are successful at this level you may resit the Higher tier next year. Lesson 1 Starter What is a non-fiction text? You have been given a selection of very short extracts. With your partner divide the extracts into a fiction and a non fiction pile. Put the fiction extracts to one side and focus on the nonfiction pile. Look at the following statements. With your group decide whether you agree, disagree or are unsure. Statements All non-fiction texts are similar Non-fiction texts are written in the present tense Most non-fiction texts are written in the third person Non-fiction texts seem to be impersonal Some non-fiction texts share features with fiction texts The layout of a non-fiction text depends on the purpose and audience of a text Band 4 A*- B Do Your exam answers will be marked and placed in a Band from 1 (lowest) to 4 (highest) Look at the following band descriptors. With a partner match the key words with the correct band. Perceptive Some/attempts limited clear detailed Band 3 B/C Band 2 C/D relevant Band 1 E/F Reading Question 1 In question 1 you are asked to do three things in your response: Retrieve Interpret Support Write down these key words in your book and with a partner come up with an explanation of each term. Review Below is an exam style question 1. Annotate the question to show what three things you are being asked to do: You are being asked to retrieve the important information and ideas in the article You are being asked to support the important information and ideas that you retrieve. Use evidence from the text to back up your point What do you understand from the article about…? The rest of the question will depend on what the article is about. You are being asked to interpret the important information and ideas that you retrieve. Read between the lines. What can you work out from the text without actually being told. Rating: Easy Learn how to retrieve Read the extract about finding peace in Tibet. (in booklet) In which paragraph does the writer explain: 1. The reasons for Jonah’s difficult childhood 2. Jonah’s experiences at school 3. The religion that Jonah found most interesting? Rating: Challenge Learn how to retrieve Read the extract about a recent experiment to see how young people cope when modern technology is taken away from them. Identify the important information in by making a list of 5 key points. E.g. 1. ‘Some volunteers said giving up technology for 24 hours was like trying to come off drugs’ 2. 3. 4. 5. Hinge Discuss your key points with a partner to see if you have found the most important information and ideas in the extract. Starter Read the mini texts and complete the table in your resource booklet. 5 mins! Learn how to support the information Now look at how to support the information that you have retrieved. How will you back it up with evidence from the text? Select words and phrases from the text to back up the information and ideas you retrieved. By the side of each key point, copy your selected words or phrases e.g. ‘They felt like they were going “cold turkey” to break a hard drug habit.’ Hinge Discuss your selection with a partner to see if you have found the best words and phrases to support the key points that you retrieved. She wore the necklace everyday Learn how to interpret the information and ideas To interpret something means to ‘read between the lines’ to work out what the text is saying, without actually being told explicitly. Discuss the hidden meanings here. She couldn’t get through the first lesson of the day without a can of Redbull. He kept the landing light on when he went to bed Hinge Using the table. Add your five key points to the column headed ‘Retrieval’ and supporting words and phrases in the column headed ‘Support’. Add your comments on what you think the writer might be suggesting in the column headed ‘Interpretation’. Some examples have been done for you. Discuss your table with a partner to see if you have interpreted the key points in an effective way. Apply Now you’re going to combine the key skills needed to answer Question 1: retrieving, supporting and interpreting Read the extract ‘IQ Tests’ Make a table like the one you had for ‘Facebook Generation’ and fill it in. Question 1 test You will now combine all your skills by completing a response to Question 1. You will have 15 minutes to complete the test using the source on Panda breeding. Check Improving your answer You will now be given an example response to ‘Panda breeding…’. This answer would be in Band 3 but annotations show you how you could improve the response up to a Band 4. (You would not need to add all of them to get into a Band 4 but these are examples of what you could say.) Improve Look again at your own response. With a partner decide which Band your response fits into at the moment. Use the following mark scheme: Mark Skills Band 4 Perceptiv e/detailed 7-8 marks • • • • Offers evidence the text has been understood Shows detailed reading of the text Makes perceptive connections and comments Provides quotations to support understanding Band 3 Clear/ Relevant 5-6 marks • • • • Shows clear evidence that the text is understood Shows clear reading of the text Begins to interpret and make connections Provides quotations to support understanding Self-assessment Ishu Zak Natasha Adam Amran Anisa Coral Muna Habon Kim Akshay Kallan Jesus Revise For homework complete another example question. What do you understand from the article about the Dogs Helping Kids Programme set up by Tracey Berridge? Lesson 2 Q2 Do What are the characteristics of an effective headline? With a partner come up with as many as you can. Short and catchy/memorable Often use puns (joke made out of the different meanings of words) Sometimes use alliteration Can be shocking or humourous Link to the text in some way Headlines with puns FROM RUSSIA WITH GLOVES SUPER CALEY GO BALLISTIC, CELTIC ARE ATROCIOUS! GORD HELP US NOW! CELEBRITY BIG BLUBBER WAYNE RUDE-NEY IRON MAN STEELS THE SCREEN – SURE HIT IS WELD DONE MUMPS OUTBREAK SWELLS Reading question 2 In the exam question 2 is based on source 2 and is worth 8 marks. You are asked to do 4 things in your response. Look at the question below. Can you work out what those four things are? Explain how the headline and picture are effective and how they link with the text. Review You are being asked to: Comment of the effect of the words used in the headline Comment on the effect of the details used in the picture Explain how the text links with the headline by using actual words and phrases from the text Explain how the text links with the picture by using actual words and phrases from the text What are you NOT being asked to do? Tip: don’t say that ‘the headline creates a picture in the reader’s mind’ or ‘it’s effective because it makes you want to read on.’ These are BANNED because they are vague and could relate to any headline. The effect needs to be connected to the article you’re reading Learn Look at the effect of words used in a headline. The example below is from an article about some local rail enthusiasts in Yorkshire. Their plans to re-open a disused railway as a tourist attraction have been approved. Full steam ahead for railway plans Why has the writer chosen these particular words? What effect is the writer trying to create? Think about the words in relation to what you know about the article. How do they add to your understanding of what is happening? Write your answer in a paragraph (use PEE+E structure) Hinge The writer has used a pun with the words ‘full steam ahead’. If something goes ‘full steam ahead’ it means it’s moving forward really quickly. The effect of this is to tell us the campaign has worked and we are pleased for the local rail enthusiasts that they can get started with the re-opening straight away. ‘Steam’ is also a word to do with old trains, so the writer is making a joke. Band 3 Looking at the pictures Look at the picture on the next slide, it is from an article about a street theatre company that visited Liverpool on the anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic. There were three giant puppets and this one is called Little Girl. List 6 details about this picture. Use these details to answer the questions on the next slide. Apply Explain why the writer has chosen a picture with these particular details. What effect is the writer trying to create? Think about these details in relation to what you know about this article. How do they add to your understanding of what is happening? Review The picture shows Little Girl, one of the giant puppets that was part of the street theatre company visiting Liverpool. We can see the huge crane holding her strings and the people watching in the background look tiny to emphasise how big the puppet is. There is also a real little girl staring up at her who looks extremely small and the effect is to reinforce the scale and show that Little Girl really isn’t little at all! Band 3 Tip: don’t say that the picture ‘catches the reader’s eye’ or that the picture is effective because ‘it stands out’. This could apply to any picture. The effects of the details you select need to link to the article you’re reading. Exam Practice Question 2 Complete to practice question. Rise of the Robots Explain how the headline and picture are effective and how they link to the text. 8 marks Reading Question 3 In the exam question 3 (Higher tier) is based on Source 3 and is worth 8 marks. You are asked to do 3 things in your response. Annotate this question to show what these three things are: Explain some of the thoughts and feelings … has when… select identify interpret Select parts of the text that convey thoughts and feelings of a character(s). This may include what is happening or what the character is saying or doing. Identify thoughts and feelings of a character or characters. Interpret the thoughts and feelings (read between the lines) and use your own words. Selecting parts of the text Start by looking for parts of the text that convey some of the thoughts and feelings of a character or characters. This could be found in what’s happening or what they are saying or thinking. Learn Read the short extract called Moon Landing by Buzz Aldrin. He and Neil Armstrong were the first two people to walk on the moon and this extract describes the moment they landed. Underline any parts of the extract that convey thoughts and feelings. Write an overview sentence about the extract (summarise what it is about.) Hinge Create a table in your books like the one below and using the parts of the text you have highlighted, then fill in your table. Selection Identification Interpretation 1. Neil and I looked at each other with a stolen glance of relief and immense satisfaction He is feeling relieved and satisfied (you have been specifically told this) Buzz Aldrin feels grateful that they have landed safely and probably thinks they are very lucky. He is extremely happy and proud about what they have achieved. 2. 3. We had less than 20 He is thinking about how seconds of fuel remaining little fuel they have (here the thought is implied) 4. 5. Apply Using your table, write a complete response to the question: Explain some of the thoughts and feelings that Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong have when they land on the moon. Check Compare your table with a partner. What similarities and differences do you notice? Top tip checklist for question 3 For band 4 you need to explain a range of thoughts and feelings in details relating to the whole text. Do not comment on language or effect on the reader for this question, you won’t get marks for it. Select parts of the text that enable you to explain thoughts and feelings. Sometimes you are told a thought/feeling, other times it is implied. Work through the source in order to keep your answer logical. Interpret means to infer meaning. Use your own words. One piece of text might imply more than one thought/feeling. Start your response with an overview sentence. Exam practice question 3 Now combine your skills and complete the ‘Dumbo in the Jungle’ question. Reading Question 4 In the exam, question 4 is based on Source 3 and a choice of either source 1 or 2 and is worth 16 marks. You are asked to do 3 things in your response. Compare the ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. Do With a partner discuss the meaning of the word analyse. What do you think it means and what are you being asked to do? Select Compare Comment Review When you read a text, you need to ask yourself what sort of language the writer has used. Make a list of all the different things you could look for. You will be given a checklist of language features to revise. Stick this into your book. Tip: you won’t have time to mention everything, just pick the language features you think are most effective. Learn Re-read the article on IQ tests. Highlight words, phrases and language features that you think might be effective. Apply Analysing means looking closely at specific words, phrases or language features and commenting on their specific effect on the reader. Answer the following questions: What is the writer suggesting when she includes the well-known metaphor ‘battle of the sexes’? The writer talks about IQ testing over ‘the past 100 years’ why does she include this fact? How does it affect your understanding of the text? The phrase ‘lagged behind’ is the beginning of an extended metaphor. Can you find two other phrases that continue the same idea in the next sentence? The writer uses the adjective ‘world-renowned’ to describe the expert in IQ testing. What effect does this have on the reader? What is the effect of using the word ‘juggling’? What’s the writer suggesting? Why is it a better word than ‘combining’? Simultaneous comparison With a partner, make a list of as many comparative words as you can. For an extra challenge try to list words that compare (similarities) and words that contrast (differences) E.g. Likewise = comparing Alternatively = contrasting A Closer Look at Language Read the first two paragraphs of the text: ‘Meat eaters – you are daredevils or dumb or both.’ What do you notice about the way these paragraphs have been written? Now read paragraph 3 of the text: ‘Meat eaters – you are daredevils or dumb or both.’ What do you notice about the way this paragraphs has been written? How does it compare to the previous paragraphs? Taking things further You have probably come up with interesting ideas but the following activities will push your ideas further: You will be given 10 cards with an aspect of language on each plus one blank one for your own ideas. Write the title of the article in the middle of your page. Take each card in turn and place it closer to or further from the title, depending on how useful you think it is in helping you to comment on the use of language in the text. If it is completely unhelpful, don’t put it on the paper at all. Compare Send one person from your group to look at another group to see how they have positioned their cards. Discuss any differences. Apply Now you have decided what is helpful you need to work on making your comments interesting. Look at the model below: In the first two paragraphs, the writer uses eight pronouns. In the third paragraph they use only 2. How could it be improved? Now look at the next example. Why is this better? In the first two paragraphs, there is a very personal feel to the writing. Many personal pronouns are used: ‘I’ve wondered’, ‘I’ll put aside,’ ‘I’m not stupid.’ are a few examples – and we are lulled into a false sense of security that she is telling us a fairly light-hearted story about her own reasons for being a vegetarian. In paragraph three, however, her tone completely changes. She uses a much more impersonal (and therefore more serious) tone – there are no first person pronouns at all. Instead Ellen uses a series of hardhitting facts to make her point about the dangers of eating meat. Apply Now write your own point about language. (Practice reading paper if time) You will be given the question you most need to practice. Preparing for Section B: Writing Section B is worth 40 marks. It is now your turn to produce non-fiction texts. You have to complete 2 tasks: one shorter task worth 16. marks and one longer task worth 24 marks. Shorter task: inform/explain/describe. (Only two of these) Longer task: argue/persuade. You are marked for both communication and accuracy. A* Writing questions Mark scheme: Band 4: Convincing/compelling Band 3: Clarity/success Band: Some Band 1: Limited To give reasons for something: the what, why, how To tell, give main facts or ideas about something or someone To make something come alive by using vivid details and language features. Writing to inform, explain, describe The question will be based on personal experience. Write an entry for your online blog, describing a place that you hate and explain why you dislike it so much. Write a brief article for real-life magazine, describing a childhood memory and explaining why it is important to you. Text What type of text are you producing? You will be told in the question what it is you have to write. This could be an article, leaflet, letter or a blog. Purpose The purpose may be given to you in the question or it may be implied. What is the implied purpose of the following: Write an information leaflet about a place your know well Write a letter applying for a part-time job you would like Write about a place that is special to you. Write about a person who is important to you and say why. Write a letter to the governors of your school informing them about changes you would like made and why. Explain your dreams and ambitions and explain how you could achieve them. Describe a nightmare world. Audience This is the person or people you are writing for. The audience may be given to you in the question or it may be implied. EG you may be asked to write for a newspaper/magazine, listeners of a radio programme or your local councillor. Task Look at the question below. Identify the text, audience and purpose. Write a brief article for real-life magazine, describing a childhood memory and explaining why it is important to you. Planning your response Before you start, spend a few minutes thinking about what you are going to say and what order you are going to say it in. Write an entry for your online blog, describing a place you hate and explain why you dislike it so much Mind-map some suggestions. Planning your response Now you have chosen the place you are going to describe, you need to consider what you are going to say about it. Below are some suggestions. Posters about diseases The doctor’s waiting room A horrible, smiling receptionist who looks fake Patients spreading germs everywhere Toys to keep children occupied are dirty and broken and noisy Everything white, cold and sterile Choosing and using your ideas The next step is to write your plan. You will need to decide: Which of these ideas you are going to use/develop How these ideas could be grouped together The best order in which to arrange these ideas. Focus on four or five main points and number them. These will form your paragraphs. Tip: You may want to structure your work in a more adventurous way; for example, using a flashback or introducing a twist at the end. Plan this carefully! Practice Using the steps we’ve discussed draw a spider diagram with ‘childhood memory’ in the centre and three or four examples of memories around it. Choose the one you think you can write about most effectively. Draw a spider diagram with your chosen memory in the middle and possible ideas around it. Now decide: Which of these ideas you are going to use/develop How these ideas could be grouped together The best order in which to arrange these ideas. Write a plan that focuses on four or five points and number them. Discuss this with a partner and make a note of any improvements to your plan. Tone The mood of your response will impact your reader. Your tone will make it obvious how you feel about the topic (or your reader). Light-hearted Witty Mocking Bitter Reassuring Angry Sad The tone you choose is up to you but should be appropriate to your topic. Choice of language To describe means to bring things alive by using vivid details and language features. Use your imagination to create an interesting and engaging picture. Each of you has been given an abstract noun. Complete the following short tasks. Choice of language Similes and metaphors Appeal to the senses Effective vocabulary Strong openings Rhetorical questions Alliteration List of three Tip: It’s not always appropriate to include all 5 senses. The sense you choose will depend on what you are describing. Openings – which is better? The doctor’s waiting room The first thing I noticed was the dead fish floating in the tank. Somehow, this didn’t fill me with confidence. I walked in through the door and saw lots of sick people all looking like they were about to die. Add an effective simile Effective choices She was wearing cheap perfume, the kind that stank like……………………………………………………………………………………….. It was........................ Add an effective adjective Language techniques Complete the following short tasks: Using your ‘childhood memory’ ideas, think of 2 similes and 2 metaphors that could be effectively included. List the senses that could be effectively included. Give 2 examples for each. HEAR TOUCH: Childhood memory SMELL TASTE SEE Effective vocabulary Adjective Verb Emotive language e.g. missing the concert was devastating Using your childhood memory ideas, list 3 adjectives, 3 verbs and 3 examples of emotive language that could be effectively included in your final response. Sentence structure Simple sentence: Subject: The pictures on the wall look deadly Compound sentence: Main verb First simple sentence: The walls are covered with frightening posters full of information about deadly diseases and this creates a scary atmosphere Joining word second simple sentence: Complex sentences A complex sentence is where one part of a sentence is dependent on the other: I hate the doctor’s surgery, especially the waiting room I was late for school; the bus broke down Question 6:36 minutes, 24 marks You are being asked to adopt a point of view You are being asked to address one of these Writing to argue, persuade The question will give you a topic to write about. Argue: to convince someone to have the same point of view as you Persuade: To convince someone to do or think something Writing to argue Firstly, identify the Text, Audience and Purpose of the question below: ‘Celebrities exploit their position in society and offer nothing in return.’ Write an article for a magazine of your choice, arguing for or against this idea. ‘Celebrities exploit their position in society and offer nothing in return.’ Write an article for a magazine of your choice, arguing for or against this idea. Identify the TAP ‘Many people believe that it is our duty to support space exploration, whatever the cost.’ Write an article for a website which argues for or against the idea of exploring other worlds. Compare your TAP with a partner to see if you agree. Planning your response Decide what point of view you are going to adopt. Do you completely agree with the statement, completely disagree with it or agree with just parts of it. Now think about the reasons why you believe this to be true. You should also consider some of the reasons why it may not be true. Mindmap possible arguments both for and against the statement below: ‘Celebrities exploit their position in society and offer nothing in return.’ Write an article for a magazine of your choice, arguing for or against this idea. Choosing and using your reasons The next step is to write your plan: Which of the reasons are you going to use a develop How could these reasons be grouped together What is the best order in which to arrange these reasons? TASK: look at your mindmap, pick the best ones to develop, identify any that you could group together, then number them in a logical order. Make kids want to be famous Everyone thinks they can be a celeb Bad role models by getting drunk and having affairs Charity work Some are rich but don’t actually do anything celebrities May have no talent Fake tans and designer clothes Some talented singers and film stars Inspire us Structuring your argument Your argument should consist of three parts: Part 1: state your point of view clearly so that everything follows logically from here. There are several ways this can be structured. The most effective way is to present your counterargument first, dismiss it and then develop Part 2: Develop and sustain your point of view but include the other side of the argument. This shows that you have considered it and dismissed it because your point of view is stronger. Part 3: Conclude your response by summing up your points, referring back to the title and restating your point of view.