The Rhetoric of Academic Writing-

advertisement
THE RHETORIC OF ACADEMIC WRITING
T H E G R A DUAT E W R I T I N G
C EN T ER
TO M A K E A N A P P O I N T M E N T W I T H A C O N S U LTA N T:
HTTPS://SECURE.GRADSCH.PSU.EDU/WCCAL/STUDENTVIEW.CFM
NICOLETTE HYLAN
M ATTHEW PR IC E
RHETORIC
“The artful blend of fact and opinion”
Audience—what do they expect, know, already hold
as an opinion?
Ethos—what is your relationship to your audience
and to your subject? What is your authority?
Context—in what venue will your work be published
or presented?
Exigence—what is your reason for writing?
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Research articles contribute new knowledge to a particular field
Introduction concerns:
•
Establish a question to answer, problem to solve
•
Answer the “so what?” question
•
Explain why filling the gap in previous research matters
•
State your thesis
ORGANIZATION
Organize your dolls!
Metadiscourse:
Authorial contract (promise)
“In this paper, I aim (contend/argue)…”
Textual features (signposts)
“In order to understand A, one must first recognize B.”
“Contrary to point A, I would like to suggest point B.
Most importantly to my argument, A suggests…”
COHERENCE
Coherence denotes a sense of connection between
individual sentences and paragraphs. It is achieved
through the following strategies:
• Strong topic sentences
• Transition words and phrases
• Style and readability
STRONG TOPIC SENTENCES
A topic sentence accomplishes the following tasks:
1. Expresses a claim (not a fact) that supports the larger
thesis
2. Indicates the content of the paragraph
2. Creates a transition from the previous paragraph
Example: “Although these critics have diagnosed Hamlet
with indecision, his fatal flaw in fact lies in his
hastiness.”
STYLE AND READABILITY
Active versus passive voice
“Moby Dick is pursued by the monomaniacal Captain Ahab.”
“Captain Ahab’s monomania drives him to pursue Moby Dick.”
Weak linking verbs
“Horatio Alger is an American writer who produced hundreds of popular novels for
young boys.”
“The American writer Horatio Alger produced hundreds of popular novels for young
boys.”
When to use “I”
Open and close paragraphs with YOUR words, not quotes.
Effective use of punctuation
In the final scene, Hamlet reveals the truth: he has poisoned Claudius and himself.
Hamlet ‘s famous soliloquy has elicited much critical commentary; it remains,
however, difficult to interpret.
The old king—Hamlet’s father—continues to haunt Hamlet throughout the play.
TRANSITIONS
Addition (furthermore, more importantly, additionally, moreover,
similarly)
Exemplification (One example of this ______, for instance)
Opposition (on the other hand, conversely, in contrast)
Similarity (Likewise, similarly, in the same way)
Cause and effect (because of this ___, as a result, consequently,
therefore, for that reason)
Time order (subsequently, afterward, prior to this ___,
consequently, previously)
Avoid beginning with For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So.
See also: https://www.msu.edu/~jdowell/135/transw.html
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROPOSALS
A scientific research proposal serves the following
functions:
• Outlines the goals, methods , disciplinary context , and
significance of your proposed study
• Convinces your scientific audience that the topic you propose to
investigate is worth exploring
• Persuades your audience that you will conduct your study in a
sensible way
• Demonstrates your familiarity with relevant research in the field
and establishes that you are qualified to carry out the proposed
research
LITERATURE REVIEW
A literature review charts the existing research on your topic(s)
in a way that demonstrates the significance of your work to the
broader field. It accomplishes the following tasks:
• Provides background information on your topic
• Establishes the importance of your topic to the field
• Carves out a space for your work by highlighting weaknesses
or gaps in the research
• Identifies trends or major ideas in the research that you are
building on, or that are necessary to understand your
argument
• Situates your work in relation to other prominent
perspectives and methodologies
BOOK REVIEW
A book review briefly summarizes and evaluates a
published scholarly work.
Summarizing :
• Outline central argument,
evidence, and methodologies
• Highlight important sections of
the book
• Connect to major debates in the
field, or in the author’s other work
Evaluating :
• Assess quality of research, argument,
methodology, prose style, and use of
evidence
•Measure the significance of the study to
the broader field
• Clarify implicit arguments or
implications that may not be immediately
clear
ABSTRACTS (FOR CONFERENCES)
Abstract for conferences should succinctly accomplish
the following tasks:
• Establish your object of study and main argument
• Briefly detail your methodology and use of evidence
• Contextualize your study within the broader field
• Establish your work’s importance to that field
REACTION PAPERS
Reaction papers require you to analyze, synthesize, and/or
critically respond to a reading assignment. You might
approach this assignment in one of the following ways:
• Identify what was most valuable or interesting about the
reading.
• Offer a critical evaluation of the central argument or
methodology
• Trace an idea that emerges in the text, and elaborate the
significance of that idea.
• Explain how this reading relates to other works you’ve
read in the course
IDENTIFY RHETORICAL AND STYLISTIC WEAKNESSES IN
THE FOLLOWING PARAGRAPH, AND SUGGEST METHODS
FOR REVISION:
“Foam applications” is the phrase used to describe the process that
applies additives to a moving paper web as foam. This process has many
advantages over conventional liquid applications. Two problems have
hindered the progress of this new technology. The process must be
established in the paper industry. The speed limits encountered in the
current application technology must be increased in order to expand the
number of paper machines that can potentially use foam. The development
work run at the Placerville plant is attacking both of these problem areas,
and this report summarizes the achievements that have been
accomplished there during the year.
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards