Basic Camera Techniques

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HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
The word Photography comes from
the Greek word photos which
means light and graphe which
means to draw. This basically
means that Photography is drawing
with light.
Photography as we know it today,
where a permanent image can be
captured, dates back to 1825 when
the French inventor called Joseph
Nicéphore Niépce created the
black and white image to the right
using a metal plate covered in a
light sensitive coating.
View from the Window at Le Gras, France
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
The first colour image was
produced in 1861 by the Scottish
physicist James Clerk Maxwell
and was produced by projecting
three images, one red, one blue
and green which when combined
created the image to the right.
Digital photography which we use
today (photography without the
use of film or chemicals) dates
back to the 1970’s where Steven
Sasson, and engineer at Kodak,
used an image sensor instead of
film.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Light
Photography would not be possible without light. Light is a form of
electromagnetic radiation which is visible to the human eye.
The study of light and how it interacts with different things is called
optics and the area of optics is something which is very important to
the creation of an image using a camera.
Light always moves in a
straight line
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Refraction
Refraction is the bending of light when
light rays pass between one
transparent object (for example glass)
and another (for example air or water)
An example of this is shown to the
right. Refraction causes the pencil to
appear to be broken and not line up.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Refraction
When light meets a transparent object it slows
down as it slows it changes direction as is shown
in the example below
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Refraction & Lenses
Convex lenses are used in
camera lenses. These lenses
take advantage of refraction and
as they are curved they are able
to focus light to a single point.
This makes it possible for us to
capture an image which is in
focus.
A side effect a refracting lense
like this one is that the image
projected appears upside down.
This is exactly the same in the
human eye however our brain
corrects the image so we don’t
see the world upside down.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Focal Point and Focal Length
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Path of Light Through a
Camera
The camera shown here is
called an SLR camera. This
stands for Single Lens Reflex.
Single Lens - because there is
only one path of light through
the camera to both the
viewfinder and film.
Reflex – because of the mirror
which moves out of the way
when you press the button to
take a photograph. This allows
the film behind it to be exposed
to the light entering the
camera.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Direct & Diffuse Transmission
Direct transmission of light can be
found when light passes through a
transparent material such as glass
in a thin clean window. The light
passes easily through with little
distortion
When light passes through a
translucent material such as tracing
paper or white acrylic the light rays
are scattered. This happens when
light rays are scattered by clouds
which pass in front of it.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Absorbtion of Light
Light is made of a spectrum of
colour and is called the RGB (Red,
Green and Blue) Additive Colour
Model.
White light is made up of a
combination of red green and blue
combined. Rainbows are a good
example of this. When white light is
scattered it is possible to see all the
colours of the spectrum.
The absence of all light is black.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Absorbtion of Light
Only light which reflects off an
object can be seen.
Once light is absorbed by an object it is
transformed into heat and is no longer
visible to the naked eye.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Reflection of Light
Reflection makes
vision possible. We
do not see objects; we
see light Because
most objects produce
no light, their visibility
depends entirely on
light reflected from
them.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Reflection of Light
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Reflection
Diffuse
Specular
Is a mirror like reflection of
light.
A single ray of light is reflected
off a smooth shiny surface in a
single direction.
Is the reflection of light in many
directions.
This happens when a surface is
rough (at a microscopic level)
such as paper, plaster walls or
fibre in clothing.
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Reflection
Specular
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
Reflection
Diffuse
HIGHER PHOTOGRAPHY
UNIT 1:
BASIC CAMERA TECHNIQUES
A white object reflects all the light
(therefore reflects all the colours) and very
little is transformed into heat.
A black object will absorb all the light (and
therefore all the colours) and most of the
energy is transformed into heat.
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