Lesson 21

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Lesson 21
Joseph C. Blumenthal
In this unit we study other useful devices for
subordination that will help us to write more
mature sentences. When we subordinate a
fact or idea, we express it in a word group
that is (more, less) than a sentence.
In this unit we study other useful devices for
subordination that will help us to write more
mature sentences. When we subordinate a
fact or idea, we express it in a word group
that is (more, less) than a sentence.
Prepositional phrases and adverb, adjective, and
noun clauses are subordinate word groups
because they (do, do not) make complete sense
apart from a sentence.
Prepositional phrases and adverb, adjective, and
noun clauses are subordinate word groups
because they (do, do not) make complete
sense apart from a sentence.
Verbals are also useful devices for subordination.
A verbal is a verb that has crossed the boundary
line and has become another class of word
without completely losing its identity as a
verb.
A word that functions both as a verb and an
adjective would be classified as a _____.
Verbals are also useful devices for subordination.
A verbal is a verb that has crossed the boundary
line and has become another class of word
without completely losing its identity as a
verb.
A word that functions both as a verb and an
adjective would be classified as a verbal.
The three kinds of verbals that we study in this
unit are all “double-duty” words that have
some of the characteristics of both a verb and
another class of words—sometimes a noun,
sometimes an adverb or an adjective.
Look at the word verbal. As its name suggests,
every verbal is formed from a ____.
The three kinds of verbals that we study in this
unit are all “double-duty” words that have
some of the characteristics of both a verb and
another class of words—sometimes a noun,
sometimes an adverb or an adjective.
Look at the word verbal. As its name suggests,
every verbal is formed from a verb.
a cold wind
Because the word cold modifies the noun wind, it is
an ________.
a cold wind
Because the word cold modifies the noun wind, it is
an adjective.
a stinging wind
Because the word stinging modifies the noun wind, it
is also an ________.
a stinging wind
Because the word stinging modifies the noun wind, it
is also an adjective.
a cold, stinging wind
Which adjective was formed from a verb—cold
or stinging?
a cold, stinging wind
Which adjective was formed from a verb—cold
or stinging?
a stinging wind
The adjective stinging was formed by adding ___
to the verb sting.
a stinging wind
The adjective stinging was formed by adding ing
to the verb sting.
An adjective that is formed by adding –ing to a
verb is called a present participle. We can
turn any verb into a present participle by
adding –ing to it (sometimes making a minor
change in the spelling).
The present participle form of the verb lose is
_____.
An adjective that is formed by adding –ing to a
verb is called a present participle. We can
turn any verb into a present participle by
adding –ing to it (sometimes making a minor
change in the spelling).
The present participle form of the verb lose is
losing.
The present participle form of the verb win is
_______.
The present participle form of the verb win is
winning.
a. We have a good team.
b. We have a winning team.
In which sentence does a present participle
modify the noun team? (a, b)
a. We have a good team.
b. We have a winning team.
In which sentence does a present participle
modify the noun team? (a, b)
Besides being formed from a verb, a present
participle resembles a verb in still another
way; It may take a direct object or a subject
compliment, as no ordinary adjective can do.
I found Roy reading a magazine. (Roy read
magazine)
The present participle reading is completed by
the direct object ________.
Besides being formed from a verb, a present
participle resembles a verb in still another
way; It may take a direct object or a subject
compliment, as no ordinary adjective can do.
I found Roy reading a magazine. (Roy read
magazine)
The present participle reading is completed by
the direct object magazine.
I found Roy feeling lonesome. (Roy feel
lonesome.)
The present participle feeling is completed by the
subject compliment ________.
I found Roy feeling lonesome. (Roy feel
lonesome.)
The present participle feeling is completed by the
subject compliment lonesome.
Like the verb from which it is made, a present
participle may be modified by an adverb.
The lawyer defended her client, believing firmly
in his innocence.
The present participle believing is modified by
the adverb ______.
Like the verb from which it is made, a present
participle may be modified by an adverb.
The lawyer defended her client, believing firmly
in his innocence.
The present participle believing is modified by
the adverb firmly.
Participles—with their related words—form
useful phrases known as participial phrases.
These phrases are used as adjectives to
modify nouns and pronouns.
The dog, shivering with cold, came into the house.
The participial phrase modifies the noun ___.
Participles—with their related words—form
useful phrases known as participial phrases.
These phrases are used as adjectives to
modify nouns and pronouns.
The dog, shivering with cold, came into the house.
The participial phrase modifies the noun dog.
A participial phrase can often be shifted about.
Shivering with cold, the dog came into the house.
The dog, shivering with cold, came into the house.
The dog came into the house, shivering with cold.
Can a participial phrase be some distance away
from the noun it modifies? (yes, no)
A participial phrase can often be shifted about.
Shivering with cold, the dog came into the house.
The dog, shivering with cold, came into the house.
The dog came into the house, shivering with cold.
Can a participial phrase be some distance away
from the noun it modifies? (yes, no)
The train roared past, leaving a trail of smoke.
The participial phrase is separated by several
words from the word it modifies, the noun
_____.
The train roared past, leaving a trail of smoke.
The participial phrase is separated by several
words from the word it modifies, the noun
train.
We now have become acquainted with three
kinds of word groups that are used like
adjectives to modify nouns.
ADJECTIVE PHRASE: a girl with a dog
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: a girl who was walking
her dog
PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: a girl walking her dog
All three word groups modify the noun ___.
We now have become acquainted with three
kinds of word groups that are used like
adjectives to modify nouns.
ADJECTIVE PHRASE: a girl with a dog
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE: a girl who was walking
her dog
PARTICIPIAL PHRASE: a girl walking her dog
All three word groups modify the noun girl.
To change a sentence to a participial phrase is
simple.
(We) heard a loud crash. We rushed to the window.
Hearing a loud crash, We rushed to the window.
To change the italicized sentence to a participial
phrase, drop the subject We and change the
verb heard to the present participle _______.
To change a sentence to a participial phrase is
simple.
(We) heard a loud crash. We rushed to the window.
Hearing a loud crash, We rushed to the window.
To change the italicized sentence to a participial
phrase, drop the subject We and change the
verb heard to the present participle hearing.
I picked up the hot pan. (I) thought it was cold.
I picked up the hot pan, thinking it was cold.
To change the italicized sentence to a participial
phrase, drop the subject I and change the verb
thought to the present participle ______.
I picked up the hot pan. (I) thought it was cold.
I picked up the hot pan, thinking it was cold.
To change the italicized sentence to a participial
phrase, drop the subject I and change the verb
thought to the present participle thinking.
(Bob) needed a haircut. He looked for a barber shop.
Needing a haircut, he looked for a barber shop.
In changing the italicized sentence to a participial
phrase, we lost the subject ___.
(Bob) needed a haircut. He looked for a barber shop.
Needing a haircut, he looked for a barber shop.
In changing the italicized sentence to a participial
phrase, we lost the subject Bob.
(Bob) needed a haircut. He looked for a barber shop.
(Bob)
Needing a haircut, he looked for a barber shop.
To let the reader know the name of the person
you’re writing about, you must substitute Bob
for the pronoun ___ in the main statement.
(Bob) needed a haircut. He looked for a barber shop.
(Bob)
Needing a haircut, he looked for a barber shop.
To let the reader know the name of the person
you’re writing about, you must substitute Bob
for the pronoun he in the main statement.
If you lose a noun when making a participial
phrase, put this noun back at the beginning of
your main statement.
Aunt Mae lives alone. She is often lonesome for
company.
What goes in the blank space?
Living alone, _________ is often lonesome for
company.
If you lose a noun when making a participial
phrase, put this noun back at the beginning of
your main statement.
Aunt Mae lives alone. She is often lonesome for
company.
What goes in the blank space?
Living alone, Aunt Mae is often lonesome for
company.
Which two sentences you subordinate depends
on which idea you prefer to put in the
background if the sentence.
a. Reaching for the sugar, I knocked over a
glass.
b. I reached for the sugar, knocking over a glass.
Which of the two sentences emphasizes the
accident that occurred? (a, b)
Which two sentences you subordinate depends
on which idea you prefer to put in the
background if the sentence.
a. Reaching for the sugar, I knocked over a
glass.
b. I reached for the sugar, knocking over a glass.
Which of the two sentences emphasizes the
accident that occurred? (a, b)
a. Reaching for the sugar, I knocked over a
glass.
b. I reached for the sugar, knocking over a glass.
Which sentence emphasizes the action that led to
the accident? (a, b)
a. Reaching for the sugar, I knocked over a
glass.
b. I reached for the sugar, knocking over a glass.
Which sentence emphasizes the action that led to
the accident? (a, b)
Put a comma after any participial phrase that
comes at the beginning of a sentence.
a. Thinking the paint was dry I sat on the bench.
b. We removed the tree shading the flower beds.
Which sentence requires a comma? (a, b)
Put a comma after any participial phrase that
comes at the beginning of a sentence.
a. Thinking the paint was dry I sat on the bench.
b. We removed the tree shading the flower beds.
Which sentence requires a comma? (a, b)
Put a comma after any participial phrase that
comes at the beginning of a sentence.
a. We noticed a small dog crossing the busy
highway.
b. Attempting to start a conversation I made
some remark about the weather.
Which sentence requires a coma? (a, b)
Put a comma after any participial phrase that
comes at the beginning of a sentence.
a. We noticed a small dog crossing the busy
highway.
b. Attempting to start a conversation I made
some remark about the weather.
Which sentence requires a coma? (a, b)
When a participial phrase ends a sentence, look
for the word it modifies. If it modifies the
subject at the other end of the sentence, set it
off with a comma.
a. We found Mr. Ling hoeing his garden.
b. Mr. ling was in the back year hoeing his
garden.
Which sentence requires a coma? (a, b)
When a participial phrase ends a sentence, look
for the word it modifies. If it modifies the
subject at the other end of the sentence, set it
off with a comma.
a. We found Mr. Ling hoeing his garden.
b. Mr. ling was in the back year hoeing his
garden.
Which sentence requires a coma? (a, b)
a. The director took us through the museum
explaining all the important pictures.
b. The museum sold a guidebook explaining all
the important pictures.
Which sentence requires a coma because the
participial phrase that ends the sentence
modifies the subject? (a, b)
a. The director took us through the museum
explaining all the important pictures.
b. The museum sold a guidebook explaining all
the important pictures.
Which sentence requires a coma because the
participial phrase that ends the sentence
modifies the subject? (a, b)
Write the following answers on your own
sheet of paper.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
EXAMPLE:
I read the list of winners. I hoped to see my
name.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
EXAMPLE:
I read the list of winners. I hoped to see my
name.
I read the list of winners, hoping to see my name.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
Be sure to change the italicized sentence—not the
main statement—to a participial phrase. If
you lose your subject in so doing, put it back
at the start of the main statement.
1. Fred stood at the window. He saw the
lightning strike.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
Be sure to change the italicized sentence—not the
main statement—to a participial phrase. If
you lose your subject in so doing, put it back
at the start of the main statement.
1. Fred stood at the window. He saw the
lightning strike.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
Be sure to change the italicized sentence—not the
main statement—to a participial phrase. If
you lose your subject in so doing, put it back
at the start of the main statement.
2. Reverend Jesse Jackson stresses education. He
maintains it is key to success.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
Be sure to change the italicized sentence—not the
main statement—to a participial phrase. If
you lose your subject in so doing, put it back
at the start of the main statement.
3. Mrs. Kern held on to the purse-snatcher. She
shouted for help.
(HINT: Don’t lose Mrs. Kern in your revision.)
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
Eliminate the and by changing the italicized
statement to a participial phrase.
4. The company expected a strike and bought a
large amount of steel.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
Eliminate the and by changing the italicized
statement to a participial phrase.
5. We walked along the shore and looked for a
place to swim.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
6. Lita worked until midnight and finally
completed her essay.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
7. A milk truck overturned and caused a traffic
jam.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
8. Several planes circled the airport and waited
their turn to land.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
9. A present participle always ends with the
letters ___.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
10. A participle is considered a verbal because it
has the characteristics of both a verb and an
_______.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing the
italicized sentence to a participial phrase.
Insert a comma wherever needed.
11. A participial phrase can come either before
or after the noun it modifies (true, false).
You are done!!!
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