Rewayat Hafs 'An 'Aasim
by the way of Shaatibiyyah
Muslla altaqwa
1st lecture
25 Safar 1434
Hadith Shareef
 Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:
The Messenger of Allah () said to me:
 "Whoever recites a letter from the Book of Allah,
he will be credited with a good deed, and a good
deed gets a ten-fold reward. I do not say that AlifLam-Mim is one letter, but Alif is a letter, Lam is a
letter and Mim is a letter.''
 [At-Tirmidhi]
What is Tajweed
 Tajweed linguistically - to improve and make better
 Tajweed technically - the correct recitation of the
Qur'an that is achieved by articulating the letter from
its articulation point and giving each letter its rights
and due .
 Rights of the letter are its required characteristics that
never leave it.
 The dues of the letter are its present characteristics
that are present in it sometimes and not presented in
other time.
Makharej & Sifat
 The most important part of Tajweed is learning about
correct positions of the organs of speech and the
manner of articulation. The Qur'an can lose its
meaning if the letters are not pronounced correctly.
 For example ( ‫ ) ح‬not to be pronounced as Ha ( ‫ ) هـ‬nor
kha ( ‫)خ‬
 This is so important because it may led to change not
only the sound of the word but the meaning as well (
‫ ) الرحيم‬merciful ( ‫ ) الرخيم‬sweet sound
The definition of the makharij
 The correct position of the organs of speech in order
to produce a letter so that it can be differentiated from
 This is equally so whether the letter is a consonant or
a vowel.
 Being able to recite the letters correctly is the
foundation of tajweed, and this is achieved by
knowing where the sound originates. This can then
help in practising the pronunciation of the letters
 The diagram below gives a snapshot of where each
letter originates :
Makharej & Sifat
 To achieve the correct makhraj of a letter, practise
via placing a sukoon ( ) on it, and precede it with
an alif / hamzah with a kasrah ( )
 E.g ‫اس اب‬
 Makhaarij must be used hand in hand with sifa
(characteristics of the letter) in order to
pronounce the letter completely and correctly, as
the Makhraj provides the origin and the Sifa
provides extra information required to pronounce
the letter properly.
Main Makhaarij
 There are 5 main categories of Makhaarij :
 1. The oral cavity Al Jawf ‫اﻟﺠَﻮف‬
 2. The throat Al Halq ‫اﻟﺤَﻠﻖ‬
 3. The tongue Al Lissaan ‫اﻟﻠِّﺴَﺎن‬
 4. The lips Ash-shafatain ‫اﻟﺸَّﻔَﺘﺎن‬
 5. The nasal cavity Al Khayshoom ‫اﻟﺨَﻴﺸُﻮم‬
The 1st makhraj : Al Jawf
 This is all the empty space that occurs from the chest,
up the throat and out through the mouth.
 It is the makhraj of the long vowels sounds (also
known as the elongated letters) and is elongated for 2
upon which there is a
(sukoon)and is preceded by a
upon which there is a
(sukoon)and is preceded by a
upon which there is a
(sukoon)and is preceded by a
In the Qur'an, the sukoon may not
always be shown on the letter, but
as a general rule, whenever a letter
does not carry a vowel, it means
that it has a sukoon, even if it is not
actually present.
2nd makhraj : Al Halq
In the throat there are 3 makhaarij
and each one has 2 letters:
1. The lowest part of the throat: ،‫(أ‬
) ‫هـ‬
2. The mid point of the throat:)‫ح‬،‫(ع‬
3. The uppermost point of the
throat: )‫خ‬،‫(غ‬
makhraj : Al Halq
makhraj : Al Halq
The lowest
The mid point
part of the
of the throat
t point of
the throat
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