3300 B.C. Egyptians perfect hieroglyphics

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Early Innovations
3300 BCE – 1500 CE
Early Innovations
3300 BCE – 1500 CE
3300 B.C.
Egyptians perfect hieroglyphics

This system of writing involved
absolutely no vowels, consisting
only of consonants.

The Egyptians also did not use any
form of punctuation or spacing.

With over 700 ancient
Egyptian symbols representing
actual words and thousands of
others used for individual sounds,
some quite intricate, it took quite a
long time to learn to write in
hieroglyphics.

Egyptian hieroglyphics were
written both vertically in rows
and horizontally in columns.
Early Innovations
3300 BCE – 1500 CE
1050 BCE
Semites devise the alphabet
Alf
Bet
Gaml
Delt
He
Wau
Zai
Het
Tet
Yod
Kaf
Lamd
Mem
Nun
Semk
Ain
Pe
Sade
Qof
Rosh
Shin
Tau

The Phoenician adaptation of the alphabet
was extremely successful, and variants were
adapted around the Mediterranean from
about the 9th century BC, notably giving rise
to the Greek, Old Italic,
Anatolian and Paleohispanic scripts.

The alphabet's success was due in part to its
phonetic nature; Phoenician was the first
widely used script in which one sound was
represented by one symbol. This simple
system contrasted with the other scripts in
use at the time, such as Cuneiform and
Egyptian hieroglyphs, which employed
many complex characters and were difficult
to learn.

Phoenician had long-term effects on the
social structures of the civilizations which
came in contact with it. The script was the
first widespread phonetic script. Its simplicity
not only allowed it to be used in multiple
languages, but it also allowed the common
people to learn how to write.
Early Innovations
3300 BCE – 1500 CE
1000 BCE
Egyptian papyrus, early form of paper
Bill of sale for a donkey on papyrus

Thick paper-like material produced from
the core of a papyrus plant.

Ancient Egyptians used papyrus as writing
material and for boats, mattresses, mats,
rope, sandals, and baskets.

Sheets of parchment were folded to form
quires from which book-form codices were
fashioned.

Papyrus had the advantage of being
relatively cheap and easy to produce, but
it was fragile and susceptible to both
moisture and excessive dryness. Unless the
papyrus was of perfect quality, the writing
surface was irregular, and the range of
media that could be used was also limited.
Early Innovations
3300 BCE – 1500 CE
60 BCE
Acta Diurna, forerunner of newspaper

Latin for Daily Acts sometimes translated
as Daily Public Records.

They were daily Roman official notices, a sort
of daily gazette. They were carved on stone
or metal and presented in message boards in
public places like the Forum of Rome.

Their original content included results of legal
proceedings and outcomes of trials. Later the
content was expanded to public notices and
announcements and other noteworthy
information such as prominent births,
marriages and deaths. After a couple of days
the notices were taken down and archived
(though no intact copy has survived to the
present day).

Sometimes scribes made copies of
the Acta and sent them to provincial
governors for information. Later emperors
used them to announce royal or senatorial
decrees and events of the court.
Early Innovations
3300 BCE – 1500 CE
1041 CE
Printing by means of separate,
movable characters in China

Movable type is the system
of printing and typography that
uses movable components to
reproduce the elements of a
document (using individual letters
or punctuation).

Created by Bi Sheng during
the Song Dynasty.

This form of printing was expensive,
and required an enormous
amount of labor involved in
manipulating the thousands of
metal tablets required for scripts
based on the Chinese writing
system, which have thousands of
characters.
Early Innovations
3300 BCE – 1500 CE
1446 CE
Johannes Gutenberg introduces moveable
type printing press in Germany
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg
(1398-1468)

Influenced by records of Bi Sheng,
Gutenberg invented the printing
press and developed a movable type
system in Europe.

The limited number of characters
needed for European languages was
an important factor, making the
process more efficient.

Gutenberg was the first to create his
type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin,
and antimony—the same components
still used today.

The metal type pieces were more
durable and the lettering was more
uniform, leading to
typography and fonts.
Early Innovations
3300 BCE – 1500 CE
1468 A.D.
William Caxton produces a book in
England with the printed advertisement

‘If it pies ony man spirituel or
temporel to bye ony pyes of two
and three comemoracids of
salisburi vse enpryntid after the
forme of this preset lcttre whiche
ben wel and truly correct, late
hym come to wcstmonester in to
the almonesrye at the reed pale,
and he shall have them good
chep.’

This advertisement offers
consumers the chance to pick
up prayer books at the Red Pale
tavern near the home for
destitute women in Westminster.
They are available for a cheap
price.
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