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Presentation outline
1. newspaper brief history.
2. Types of news paper
3. Head lines
*types of head lines and examples.
*Differences between head lines
Newspaper history
For centuries, civilizations have used print media
to spread news and information to the masses. The
Roman Acta Diurna, appearing around 59 B.C, is the
earliest recorded “newspaper”. Julius Caesar, wanting
to inform the public about important social and
political happenings, ordered upcoming events posted
in major cities. Written on large white boards and
displayed in popular places like the Baths, the Acta
kept citizens informed about government scandals,
military campaigns, trials and executions. In 8th
century China, the first newspapers appeared as handwritten newsheets in Beijing.
Newspaper history
The printing press, invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1447,
ushered in the era of the modern newspaper. Gutenberg’s
machine enabled the free exchange of ideas and the spread of
knowledge -- themes that would define Renaissance Europe.
During this era, newsletters supplied a growing merchant class
with news relevant to trade and commerce. Manuscript
newssheets were being circulated in German cities by the late
15th century. These pamphlets were often highly
sensationalized; one reported on the abuse that Germans in
Transylvania were suffering at the hands of Vlad TsepesDrakul,
also known as Count Dracula. In 1556 the Venetian government
published Notizie scritte, for which readers paid a small coin, or
Newspaper history
In the first half of the 17th century, newspapers began to
appear as regular and frequent publications. The first modern
newspapers were products of western European countries like
Germany (publishing Relation in 1605), France (Gazette in
1631), Belgium (Nieuwe Tijdingen in 1616) and England (the
London Gazette, founded in 1665, is still published as a court
journal). These periodicals consisted mainly of news items from
Europe, and occasionally included information from America or
Asia. They rarely covered domestic issues; instead English papers
reported on French military blunders while French papers
covered the latest British royal scandal.
Newspaper history
No sooner had newspapers adapted to radio than they
were forced to re-evaluate themselves in light of a new and
more powerful medium: television. Between 1940 and 1990,
newspaper circulation in America dropped from one
newspaper for every two adults to one for every three adults.
Despite this sharp decline, television’s omnipresence did not
render the newspaper obsolete. Some newspapers, like USA
Today, responded to the technological advancements by
using color and by utilizing the “short, quick and to the
point” stories that are usually featured on television.
The technological revolution of today is creating new
challenges and opportunities for traditional media. Never
before has so much information been so accessible to so
Types of newspaper
Newspapers can be divided into two sorts:
broadsheets, and tabloids.
Broadsheet newspapers are the large ones (e.g. The
Times and The Daily Telegraph)
Tabloid newspapers are the small ones (e.g. The Sun
andThe Daily Mirror).
You may have discovered the following things:
1. Newspaper writing is in columns .
2. Newspaper stories are often called articles or reports
3. All articles' titles are called headlines .
Types of newspaper
4. Many articles have pictures to go with
them; the writing under a picture is called a
5. Articles are often split into sections by
subheadings ; often these are just one
6. Articles often include interviews with
people involved in the incident.
Most of the articles you see in The Dispatch are news articles.
News articles focus only on the facts <ETH> they don't
contain anyone's opinion There are several types of news
A local news article focuses on what's going on in your
neighborhood. An example of a local news story would be
an article on a city council meeting.
A national news article focuses on what's happening in the
United States. An example of a national news article would
be an article on the U.S. Senate passing a new bill.
An international news article focuses on news that's
happening outside the United States. A story on an
influenza outbreak in Chile would be considered an
international news story.
A feature article is an article that is about "softer" news. A
feature may be a profile of a person who does a lot of
volunteer work in the community or a movie preview.
Feature articles are not considered news stories.
An editorial is an article that contains the writer's opinion.
Editorials are usually run all together on a specific page of
the paper and focus on current events. Editorials are not
considered news stories.
A column is an article written by the same person on a regular
basis. A columnist (the writer of the column) writes about
subjects of interest to him/her, current events or
community happenings. Columns are not considered news
A feature article is an article that is about "softer" news. A feature may
be a profile of a person who does a lot of volunteer work in the
community or a preview of a movie about to hit the theaters. Like news
writing, strong feature writing is simple, clear and orderly. But, unlike
news stories, feature stories don't have to be written about events that
just happened. Instead, they focus on human interest, mood,
atmosphere, emotion, irony and humor. Here are some steps to follow
to help you write a good feature story:
1. Get the reader's attention quickly.
• Start with a well thought-out first paragraph touching on some aspect
of the person's life that you are writing about or the event if it is not a
• Good feature stories have a beginning that draws in readers, a
transition that might repeat it in the middle and an ending that refers to
the beginning.
2. Organize your story carefully.
• Feature stories can be told in narrative fashion or by sliding from event to
event even though not in chronological order. Use careful transitions to
maintain the flow of the story if you're not going to follow chronological
3. Use short paragraphs effect and vary the lengths of sentences for.
• Reading sentences and paragraphs that are always the same length gets
4. Write with strong verbs and nouns, but go easy on adjectives.
• Try to draw a picture of your subject or event through your writing. Read
the sentences below and think about which paints a better picture for your
The man was tall.
The man's head almost brushed against the eight foot ceiling in the room.
The ship sank in 1900.
The ship sank just as the first intercontinental railroad was nearing
5. Don't be afraid to use offbeat quotes.
• Not profanity, but rather witty things the person
may say in response to a question about their
success, life or family.
6. Write tightly.
• You do not need to tell the reader everything
you know on a subject or event. Tell only the
most important things. It's better to write shorter
than longer. A good feature can be done in 500750 words
Feature articles are nonfiction articles that intend to inform, teach, or
amuse the reader on a topic. The topic centers around human interests.
Feature stories may include conventions found in fiction such as
dialogue, plot and character. A feature article is an umbrella term that
includes many literary structures: personality sketches, essays, how-to's,
interviews and many others.The following are examples of feature
 Column — A short newspaper or magazine piece that deals specifically
with a particular field of interest, or broadly with an issue or
circumstance of far-reaching scope. They appear with bylines on a
regular basis (daily, weekly, etc.). They may be written exclusively for
one newspaper or magazine; they may be marketed by a syndicate, or
they may be self-syndicated by the author.
Essay — A short, literary, nonfiction composition (usually prose) in
which a writer develops a theme or expresses an idea.
Evergreen — A timeless article that editors can hold for months and
publish when needed. They need little or no updating.
Exposè — These articles use in-depth reporting with heavy research and
documentation. Used to expose corruption in business, politics or
celebrities. Also called the investigative article.
Filler — Short non-fiction items, usually just under 300 words used to
fill in space on a page of a magazine or newspaper
How-to — How-to articles help people to learn how to do something.
They provide step-by-step information for the reader.
Human interest story — An article that involves local people and events
and can be sold to daily and some weekly newspapers. Human interest
elements, such as anecdotes or accounts of personal experiences, can
support ideas in magazine articles as firmly as facts or statistics. Also
called "true-life" stories.
Interview —This feature story type article includes the text of the
conversation between two or more people, normally directed by the
interviewer. Interviews are often edited for clarity. One common
variation is the roundtable--the text of a less organized discussion,
usually between three or more people.
Op-Ed — Articles that run opposite the editorial page. They are a response to
current editorials and topical subjects. Political op-eds are the most common,
but they don't have to be limited to politics. They must, however, reflect items
that are current and newsworthy.
Personal experience — An article in which the writer recounts an ordeal, process,
or event he has undergone.
Personality Profile — A personal or professional portrait--sometimes both-- of
a particular individual.
Seasonal — An article written about a holiday, season of the year, or timely
observance. This kind of article must be submitted months in advance of the
anticipated publication date .
Service Article — An article about a consumer product or service; it outlines the
characteristics of several of the same type of commodity. The aim is to help the
consumer make the best selection possible.
Sidebar — A short feature that accompanies a news story or magazine article. It
elaborates on human interest aspects of the story, explains one important facet
of the story in more depth, or provides additional factual information--such as a
list of names and addresses--that would read awkwardly in the body of the
article. Can be found in a box, separated from the main article on the side or
Travel literature — Travel articles inform and enlighten the reader through facts
about a region's landscape, scenery, people, customs, and atmostphere.
Types of articles
Articles can be divided into two main categories: news and features. Straight news stories
deal with the timeliness and immediacy of breaking news, while feature articles are
news stories that deal with human interest topics.
A NEWS article is an article published in a print or Internet news medium such as a
newspaper, newsletter, news magazine, or news-oriented website that discusses current
or recent news of either general interest (i.e. daily newspapers) or on a specific topic
(i.e. political or trade news magazines, club newsletters, or technology news websites).
 A news article can include accounts of eyewitnesses to the happening event. It can
contain photographs, accounts, statistics, graphs, recollections, interviews, polls,
debates on the topic, etc. Headlines can be used to focus the reader’s attention on a
particular (or main) part of the article. The writer can also give facts and detailed
information following answers to general questions like who, what, when, where, why
and how. Quoting references can also be helpful. References to people can also be
made through written accounts of interviews and debates confirming the factuality of
the writer’s information and the reliability of his source. The writer can use
redirections to ensure that the reader keeps reading the article and also draws his
attention to other articles. For example: - phrases like “continued on page x …”
redirects the reader to page number x where the article is continued. Conclusions also
are very important ingredients for newspaper articles.
Types of articlE
Other types of articles
 Academic — An academic article is an academic paper published in a journal. An
academic's status is usually dependent on how many articles they have had
published, and also the number of times their articles are cited by other articles.
 Blog — Some styles of blogging are more like articles. Other styles are written
more like entries in a personal journal.
 Encyclopedia — In an encyclopedia or other reference work, an article is a
primary division of content.
 Marketing — An often thin piece of content which is designed to draw the reader
to a commercial website.
 Usenet — Usenet articles are e-mail like messages posted to share Usenet
Characteristics of well-written articles
 The piece is a factual account of a newsworthy event.
 The writer is objective and shows all sides to an issue.
 The sources for this news story are identified and are reliable.
Body of feature article
 Feature articles follow a format appropriate for its type. Structures for these
types of articles may include, but are not limited to:[15]
 chronological — the article may be a narrative of some sort.
 cause and effect — the reasons and results of an event or process is examined.
 classification — items in an article are grouped to help aid understanding
 compare and contrast— two or more items are examined side-by-side to see
their similarities and differences
 list — A simple item-by-item run-down of pieces of information.
 question and answer —such as an interview with a celebrity or expert.
Body of news story
 For the news story, details and elaboration are evident in the body of the news
story and flow smoothly from the lead.
 Quotes are used to add interest and support to the story.
 The inverted pyramid is used with most news stories
One difference between a news story and a feature article is
the conclusion. Endings for hard news article occur when all
of the information has been presented according to the
inverted pyramid form. By contrast, the feature article
needs more definite closure . The conclusions for these
articles may include, but are not limited to:
a final quote
a descriptive scene
a play on the title or lead
a summary statement
The Language of News Stories
News writing tends to be:
 impersonal to make it appear objective (to distance the reporter
from the story) hence:
 written in the third person
 use of direct speech or indirect speech which is attributed to
someone other than the reporter.
 some use of passive verbs but usually only when someone
who is being quoted wants to distance themselves from an
issue and to show their objectivity about an issue.
 about something that has taken place so mostly written in the
past tense
The Language of News Stories
simple - in fact close to the way we talk - so relatively short sentences and words
and some use of cliches which the whole audience understands.
punchy - it must grab the reader's attention so often uses:
 short rather than long words
 active verbs
 relatively short sentences
 concrete rather than abstract vocabulary
 See this Assessment Resource Bank resource on Types of Nouns
 sometimes emotive and colorful vocabulary
 some use (but not overuse) of adjectives
but also relatively formal hence
 no use of contractions
 sentences written in full (no elision) or eliptical sentences
sometimes imagery is used to help create a clearer mental picture for the reader.
often including the reporter's bi-line and/or a date-line
Stylistic features of headlines:
 Alliteration is the repetition of a leading consonant sound in a
phrase a common example in English is " Peter piper picked a peck
of pickled peppers “
 Assonance is repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming
within phrases or sentences, and together with alliteration and
consonance serves as one of the building blocks of verse. For
example, in the phrase "Do you like blue?", the "oo" (ou/ue) sound
is repeated within the sentence and is assonant.
 Assonance is more a feature of verse than prose. It is used in
(mainly modern) English-language poetry, and is particularly
important in Old French, Spanish and Celtic languages.
A cliché (from French, klɪ'ʃe) is a phrase, expression, or idea that has been
overused to the point of losing its intended force or novelty, especially when at
some time it was considered distinctively forceful or novel. The term is most
likely to be used in a negative context.
Cliché" applies also to almost any situation, plot device, subject,
characterization, figure of speech, or object—in short, any sign—that has
become overly familiar or commonplace.
Because the novelty or frequency of an expression's use varies across different
times and places, whether or not it is a cliché depends largely on who uses it, the
context in which it is used, and who is making the judgment.
The meaning of a particular cliché may shift over time, often leading to
confusion or misuse
It is a cliché that most clichés are true, but then, like most clichés, that cliché is
A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less
offensive expression in place of one that may offend or
suggest something unpleasant to the listener; or in the case
of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the
speaker.[1] It also may be a substitution of a description of
something or someone rather than the name, to avoid
revealing secret, holy, or sacred names to the uninitiated, or
to obscure the identity of the subject of a conversation
from potential eavesdroppers. Some euphemisms are
intended to be funny
Irony is a literary or rhetorical device, in which there is an
incongruity or discordance between what a speaker or a writer
says and what he or she means, or is generally understood.
In modern usage it can also refer to particularly striking examples
of incongruities observed in everyday life between what was
intended or said and what actually happened.
There is some argument about what is or is not ironic, but all the
different senses of irony revolve around the perceived notion of
an incongruity between what is said and what is meant; or
between an understanding of reality, or an expectation of a
reality, and what actually happens.
Irony can be funny, but it does not have to be.
Types of irony
Most modern theories of rhetoric distinguish between three types of
irony: verbal, dramatic and situational.
Verbal irony is a disparity of expression and intention: when a speaker
says one thing but means another, or when a literal meaning is
contrary to its intended effect.
Dramatic (or tragic) irony is a disparity of expression and awareness:
when words and actions possess a significance that the listener or
audience understands, but the speaker or character does not.
Situational irony is the disparity of intention and result: when the
result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect.
Likewise, cosmic irony is disparity between human desires and the
harsh realities of the outside world (or the whims of the gods). By
some older definitions, situational irony and cosmic irony are not
irony at all.
METAPHOR The user interface of newspapers has been developed
and standardized throughout centuries. Despite sociological
differences, publishers and editors from different parts of the
world can meet to discuss the content, role, and technology of
newspapers--just as readers from different parts of the world can
pick up a local paper and immediately know how to read it if the
written language is known. The different elements of the
newspaper interface are collectively known as the "newspaper
metaphor". It is important to understand how the various
elements of the newspaper work together before trying to
transcode them into new media The front page is the most
distinct feature of the newspaper format. It was invented 300
years ago.
pun (or paronomasia) is a phrase that deliberately exploits
confusion between similar-sounding words for humorous or
rhetorical effect.
A pun may also cause confusion between two senses of the
same written or spoken word, due to homophony,
homography, homonymy, polysemy, or metaphorical usage.
Walter Redfern has said: "To pun is to treat homonyms as
synonyms"[1]. For example, in the phrase, "There is nothing
punny about bad puns", the pun takes place in the deliberate
confusion of the implied word "funny" by the substitution of the
word "punny", a heterophone of "funny". By definition, puns
must be deliberate; an involuntary substitution of similar
words is called a malapropism.
Puns are a form of word play, and occur in all languages, with
the exception of Lojban.
Repletion of words in headlines is for emphasis and very
strong dramatic effect.
Example : out out out .
 Shared knowledge, many headlines assume shared cultural
knowledge and shared general knowledge between the
headline writer and the reader. This include the use of only
first names or surnames of people are considered so wellknown that stating their full name, position or title or
reason for prominence is considered unnecessary.
Example: kiss for Harry as he meets pop idols.
 Simile is describing one thing by linking it to another
Example: villagers sick as a parrot.
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