英语的词汇与语法 Lecture One Introduction 词汇是语言和文化特有的，词汇通过人类的交际获 得意义。 语言在不断变化，词的语音、形态和词义也不例外。 我们的一个重点是从内部因素和外部因素来观察词 的语音变化、形态变化和词义变化。 随着社会的发展，人们需要表达新事物、新概念。 通常人们使用创造新词、借用和扩展新义等方法来 进行词汇创新。 借词、新词的构成和词义的变化 词义的扩大、缩小、转褒、转贬、隐喻、 转喻等词义变化的方式，以及复合、派 生、转换、截短、混合、逆构等构词手 段。 社会文化因素影响语言使用：阶层、性别、职业、 性别、年龄、宗教等 英语的一些词汇属于核心词汇，适用于各种语境， 但有一些词汇属于限制性词汇，只能用于某些语境。 例如，随着社会文化语境的不同，男子在称呼自己 的妻子时可能直呼其名，也可能称之为Mom, my wife, Mary, Mrs Harris或Tommy’s mother。 词汇在话语中起着重要的作用，一些词项被看作话 语标记语，如oh, well, and, but, or, so, because, now, then等。 话语标记语被看作是依赖于顺序、划分说话单位的 成分。 各种话语标记起的功能作用不同。例如，oh通常被 看作感叹词，表示惊奇、害怕或者疼痛。但是oh也 标记着话语中信息管理的各种任务，可表示信息状 态的转移。 词汇和语法是不可分开的。形式由语法和词汇构成。 语法是个封闭系统，包含少数的高度概括性的术语。 词汇属于开放系统。 词汇和语法处于一个连续统一体的两端，两者属于 同一个现象，只是观察的角度不同而已。 我们用语法书来描写语法，用词典和词库来描写词 汇。 处于这个连续体中间的介词、连词、时间副词等则 可从词汇的角度来描写，也可以从语法的角度来描 写。 “词汇语法（lexicogrammar）” 单词是个信息单位，能提供语音、句法和语义等方 面的信息。 词的形态和语音之间的有着密切的联系。形态结构 对于确定复杂单词的语音形式起着重要的作用。 例如，英语形容词selective的重读在第二个音节，当 加上后缀-ity就成为selectivity，重读位于第三个音节。 加上后缀-ness就成为selectiveness，重读在第二音节。 单词的语音特性也对词缀的选择起着重要作用。例 如，英语的名词后缀-al只能加在以重读音节结尾的 动词上，动词arrive加上-al成为名词arrival。 词项与语法模式 把词的模式是与词相联系并经常出现的 所有单词和结构。 对词的模式进行观察可采用左分类或者 右分类的角度。 例如，采用右分类可研究动词后接的补 语模式（如he decided to leave, he hated leaving）。采用左分类可研究动词使用 被动语态、不定式和情态动词、主语和 极性的频率。 一个词可以有许多模式。 例如explain可以与直接引语连用，可以后接以about 引导的介词短语、名词词组、wh-小句、to介词短语 等。 从另一个角度看，一个模式与一些词有联系，例如 适用“V+over+名词词组/wh-小句”这个模式的动词有 argue, bicker, disagree, fight, quarrel, wrangle等。 Topics to be covered 1 课程概述（词汇语法与世界） 2 世界的文字 3 英语的名词和名词化 4 英语的时态和语态 5 英语的动词和形容词 6 英语的情态 7 隐喻和转喻 8 词汇、习语与文化 9 13 搭配 10 14-15 英语的衔接 11 英语的结构与文体 12 英语的副词 I know him./I know of him. I didn’t know linguistics but I know of such a subject as linguistics. I read of the accident in the newspaper. I’ve heard of unusual hobbies, but I’ve never heard of this one. His letter told me of his success in the competition. The music always reminds me of my happy childhood. I’ll inform you of the event. He came back last night. Short skirts are coming back. I told them to stand by for action. There were several people standing by when the accident occurred. We all stood up when the guest professor came in. He stood the statue up in a corner. Many people showed up at the meeting. Jack likes to show people up in public. Desire, wish, hope, want, expect The customer desires to see you. His mother desires him to be a diplomat. We wish to visit the island. I wish you a happy journey. I wish you could come and help me. He wants to take a rest. They want us to join them. I hope I can attend the conference. We didn’t expect you to come so early. She is expecting her daughter. Be to（事先同意、安排或计划要做的事） I am to meet my brother at the airport at ten o’clock. A farewell meeting is to be held tomorrow in honour of Professor Thompson. The traffic regulations are to be observed. （情态）。 You are not to throw stones at monkeys. Books to read/books to be read I have something to say to you. He looked at the books to be read. 与动词have, give, show搭配时 There is nothing to see./There is nothing to be seen. 形容词＋不定式 A car in good condition is easy to drive. We are liable to be overheard in this room. They stopped to look at the room. They stopped looking at the room. They left off to fish. They left off fishing. I remember to take the medicine at the right time. I remember taking the medicine at the right time. I regret to inform you that it is impossible. I bitterly regret having told her that. The machine needs repairing/ to be repaired. The rug needs cleaning before we move in. The house needs to be repaired both inside and outside. The job needs to be done with great care. He was a good runner so he could escape from the police. /He was a good runner, so he was able to escape from the police. They were able to leave Europe before the war started. They were able to escape. /They managed to escape. /They succeeded in escaping. We must tidy up our rooms. We have to tidy up our rooms. If I buy that car, I’ll have to borrow some money. A certain man will come to see you. The man is certain to come. We had a particular reason for abandoning the project. She’s very particular about what she eats. The sight of the watch reminded me of my late mother. The sight of the watch reminded me that I was late. Professor Tucker is the present chairman. Many people were present at the meeting. That man is a complete fool. Our work on the new road is now complete. He felt faint for lack of food. There’s a very faint hope of finding her alive. 他可能会来。 *He’s possible to come. I think it will be fine tomorrow, but rain is quite possible. It is possible that I shall go there next week. Success is possible, but hardly probable. *He’s an afraid child. That child is afraid. Lonely/alone; asleep/sleeping A lot of, much He earns a lot of money in his new job. Does he earn much money in his new job? He doesn’t earn much money in his new job. Scientists have spent ______ time studying this problem Scientists haven’t spent _____ time on this problem. I have seen a great deal of him these days. I haven’t seen ____ of him for a few weeks. Up, down His books were burned up in the fire. The town was burned down during the war. He tore up the letter and threw it into the basket. They tore down the old building. I’ll see you at the library. I’ll see you in the library. The police are making an inquiry __ the robbery. Players are not allowed to make an objection ___ the referee’s decision. He wrote to the newspaper to complain __ the noise of the factory. He made a slow recovery ___ his illness. On my entrance __ the room, they stopped talking. TV has had a tremendous influence __ the daily life of people everywhere. I am very angry with/at him. (人） I am very angry at/about what he said. （事） They were very annoyed _at_ having to wait two hours for a bus. We are disappointed _with/in_ him. Are you disappointed _about/at_ losing the game? I am glad _of_ your success. She was envious _of_ her brother’s success. Some people are ignorant _of_ the value of health. He is opposed _to_ her going abroad alone. Carelessness is productive _of_ mistakes. He was used to ____ (be) alone. I am not accustomed to __ (go) out after dark. I have been looking forward to __ (see) you. ? From here to Gulangyu is 4 kilometers. ? After eleven will be too late. Between six and seven will be fine to me. 由于，因为 He will surely succeed because he works hard. Since he wasn’t there, I told his brother about it. As autumn has come, it’s getting cooler. He must be nearsighted for he wears eyeglasses. You may as well take this. You may take this as well. His speech was reported at length in the newspaper. At length (=at last), his speech was reported in the newspaper. I have painted the door. I had the door painted. He foolishly spoke. He spoke foolishly. He simply spoke. He spoke simply. I have my work to do. I have to do my work. The manager said they should have more workers trained on the job. The manager said they should have more trained workers on the job. He stood there to watch the train come in. He stood there watching the train come in.