SPECPOL - tasmun

TASMUN 2014:
SPECPOL Committee Update
Civil Unrest and Political
Instability in Latin America
Recent Events
The global community has begun to closely observe the Latin American
region as unrest unfolds in Venezuela. The public’s discontent with
President Maduro’s government has not only divided the people of the
nation, but has begun to disrupt the foundation for civil stability across the
South American continent. For this reason, the question of political
instability and civil unrest within Latin America has become more pressing
an issue than ever.
March 28th (2014) – Protests against Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro
result in 30 deaths, over 500 injuries, and 2,000 detainments by authorities
[Amnesty International]
April 3rd (2014) – Demonstrators begin to target the UN office in Caracas
(Venezuela’s capital) in response to what was deemed an inadequate
international response to the “high human cost” of the protests [CNN]
April 5th (2014) – Venezuela sentences opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez to 14
years of confinement [CNN]
Perspectives & Opinions
Venezuela – Despite the rather forceful opposition with which the
government has confronted demonstrators, President Mudaro has criticized
the media for severely exaggerating the situation within the region. Thus,
with respect to political corruption, Venezuela and other Latin American
nations should primarily seek to minimally-incorporate intervention by
foreign nations.
The United States of America – The US government has been criticized in the
past for playing a direct role in the election and disposal of leaders within
Latin America. Nonetheless, the US and its allies will likely pursue measures
that will strive to involve outside-action where necessary in order to respond
to political corruption.
The World Bank (and other NGOs) – Due to the highly financial basis of
corruption and unrest within the Latin American region, the World Bank has
adopted the global anti-corruption strategy to combat the root-factors which
lead to political instability – placing focus upon the financial problems that
must first be addressed in the region.
Redefining the Role of UN
Peacekeepers in Conflict Zones
Recent Events
March 31st (2014) – The United Nations peacekeeping mission in Sierra
Leone completes its final phase, concluding the work of the UN
Integrated Peace-building Office in Sierra Leone (UNIPSIL)
April 1st (2014) – Mustafa Dzhemilev, leader of the Crimean Tatars,
calls upon the United Nations Security Council to send peacekeepers
to Crimea [UN Daily]
April 3rd (2014) – Despite the remaining presence of multiple armed
military groups within the Democratic Republic of Congo, the United
Nations begins to prepare for the gradual withdrawal of forces from
the region [Aljazeera]
Perspectives & Opinions
When considering the question of redefining the role of UN
Peacekeepers, it is often difficult to establish the specific “opinions” of
nations with respect to this issue. While the role of the UN’s
peacekeeping forces have been called into question on multiple
occasions – primarily noting the limitations placed upon the actions of
peacekeepers – the majority of criticisms provided by nations are
mainly to do with the effectiveness of peacekeeping forces in given
situations. As an example, the divided opinions between Russia and
Crimea have produced conflicting views on the involvement of
peacekeepers within the region. Another interesting aspect of this
topic to note may be redefining the role of peacekeepers with respect
to gender-presence (as three all-women peacekeeping units have
recently been established by the United Nations). As a final note,
questions of abuse and conduct have additionally been noted as a
concern pertaining to the topic at hand (and may be considered by
delegates choosing to focus on this issue).
Establishing Nuclear-Weapon-Free
Zones in Northeast Asia
Recent Events
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has become notorious in
recent years for its seemingly reckless behavior with the testing of
nuclear weapons and missile technology. While the United Nations
has consistently condemned all attempts at testing said weaponry,
the DPRK’s failure to sign the NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation
of Nuclear Weapons) displays its intentions to continue testing these
March 26th (2014) – The United Nations condemns a missile test
undertaken by the DPRK [UN Daily]
April 3rd (2014) – The United States, South Korea, and Japan resolve to
hold a three-party conference concerning the DPRK’s nuclear program
next week in Washington
April 5th (2014) – North Korea threatens to undertake to a “new form”
of testing with its nuclear technology [Daily News]
Perspectives & Opinions
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea – Naturally when concerning any question
of nuclear disarmament, it can be expected that the DPRK will greet the international
community with complete reluctance if not outright resistance. Particularly noting the
specificity of the topic’s wording, the DPRK and its allies will be at center stage for any
debate over this issue.
The United States of America – It is unquestionable that the US has held a primary role
in recent years in pressuring the DPRK in it’s decision to proliferate nuclear weapons.
Many nations, however, criticize the attitude the United States for being hypocritical in
trying to monopolize nuclear power.
South Korea – While the physical location of South Korea subjects it to constant threats
from the North Korean government, outside-support has allowed South Korea to
maintain relatively stable despite lacking its own nuclear arsenal (with early attempts
failing in the past).
Japan – Interestingly, despite historical tensions between the DPRK and South Korea,
the nation of Japan may be a larger target under the nuclear program of the DPRK. As
the DPRK wishes not to cause excessive damage to the South for the purposes of
claiming the Korean peninsula, Japan is in fact one of the primary targets of the North
Korean nuclear program.
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