hyphens and apostrophes

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Chapter 25.525.6
Hyphens and
Apostrophes
By: Caroline O'Neill, Ashton
Byars, Matthew Hopkins,
and Luke Erbs
Hyphens

Hyphens are used to combine words and
to show a connection between the
syllables of words that are broken at the
ends of lines.
Numbers
 Hyphens
are used to join compound
numbers and fractions.
 When writing two word numbers from
twenty-one through ninety-nine, use
hyphens.
Ex) twenty- three
Ex) eighty-five
Fractions

When you use a fraction as an adjective, use
a hyphen, but when you use a fraction as a
noun, do not use a hyphen.
Ex) adjective: Matthew’s hair is
three-fourths black and one-fourth
purple.
Ex) noun: One fifth of the class is
absent.
Prefixes and Suffixes

When using a prefix that is followed by a proper
noun or adjective, use a hyphen.
ex) Mid-October; Pre-World War II
In words with the prefixes all-, ex-, and self- and
the suffix –elect, remember to use a hyphen.
Ex) All-in; Ex-girlfriend

Compound Words and
Compound Modifiers

To connect two or more nouns (unless a
dictionary gives a different definition) make
sure to use a hyphen.
•
Ex)nine-year-olds; father-in-law
use hyphens when a compound modifier
comes before a noun, but do not use a hyphen
with a compound modifier that includes a word
ending in –ly or in a compound proper
adjective
Ex) I will have a well-cooked burger.
Hyphens at the end of lines
 Try
to avoid dividing words at the end of a
line as much as possible, but if a word
must be divided, divide it between
syllables.
Ex) You are a nice person that likes watching T.V.
 Remember to never place a hyphen at the
beginning of a line.
Correctly Dividing Words

Do not divide one-syllable words.
Ex) Incorrect: Th-ink

Do not divide a word to make a single letter stand
alone.
Ex) incorrect: A-go

Correct: Think
correct: Ago
Avoid dividing both proper nouns or proper adjectives.
Ex) incorrect- Engl-ish
correct- English
•
Divide a hyphenated word only immediately
following existing hyphen.
Ex) incorrect: Luke gave an up-to-the-minute countdown.
Ex)Correct: Luke gave an up-to-theminute countdown.
Apostrophes with Possessive
Nouns



Apostrophes are used with nouns to show ownership
or possession.
Add an apostrophe and -s to show the possessive
case of most singular nouns and plural nouns that do
not end in -s or -es.
Ex) Stephen’s sister won the prize.
Even when a singular noun already ends in -s, you
can usually add an apostrophe and -s to show
possession.
Ex) Matthew Hopkins’s paper is
short and sweet.
Apostrophes with possessive
nouns cont.

In classical or ancient names that end in -se, it
is common to omit the final -s to make
pronunciation easier.
Ex) Jesus’ life was worth more than we can
imagine.
Ex) Ulysses’ boat was very big.
Add
an apostrophe to show the
possessive case of plural nouns
ending in -s or -es. Do not add an
-s.
Ex) The glasses’ lens were very dirty.
Possessive noun cont.
Add
an apostrophe and -s (or
just an apostrophe if the word is
plural ending in -s) to the last
word of a compound noun to
form the possessive.
Ex) My sister-in-law’s brother came over.
Apostrophes with pronouns
 Use
an apostrophe and -s with indefinite
pronouns to show possession.
Ex) Somebody’s jacket
• Do not use an apostrophe with possessive
personal pronouns.
Ex) The boy left his jacket at the
game.
Apostrophes with contractions
 Use
an apostrophe in a contraction to
show where one or more letters have
been omitted.
•
Ex) is not= isn’t
Ex) they are= they’re
Avoid contractions in formal speech and
writing
Apostrophes to create plurals
 Use
an apostrophe and –s to create the
plural form of a letter, numeral, or a word
uses as a name for itself.
Ex) There are three A’s on his report
card.
The End!
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