One point - Central Kitsap High School

A word about the name
See Grey video on Diff b/w UK . . . .
The UK flag consists of three elements: the cross of St. George
(red on white) for England and Wales the cross of St. Andrew
(white diagonal on blue) for Scotland, and the so-called cross of
St. Patrick (red diagonal on white) for Ireland.
British Political History
The Iraq War
• Course description:
Sovereignty, Authority and Power: Key Features of the Constitution
Division of Governmental Authority
of authority
Geographic Separation of Authority
Geographically: ________– a state that is governed constitutionally as one single unit.
The political power of government in such states may well be transferred to lower
levels, to regionally or locally elected assemblies, governors and mayors (“devolved
government”) but the central government retains the principal right to recall such
delegated power.
Structurally: ___________powers; PM not directly elected; government responsible to
Tony Blair's "Devolution within the UK" agenda
Evidence of decentralization . . . .
Part of 1997 election campaign was devolution of legislative powers to
regionally elected assemblies
September, 1997 referendums in Scotland and Wales approve (more
popular in Scotland and give power to tax and more primary authority to make
May, 1999 Scotland and Wales elected MPs using system of
proportional representation—
Powers to make legislation in certain areas have been 'devolved'. . . .
However, power in many other areas, such as defense and foreign affairs
(known as 'reserved' matters), still resides with the House of Commons.
Other Devolved areas:
• North Irish Assembly Good Friday Peace Accord
established a regional assembly for NI
• approved in a referendum by a large majority of
Catholics and a small majority of Protestants
• 2002 Blair suspends the Catholic/Protestant assembly
and imposes direct rule due to evidence Sinn Fein (the
Catholic paramilitary group associated with the IRA)
had targets for political violence (that’s what it means
to be devolved)
• May 2007 reinstated it (and that, my dears, is devolved
vs federal)
Other Devolved Areas: London Mayor
• First: “Red Ken”
• Congestion Charge
Livingstone sits beside Jesse Jackson at
an Anti-Apartheid rally in 1985
The Mayor has detailed steps to boost locally
generated energy to cut carbon emissions,
create green collar jobs and save money off
fuel bills.
Mayor of London, Boris Johnson
CIA World Fact Book:
Gowns and Crowns
Black Rod: 2013
Head of State
OCT. 17, 1957 With President
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1976 With
Gerald R.
MAY 15,
1991 With
President Dwight D. Eisenhower and the queen
at the White House in 1957.
President Gerald Ford and his wife, Betty, escorted the queen to a
White House state dinner in July 1976.
Queen Elizabeth with President Ronald Reagan, Prime Minister Margaret
Thatcher and West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl at Buckingham
Palace in June 1984.
Queen Elizabeth with former Prime Minister Edward Heath,
President Richard Nixon and his wife, Pat, at Chequers, the
country home of the prime minister, in 1970.
Photo: Associated
President Obama became the 11th president to meet Queen Elizabeth II when he and the first lady, Michelle
Obama, visited Buckingham Palace on Wednesday. The queen and her husband, Prince Philip, the Duke of
Edinburgh, hosted the Obamas the day before the Group of 20 summit. In addition to the presidents in the
following pictures, the queen also met with Jimmy Carter, Lyndon B. Johnson and John F
. Kennedy.
A White-Tie Dinner for Queen’s White House Visit
May 8, 2007 Presidents come and go, but for more than half a century, the queen has always been the queen.
So it was perhaps no surprise that Washington went a little gaga on Monday, as Queen Elizabeth II and her husband, Prince
Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, began an official two-day visit to the capitalIt was a day for pomp and circumstance — a
military color guard, a fife and drum band in white wigs, red jackets and tricornered hats — punctuated by a presidential slip
of the tongue that lightened the moment during Mr. Bush’s welcoming remarks. Mr. Bush reminded the 81-year-old queen that
she had already dined with 10 American presidents.
“You helped our nation celebrate its bicentennial in 17 —— ” he went on, stopping to correct himself before 1776 could slip
out. The crowd erupted in laughter, and the president and the queen turned to each other for a long, silent gaze. Then, Mr.
Bush turned back to the crowd with an explanation. “She gave me a look,” he said, “that only a mother could give a child.”
Mr. Bush had been the recipient of such a look once before in the queen’s presence — from his own mother, back in 1991,
when the first President and Mrs. Bush played host to their own state dinner for the queen. By several different accounts,
including Mr. Bush’s own, Barbara Bush told the queen that she had seated her son far away from Her Majesty, for fear he
might make a wisecrack.
Then, to his mother’s horror, he did, telling the queen that he was his family’s black sheep and asking, “Who’s yours?” The
queen, apparently not amused, replied tartly, “None of your business.”
The Queen, as Head of the Church of England
and 'Defender of the Faith', with Church
leaders, including the Archbishop of
State Opening of Parliament: The Queen arriving at
State Opening and the Yeoman of the Guard on
Sovereign's staircase
Royal Rules Changed:
Sovereignty, Authority and Power: Features of the Constitution
Remember: “Constitutions define both the role and constituent
parts of a government and the limits and obligations of
government with respect to the rights of citizens”
The British Constitution according to BBC:
Lots of ingredients thrown together with a
great deal of enthusiasm and then grated,
squashed and drizzled over the years.
But you won't be able to find the recipe in one
easy-to-read volume available at your local
The famously unwritten constitution is
made up different laws, customs and
conventions, most of which have actually
been written down
It is held together by Parliament which, in
theory at least, has the power to repeal any
law it likes “Parliamentary Sovereignty”
Parliamentary Sovereignty
A constitutional principle of government (principally in Britain) by
which the legislature reserves the power to make or overturn any law
without recourse by the executive, judiciary or the monarchy; only
parliament can nullify or overturn legislation approved by parliament
and parliament can force the cabinet or the government to resign by a
vote of no-confidence
"It is often said that it would be unconstitutional for the United
Kingdom Parliament to do certain things, meaning that the moral,
political and other reasons against doing them are so strong that
most people would regard it as highly improper if Parliament did
these things. But that does not mean that it is beyond the power of
Parliament to do such things. If Parliament chose to do any of them
the courts would not hold the Act of Parliament invalid." Lord Reid in
Madzimbamuto v. Lardner-Burke [1969] 1 AC 645:
So citizens do not vote for the ex_________________. They
vote for m___________ of the ______________.And how do
those elections work? see
2010 election/electoral system explained
Key Feature of the Constitution
The regime is a ______________ democracy
Which one?
SO . . . _________ are held, citizens vote for a m______________ of
________________, and the _____________ minister will be the one
who “holds the c_______________ of parliament”.. In the UK,
usually that has meant the PM will be the leader of the party with a
________________ in parliament. The ________ will formally ask
him (or her) to form the new government
But if no party has a majority , you get a hung parliament
2010 Elections
The results:
Who sits where in the Commons
The change of government means many MPs have changed where they sit in the House of
The Conservatives are back on the government benches for the first time in 13 years - but now
they have been joined by the Liberal Democrats. Labour are on the opposition benches.
Members of the coalition cabinet are sitting on the government front bench - including Prime
Minister David Cameron and Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg sitting side-by-side.
The remaining Lib Dems are sitting in a block on the government side - opposite where they used
to sit.
Cameron's government: A guide to who's who
Read about Cameron—think about “eltie
Go to Eton “public” School
Results of coalition . . .
AV video:
Is your cat confused by av?
BBC Q&A: Gay marriage
June 2013
Peers have backed plans to legalise gay marriage in England and
Wales, including by those religious organisations which want to
offer it. So what are the issues surrounding the government's plans?
Where do the coalition parties stand on the issue?
Plans to legalise same-sex marriage have divided the Conservative
Party, and more Tory MPs voted against the bill at second reading in
February than voted for it. Prime Minister David Cameron has said
he believes same-sex marriages should be allowed in churches - but
only if there is a "100%" guarantee that no church, synagogue or
mosque would be forced to hold one against their wishes. Lib Dem
leader Nick Clegg said the legislation was a triumph for his party,
which has championed the plans. Most Labour MPs, including Ed
Miliband, also support the move.
Most important element of a Parliamentary
System in which, by definition __________
is sovereign, is C________ Responsibility
The majority party (or a coalition) in __________________ both
selects and can remove PM and cabinet
Or. . . The “government” has to retain the ________ of
Majority party
Minority party
Prime minister
& cabinet
QUESTION HOUR: part of the Confidence Reln
Associated Press
Tony Blair and Gordon Brown, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, in 2003. Mr. Brown is Mr. Blair’s
most likely successor as prime minister.
Question Time is an opportunity for MPs and Members of the House
of Lords to ask government ministers questions. These questions are
asked at the start of business in both chambers and are known as
'oral questions'. The Prime Minister answers questions in the
Commons every Wednesday.
The Speaker is the “Debate Moderator” who presides over and facilitates
debates. The Prime Minister is the lead debater of the Majority team (“the
Government”) against the Minority team (“the Opposition”)
For the most recent:
Lexington: Who isn’t
coming for dinner
A bit of cross-party
parliamentary civility
might go a long way in
America’s divided
Economist: Aug 13th 2011 | from the print edition (SEE IMAGE)
A BRITON in America notices something about comparative politics. Britain’s House of
Commons reeks of conflict. The rival parties glare at one another from opposite benches.
Debates are barbed and sometimes vicious—especially during the gladiatorial spectacle of
prime minister’s questions. America’s Congress is different. Members of the House of
Representatives sit shoulder-to-shoulder in the shape of a horseshoe. Debates, such as they
are, are marked by an exaggerated decorum. The casual observer might easily conclude that
America has the more consensual form of politics and Britain the more adversarial.
As the bitter fights that have scarred the first half of Barack Obama’s presidency show,
nothing could be further from the truth. Compared with the total war that is American
politics, the British version is sport (amateur sport at that: the $1 billion that Mr Obama is said
to be seeking for his re-election campaign would pay for an entire British general election 20
times over).
Becoming the PM
More . . . Things about
Parliamentary Systems feature Shadow Cabinets who are always monitoring and scrutinizing the Government Cabinet. Another reason why Parliamentary Systems are less prone to
Corruption than Presidential Systems.
Blair Hands Over Leadership of
Labor Party :”Elite Requritment”
LONDON, June 24 — Long heralded and often rancorous, Britains’s transfer of power from
_________ ____________ entered its final countdown on Sunday when the governing Labor Party
anointed ___________ ______________ as his successor.
The ceremonial crowning of Mr. Brown as the only candidate in a seven-week contest for the party
leadership opens the way for a defining moment in his long rivalry with Mr. Blair, when the two men
are to pay separate visits to Queen Elizabeth II on Wednesday, Mr. Blair to quit as prime minister
and Mr. Brown to take over.
June 27, 2007
Gordon Brown to Take Over From Blair in Britain
Or . . . For the current
British Prime Minister
David Cameron welcomes
Deputy Prime Minister
Nick Clegg (R) to
Downing Street for their
first day of coalition
government on 12 May
2010 in London
Published: Wednesday 12 May 2010 Updated: Wednesday 12 May
After five days of negotiations, Cameron enters 10 Downing Street as
Britain’s new prime minister in a full coalition government with Lib
Dem leader Nick Clegg as his deputy.
Britain's Labour Party taps Ed Miliband as new
London, England (CNN) -- Britain's Labour Party on Saturday
announced Ed Miliband as its new leader Saturday, four months after
Prime Minister Gordon Brown resigned from the post when his party
lost the election.
Several rounds of voting were required to determine Saturday's winner,
since no one received more than 50 percent support in the early ballots.
Ed Miliband and his brother, David, who was also in the running, were
locked in a battle for the top spot for until the very end. The final
numbers gave Ed 50.6 percent of the votes and David 49.35 percent.
More . . . Things about Parliament
Unequal ___cameralism: the
____________ of __________ can delay
legislation (though not a r_________ bill)
by rejecting it, so it has to go back to the H
of C and go through the process again
Benches in the House of Commons
Chamber are coloured green. In contrast,
the House of Lords is decorated in red.
Britain Wonders if More Elections Equal More
PEER GROUP The House of Lords rejected calls to
replace its life peers with ones elected to a single 15year term.
Conceptual Analysis: We suggest that you spend approximately 30 minutes on
question 6.
(a) Define bicameralism
(b) Identify one of the six countries covered in the AP Comparative Government
and Politics course that has a bicameral national legislature.
(c) Explain why a federal democracy is likely to have a bicameral national
(d) Provide one other reason for a bicameral national legislature.
(e) Describe two implications of federalism for the policy-making process.
US review . . . What does Madison say in the fed papers is the purpose?
Key characteristic: separate offices for
• Head of _________: the chief public representative
of a country, and
• Head of ___________(the title of the person who
manages the day-to-day activities of the government.)
Erosion of Parliamentary sovereignty?
devolution of power to regional assemblies in Scotland (Scottish
Parliament), Wales (Welsh Assembly) and Northern Ireland (Northern
Ireland Assembly). Although, since the UK is a unitary system, these
assemblies are not sovereign, and the assemblies can be suspended, as
has happened with the Northern Ireland Assembly. Still, such a decision
would (currently) be highly unpopular with the electorate in both places.
Creation of Mayor of London
EU law trumps British law, laws must comply with decisions of EU Ct
of Justice
the Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates the European Convention on
human rights, and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) asserts the
power to exercise judicial review over UK law
increasing use of referendums.
Supreme Court is separate
Perhaps the most significant reform was the passing into law
of the Human Rights Act.
This gave people living in the United Kingdom the right to
enforce the European Convention on Human Rights in UK
It has had a dramatic effect on public bodies and on political
The Human Rights Act is not quite a written constitution, but
to keep up the Jamie Oliver image it may only be short
scooter ride away from the full monty.
What the HR Act says
Does it create Judicial Review?
Mr Straw, who as home secretary introduced the Human Rights Act into British
law in 1998, said that provisions in the legislation made clear that the final
decisions on what the law should be were for MPs to make, not the courts.
"We anticipated a situation where the senior courts of the land may decide that
a provision in an act of parliament was incompatible with the human rights act,"
he told Today. "The final say on whether that act should remain in force was not
given to the courts but given to parliament.
"Nobody - and that includes senior judges - wanted a situation where suddenly
we had made a supreme court supreme over parliament, rather than having a
system which is fundamental to our system of democracy, having parliament as
the ultimate arbiter on behalf of the British people."
Mr Straw said: "It would much better if we could simply live in a society where
such threats didn't exist and we could deal with all threats in society through the
normal court system.
"Very sadly, we are not able to do so, and it is for that reason that parliament and it is ultimately a matter for parliament - judged that these powers were
appropriate and right."
independent courts:
• have authority to protect people against improper
implementation of laws and regulations . . . but can not
overrule parliament (no judicial review—except maybe as a
result of Human Rights Act)
• common law system (as opposed to civil law) based on
Constitutional Change . . . . Erosion of _________ ____________
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
The Right Honourable Lord or Lady
The Queen, on advice of the Prime Minister
Term length
Life tenure; may be removed on the address of both Houses of
1 October 2009
2. Describe a major function of the Supreme Court of the United
Kingdom. Explain one reason for the establishment of the
Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. Explain how membership
in the European Union affects the judicial system in Great Britain.
3 points
One point is earned for a description of a major function of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
Major functions of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom include the following:
• Final court of appeals
• • Protects human/civil rights and liberties
• Ruling on devolution disputes
• Ruling on incompatibility of UK law with European Union (EU) law
• Check on legislative-executive power
Note: The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom exercises judicial review in limited circumstances. It
does not have the power to declare a law unconstitutional.*
One point is earned for an explanation of a reason for the establishment of the Supreme Court of the
United Kingdom. Reasons for the establishment of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom include the
• Enhance legitimacy
• Improve transparency by clarifying the role of the court
• Separate judicial authority from the House of Lords
• Achieve consistency with international norms
• Resolve devolution disputes
• Achieve Blair-led Labour Party goal
One point is earned for a correct explanation of how membership in the EU affects the judicial system in
Great Britain. Acceptable explanations include the following:
• European Court of Justice (ECJ) is highest legal authority.
• EU law supersedes UK law in judicial decision making.
• Loss of sovereignty.
• More laws to adjudicate.
Effective Commander in Chief
Tony Blair meeting British troops in the port of Umm Qasr, Iraq, in 2003.
Public Opinion
See handout
comparing attitudes
A welfare state is a "concept of government in which
the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion
of the economic and social well-being of its citizens
% of GDP in social expenditures in OECD states, 2001
Welfare state
Even under Thatcher and Major, Britain
experienced real growth in both social
services and health care provisions
Economic policy aimed at reducing a
government's deficit (or borrowing). Austerity
can be achieved through increases in
government revenues - primarily via tax rises
- and/or a reduction in government spending
or future spending commitments.
Facing Austerity, Britain Unveils Welfare Cuts
U.K.'s Conservatives Seek Further Austerity Measures
Since the coalition government of Conservatives and Liberal
Democrats was formed in May 2010, over 80 of such public
bodies funded by government have been abolished under
Conservative plans to reduce the size of the public sector, as
a route to reducing the overall budget deficit. However
about a thousand still remain.
A guide to quangos being culled
Political Participation
Elections . . . . MP, Referendum, local, and EP
Thousands of British Students Protest Tuition
British students protest in central London against government plans to
triple tuition fees, Thursday, Dec. 9, 2010. Police with riot shields held
off angry student protesters marching to London's Parliament Square
on Thursday as lawmakers debated a contro
British Students Protest Tuition Fee Increase
Policy: London Tuition
fees and protest
Yobs stormed Tory party HQ yesterday as a student
demo erupted in violence
2010 protest:
2011 video
2012 protest pictures
White Paper
Q hour:
Political Beliefs
________ the state more
Regime has _________________y
Traditionally deference and noblesse oblige
More left
More secular (even though queen thing)
This cartoon by Dave Brown from The Independent combines two UK news
stories: the launch of the Give a Child a Home campaign, which calls on more
members of the public to come forward as adopters and foster parents, and
David Cameron's ongoing battle with Eurosceptic Conservative MPs.
In the cartoon, UK prime minister David Cameron is depicted as a nanny
pushing a pram full of crying babies, who are waving anti-EU placards.
Cameron comments, "The sooner someone adopts these bastards the better!"
A bodyguard helped Nick Griffin, center, the British National Party leader, flee egg-tossing protester
in London on Tuesday
The British National Party opposes what Mr. Griffin calls the “creeping Islamification” of
Britain, supports voluntary repatriation of immigrants and wants to take Britain out of the
European Union and NATO. Analysts say the British National Party has tapped into the
frustration of working-class voters, particularly in the gritty rust-belt cities of northwestern
England, who are disillusioned with Labor.
In 1997 he helped write a pamphlet titled “Who are the Mindbenders?,” in which he
asked whether there was a significant Zionist influence over the British news media. He
was found guilty of distributing material likely to incite racial hatred and given a two-year
suspended prison sentence.
While European Parliament elections are fought under a system that rewards parties
according to the votes they receive, the British Parliament is chosen by a method that
puts small parties at a disadvantage. Mr. Griffin denies that the British National Party is
racist, though he admits that it operates a “restrictive membership policy” and that it is
therefore not open to all races or ethnicities
Acorn . . . Institutions . . . . Students should also explore how
interest groups exercise political influence and be able to
apply the concepts of corporatism and pluralism.
•Single “peak” assoc. reps a
societal interest
•Central organization
•Groups systematically
involved in making and
implementing policy
•State grants “favored status”
•Multiple groups can rep. a
single interest
•Decentralized organization
•Clear sep IG/govt
•In competition among groups
for policy not all groups equal
Muslims’ Veils Test Limits of Britain’s
Nominate Candidates (compare to US with
primaries—no one else has this mechanism
which effectively weakens one of the most
imp function of pol parties) ,
Run campaigns (compare to US’s "candidate
centered campaigns"),
get voters voting (register, GOTV, Give cues
to voters),
act as linkage institution,
articulate interests, aggregate interests,
act as a modifying influence on government,
Provide a "loyal opposition",
political socialization,
policy formation,
monitor elected representatives
More things about parliament:
Stages a bill goes through:
New Labour: the Third Way
Blair announced at the end of his speech at
the 1994 Labour Party conference that he
intended to replace Clause IV of the party's
constitution with a new statement of aims
and values. This involved the deletion of
the party's stated commitment to "the
common ownership of the means of
production and exchange", which was
widely interpreted as referring to wholesale
nationalisation. The clause was replaced by
a statement that the party is one of
democratic socialism. A special conference
approved this highly symbolic change in
April 1995
The cover of Labour's
1997 general election
Parliament's main roles are:
•Examining and challenging the work of
the government (scrutiny)
•Debating and passing all laws
•Enabling the government to raise taxes
•Ultimate role: Confidence reln: select
and remove PM
Executives: PM --single most imp. player at apex of unitary govt.
with powers not limited by courts or a written constitution:
what are his Powers?
Vote of conf; can introduce leg, majority in parl and party
discipline (3-line whip) , calls elections, sits in P
But his power is not without limit:
Rule of law
Confidence relation
Cabinet responsibility
Practical reasons
Must call elections w/in 5 years and his party could be kicked out
Question hour
Back bench and rivals
dead hand of the past
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