Sub_Sahara Africa and boundaries

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Mapping political regions
Where do you draw the line?
What natural and human factors must
be considered?
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_jE_9LpnbmHU/RnPQKGTU_I/AAAAAAAAAQQ/JR_cRcyNYX0/S1600-R/hand%2Bdrawn%2Bmaps.jpg
Sometimes only a frontier exists, an undefined boundary
g7530 ct001529
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g75
30.ct001529
1979
http://www.gdargaud.net/Antarctica/MapSatellite/AntarcticStationsMap.gif
physical boundaries
Mountains – Argentina and Chile
http://www3.airlinesanddestinations.com/wpcontent/uploads/2009/08/080116-cerrotronador-01.jpg
The Sahara Desert was an
effective boundary between
Libya and Chad until
possible uranium deposits
were discovered. Libya
invaded in 1973 and the
border was finally resolved
in 1994.
water boundaries
http://geology.com/world/the-united-states-of-america-map.gif
geometric boundaries
Human Boundaries
ethnic/tribal boundaries
http://www.csc.liv.ac.uk/~frans/BackGrounds/multiEthnicCrowdBG.gif
language boundaries
http://users.elite.net/runner/jennifers/jenshello2.gif
religious boundaries
http://www.leftyparent.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Many-Religions.jpg
Sometimes boundaries are created physically on the land.
The Berlin Wall
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5d/Berlinermauer.jpg/220pxBerlinermauer.jpg
The U.S./Mexican border
This doesn’t always mean it will last!
Also consider…
Polluted air travels from
one political space into
another.
Above ground
boundaries also were
important in 1983. A
S. Korean plane was
shot down and 269 lives
lost because it strayed
into Soviet airspace.
The Dutch mine a coal seam
that runs under the boundary
with Germany. An underground
oil field extends between Iraq
and Kuwait.
Peter Haggett, Geography: a Modern Synthesis, 3rd ed., 1983, p.477, Harper & Row
Your turn…
1. You and your partner will receive 1 set of maps from those
listed:
a. climate/vegetation and annual precipitation
b. population density and major religions
c. major languages and ethnic core areas
d. rivers and landforms
2. Your job is to divide your hypothetical land into political
units, based on the information you have.
3. When you are satisfied with your results you will
collaborate with another group that had different maps.
4. Again, create political boundaries that you can agree on.
5. Now you will join another group to reach consensus on a final
map. Now you will have considered all known factors.
6. Select a representative to present your map to the class with
your justification for the boundaries.
7. Using old transparencies or http://scribblemaps.com/ to
create your maps.
Congratulations!
You have completed a very difficult task by dividing a
mythical country into political units.
Except that…
it is a real country, Nigeria
http://pmi.gov/assets/images/nigeria_map.gif
Nigeria has 36 states and 1 capital Federal Territory (Abuja)
Nigeria has a population of 170,123,740 (July 2012 est.)
Nigeria is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and
politically influential ethnic groups: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw
10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%,
Traditional African Religion
10% (many Muslims and
Christians may also follow
Traditional African Religion
along side their main
faith)along side their main
faith.
http://dilemmaxdotnet.files.wordpress.com/20
12/06/nigeria-states.jpg?w=540
A lot of
states for a
country of
this size!
Map overlay
created at
www.overlapm
aps.com
Religious map of Nigeria
http://barenakedislam.com/2012/04/30/muslims-slaughtering-christians-in-nigeria-and-kenya-again/
Population density of Nigeria
http://blogs.the-american-interest.com/wrm/files/2012/01/773pxPopulation_density_map_of_Nigerian_states_-_English.png
An
Introduction
to Human
Geography by
James M.
Rubenstein,
p.250
So how were the borders within Africa created, and for
Nigeria in particular?
Note:
Library of
Congress
maps are
scalable.
Click on the
link on
each slide
for more
detail.
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8200.ct001445/
1725
The Conference of Berlin 1884-85 to divide Africa
http://www.africafederation.net/Berlin_1885.htm
1885
Africa, 1885
John Clark Ridpath LL. D., Cyclopedia of Universal History (Cincinnati, Ohio: Jones Brothers
Publishing Co., 1885)
Downloaded from Maps ETC, on the web at http://etc.usf.edu/maps [map #07820]
the
“Scramble
for Africa”
http://www.loc.gov/item/99446110
1909 – Africa by treaty
http://zulusofola.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/Adeyemi-Zulu-SofolaNigerian-Independence-Day-1960.jpg
http://emeagwali.com/photos/biafra/nigerian-school-children-celebratingnational-independence-october-1-1960.jpg
http://www.stamps-forsale.com/ekmps/shops/stewcoin/images/nigeria-1960-independence-sg86-fine-mint-20680-p.jpg
1962 – Nigeria
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8841f.ct003018/seq-1
administrative divisions
1972 –
The Times map of
the tribes, peoples,
& nations of modern
Africa
This map is particularly
useful as it shows tribal
groupings and current
national boundaries. The
complexity of Africa includes
over 3000 tribes and 700
languages. Note: There is no
agreed upon criteria for
tribe, as a particular “tribe”
may be ethnologically,
linguistically, & culturally in
different tribal groups.
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g82
01e.ct001273/seq-1
Border Lesson extensions using
Library of Congress resources
India, Pakistan, and Kashmir
http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2010651238/ photo
http://www.loc.gov/item/2003625170 Kashmir map 2003
Israel and Palestine
http://www.loc.gov/search/?q=Israel+and+Palestine over 1400 results
Saudi Arabia and its bordering countries
http://www.loc.gov/item/2011585054 1986 with Oman, Yemen, UAE
http://www.loc.gov/item/2005631749 1979 with Oman, Yemen, UAE
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g7601a.ct001335/ with Kuwait
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g7531f.ct000894/ with Iraq and Kuwait 1991
http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/01/09/weekinreview/
09sudan-map.html
Sudan
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldafrica-12115013
Includes multiple maps – excellent
resource
Library of Congress maps used in this lesson
ethno linguistic Africa
1996
relief
2005
political
2003
1976 bound./1952 affiliation
1952/76
colonies and independents
1908
1952 affiliations/67 boundaries 1952/67
admin divisions
1966
population density
1979
administrative divisions
1950
administrative divisions
1957
administrative divisions
1965
language map
1883
administrative divisions
1960
administrative divisions
1959
admin with date of indep
1962
administrative
1725
map of Africa by treaty
1909
Times map people, etc.
1972
Nigeria
1993
Nigeria - ethnic groups
1961
Nigeria -linguistic
1967
Nigeria - administrative
1965
Nigeria
1932
http://www.loc.gov/item/96680239
http://www.loc.gov/item/2005631137
http://www.loc.gov/item/2003629804
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8200.ct002639/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/item/87692282
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8200.ct002526/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/item/97687611
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8201e.ct002483/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8200.ct002839/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8200.ct002499/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/item/97687612
http://www.loc.gov/item/2005625334
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8200.ct002494/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8200.ct002492/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8200.ct003003/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/item/2005625330
http://www.loc.gov/item/99446110
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8201e.ct001273/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8840.ct001170/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/item/95682553
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8841e.ct003187/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/resource/g8841f.ct003186/seq-1
http://www.loc.gov/item/2010592720
other maps and references used in this lesson
cultural regions
http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/APHG/proje
cts/MUN-BC/maps/culture-2000.jpg
scroll down to
maps
http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/APHG/proje
cts/MUN-BC/maps/mapindex.htm
many pre & post
colonial
http://etc.usf.edu/maps/galleries/africa/complete/index.
php
188
Afr map 1885
5 http://www.africafederation.net/Africa_Map_1885.pdf
story of Berlin Congress
1885
http://www.africafederation.net/Berlin_1885.htm
incl Biafra map
map Biafra and
story
http://www.africafederation.net/Biafra.htm
http://www.answers.com/topic/biafra
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