Braille Formats 2011
Clarifying The Code
CTEBVI Workshop 201
Presented by: Amanuensis Braille
Presenter: Robert Roldan
[email protected]
New Guidelines
• This workshop is based on the Braille Formats
Print-to-Braille Transcription, 2011
• Guidelines are available at
• Nemeth application of Braille Formats 2011
guidelines are available at
• The new Braille Format supersedes all prior publications and
updates of Braille Formats: Principles of Print-to Braille
• EBAE, Foreign Language Guidelines for Braille Transcription, and the
Guidelines and Standards for Tactile Graphics are being revised to
include the adopted changes in braille symbols and new formats.
Where there are conflicts between these publications and the new
Braille Formats: Principles of Print-to-Braille Transcription, 2011,
follow Braille Formats.
• It is expected that these guidelines will be applied unless a situation
is not covered.
• The new guidelines allow transcribers to make decisions when
confronted with material not specifically addressed within the code.
Basic Principles and General Formats
Use the appendices as a quick reference guide.
Clarity supersedes space saving
Consistency must be maintained throughout
Follow Print (wysiwyg)
Review the Special Symbols and Transcriber’s
Notes summaries found in the fundamentals
section of each guideline.
Major Changes
• Braille Page Numbering. A distinction is made
between transcriber inserted pages and print pages,
which allows us to retain front matter print page order.
• Headings. A new heading level accommodates the
need for additional distinction in today’s textbooks.
• Nested Lists. All multilevel lists are formatted the
same and the principles apply for all situations.
• Footnotes. Most footnotes are now at the end of the
print page. This enables the flow of thought to be
preserved. There is a new generic footnote indicator
which will be used with all types of footnotes.
Mathematical and Non-Alphabetic
Signs and Symbols
• Entire section of old Braille Formats was removed
Signs of Measurement
Signs of Enclosures
Mathematical Signs
Currency Signs
Non-Alphabetic Signs
Arrows and Arrowheads
• Since the New Formats does not cover how to handle these
symbols consult the EBAE formats and its related 2007
• Revised Appendix G and the future EBAE updates will deal
with how to handle the symbols. Check the BANA site for
Partially Technical Works
• New Nemeth Code Indicators
– Use opening and closing Nemeth Indicators
• _% Begin Nemeth Code
• _: End Nemeth Code
– Preceded and followed by a space
– Encloses the Nemeth material
– Must appear on one line whenever possible
• Line breaks must comply with Nemeth code
– Formatted according to Nemeth code
– Emphasize according to Nemeth code
– All Nemeth symbols must be listed on the Special Symbols page or in
TN before the text.
• Note: Entire volume done in Nemeth doesn’t require listing of Nemeth
symbols on the Special Symbols page
– Transcriber’s note
• Before affected text for infrequent occurrences
• On the TN page when repeated 2 or more times in a volume
Nemeth Example
When you know the principal amount, the rate and the time. The amount of interest can
be calculated by using the formula:
I = Prt
We have 4500 to invest with a rate of 9.5% for a 6 year period of time.
I = 4500 X .095 X 6
I = 2565
,:5 Y
9T]E/ C
_% ,I
_% ,I
,I .K
"K ! PR9CIPAL AM.T1 ! RATE &! "T4 ,! AM.T (
.K ,PRT _:
#DEJJ 69VE/ )A RATE ( #[email protected] =A #F YE>
.K #[email protected]*[email protected]*6
#2565 _:
Foreign Material
• Foreign language words or phrases within an English
language paragraph are contracted as though they are
English. Use the dot 4 accent indicator for accented letters.
– Font attributes no longer determine whether or not the foreign
language is contracted.
– Letter sign is used before any single letter or letter combination
that could be mistaken for an English contraction or short-form
• Foreign Language rules are used for entire passages in a
Foreign Language.
– Braille uncontracted
– Use the appropriate foreign language symbols for accented
– No letter indicator
• Punctuation in a position not normally seen in English
context requires the use of the foreign language
punctuation indicator.
– Insert ; (56), before the unusual punctuation in English
– The foreign language punctuation indicator is listed on the
Special Symbols page, or included in a transcriber’s note
before the text.
Transcriber’s Notes
• If a special format or usage occurs more than once in a volume,
include it on the Transcriber's Notes page.
– Electronic addresses in this volume are transcribed according to the
Computer Braille Code, 2000, 2010 Updates. No contractions are used.
See list of Computer Braille Code symbols on special symbols page.
– Remember that the CBC statement for numbers being brailled in lower
cells goes on the Special Symbols page following the CBC symbols
• Any wording not shown in the print text inserted by the transcriber
is treated as a transcriber's note.
• Any changes from print to braille that the guidelines do not
explicitly state that a TN is not required, must be explained in a TN.
• Embedded Transcriber's Notes. An embedded transcriber's note is
seven words or fewer and may be shown within the text or standing
alone, e.g., used as a heading.
Embedded TN Examples
TN Format Changes
• Headings, captions, and other descriptive
terms added to the text are enclosed in a TN
• Embedded TN is placed immediately following
the affected text
• TN of 8 words or more is brailled in a 7/5
format before the affected text.
• No blank lines are used unless required by
other formats
TN Format Examples
TN Format Changes (cont.)
• Identifications of two or more abbreviations or symbols are listed in 1-3,
preceded and followed by a blank line. The closing transcriber’s note
indicator follows the last item.
• Centered Heading
– Main Topic
– Centered on page
– Blank lines before and after
• Exceptions
– No blank line between Centered Heading and Top Box Line
– No blank line in Table of Contents when an entry follows
– No blank lines before or after alphabetic divisions
• Centered Title and Author
– No guideline stating that they are treated as a series of centered
– These headings are separated by a blank line as Example 4-2 shows.
Cell-5 Heading
• Cell-5 Heading
– Follows a Centered Heading
– Can be followed by an equally important Cell-5
– Blank line before
– No blank line after unless the heading is followed
by column material
Headings (cont.)
• Cell-7 Heading
– Blank line before
– No blank line after unless the heading is followed by
column material
– Cannot be followed by any heading including its own
• Devise an Icon when it is not clearly described by
the heading or it is referred to in the text
• When a series of headings fills an entire page the
last heading must be kept with 1 line of text on
the next page.
Font Attributes
• Retain all font attributes that add meaning to the
text and/or may be referenced by the teacher,
another reader, or elsewhere in the book or
corresponding workbook/handbook
• When can font attributes be omitted
– When they are not directly referred to in the text
and/or they are for decorative purposes.
– When the format used distinguishes it from regular
• See sections 5.3 and 5.4 for specific examples
Boldface Indicators
_. (456, 46) Single bold indicator
_.. (456, 46, 46) Double bold indicator
._. (46, 456, 46) Single bold italic indicator
._.. (46, 456, 46, 46) Double bold italic
• Use individual indicators for one to three
words with the same attribute
• Use the appropriate beginning and ending
indicators for four or more words with the
same attribute
Underlining, Shapes, Color Indicators, and Highlights
_- Single underline indicator
_7 Double underline indicator
$ Shape indicator (followed by one or two unspaced letters) for words enclosed in
shapes, e.g., circles, boxes, etc.
Color indicator is _ (456) followed by an unspaced letter such as b for blue.
Highlight indicator is _ (456) followed by an unspaced letter such as y for yellow to
indicate the color of highlighting, followed by an unspaced h for highlighting
All are closed by the termination sign
Place a blank space after opening symbol
Place a blank space before the termination sign
The opening indicator must be on the same line as the first word
The termination sign must be on the same line as the last word
Note: Place the termination indicator after the ending punctuation when the colored
text ends a sentence. If the emphasized text is inside of quotation marks or signs
of enclosures place the symbols outside of the entire expression.
Illustrative Material
• Illustrations that have Copyright or Source information but no
captions or additional information that require there inclusion are
• When an illustration has a caption, copyright information, and a
transcribers description the order of presentation is as follows:
– Caption
– Copyright
– Description (Transcriber’s Note)
• Agency decision to omit illustrations
– Agency decides if the photo credits at back of book are omitted
– Agency decides if the listing of photo credits in a table of contents is
– Transcriber’s note is required explaining omission of illustrations and
table of contents entry
Boxed Material
• Boxing lines are listed on the Special Symbols page.
– Format to use:
• 77 (2356, 2356) Open box line
• Colored boxes are brailled using the colored font
attribute followed by a blank space and the box line.
– Color font attribute symbol is listed on the special symbols
page with font attributes.
– Format is explained on the Transcriber’s Notes page
• Blank line requirements for the top and bottom box
lines take precedence over the Attribution, Cross
Reference, and Incidental Note blank line
Displayed Material
• Cell 3 is used as the adjusted left margin for most
displayed material. To accommodate various print
formats, it may be necessary to change this left
margin for some types of displayed material.
• The adjusted left margin for displayed text in
exercise material is cell 5, with indented
paragraphs in 7/5 format.
• Transcription of displayed material needs to
maintain the difference shown in print between
the regular text and the displayed text.
Displayed Material Changes
• Horizontal word lists across the print page
must fit on a single braille line, with each word
separated by two blank cells.
• Word lists that do not fit on a single braille line
are changed to columns, listing the words
from left to right.
• Word lists with phrases are listed vertically.
Exercise Material
• Do not change the wording for directions or
exercise material
• Follow print format for instructions without
specific question/answer activities.
• Exercise without sub entries is in 1/3
• Exercise with sub entries is done using indented
list format.
– Two levels: 1-5, 3-5
– Three levels: 1-7, 3-7, 5-7
– Four levels: 1-9, 3-9, 5-9, 7-9 Etc.
Example Problem in Exercises
• Retain emphasis for labels identifying examples, models, samples of
questions with answers, etc., when the label is not followed by
• Do not retain emphasis for labels identifying examples, models,
samples of questions with answers, etc., when the label is followed
by punctuation.
• A blank line is required before and after exercise examples.
• The format of exercise examples is the same as the format of the
questions/answers that follow.
• When a label is followed by a numbered item on the same line,
move the numbered item to the next line so all numbered items
begin in the same cell. Keep the label in cell 1.
• When a label is followed by a pair of sentences, both sentences
begin in cell 1.
Tables and Related Data
• When brailling a table label with the title (e.g., Table 1:
Summary Data) do not braille the table number on one line
and the title on the next line if they can fit on one braille
• The cont. table heading for sequentially numbered tables
that span more than one braille page is now used for all
wide table formats?
• When a sequentially numbered table is longer than one
braille page the continued heading is not placed on the first
page of the table, but must appear on line 25 of all
subsequent pages.
• The facing table format for a wide table cannot be used for
tables that would require more than one set of facing
• Definition: Publishing term for information placed adjacent to text. A
sidebar is detached from the main text and found in a section either off to
one side, above or below the text. Sidebars may or may not be linked, or
related to the text.
• Insert a sidebar before a paragraph if it is necessary for the understanding
of the following text
• Insert a sidebar after a paragraph when it adds supportive information
• Insert a sidebar before a new section on the page or at the end of the
print page when it provides extraneous information
• Sidebars utilize the full width of the braille page.
• The text layout of the sidebar dictates the format used, i.e., headings
(centered, cell-5, cell-7), 3-1 paragraph, nested list, poetry, etc.
• Insert a blank line before and after a sidebar when not enclosed in boxing
Single Identification for Multiple Characters
• Include the identification with the first character.
• Follow print punctuation used with other
character names. Insert a colon when no
punctuation is used.
• Use a ditto symbol "1 (5, 2) for the remaining
character identifications in the group.
• The ditto symbol is included on the Special
Symbols page, or in a transcriber's note before
the text.
• Cartoons are formatted as a play.
• It is often useful to insert a brief scene setting describing
the cartoon and the characters before beginning the
cartoon. Include this in a transcriber's note, starting on the
line after the cartoon and title information
• A blank line is inserted to separate scene settings from
• Dialogue is in 1-3
• Frames use a 5/5 stage direction format
• If necessary, a brief description of the action in the frame is
enclosed in transcriber's note symbols following the
character's name and colon. This description is not limited
to seven words
• An agency can decide to place all of the notes
in a separate volume. When done the
volumes should have distinct headings.
– Volume 3
– Notes to Volume 3
• Root words
– Root words are brailled with contractions and font
attributes using foreign language guidelines.
– Ignore font attributes used with word parts, e.g.,
prefixes and suffixes, and identified root words,
when they are under study.
Alphabetic References
• Guide words are brailled for all alphabetic
• Agency can decide if they are to be omitted
for indexes.
• The three dashes symbol must be listed on the
special symbols page.
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