Causes of Civil War

Causes of Civil War
Today’s Objectives
• Know the sectional differences that existed between the North and
the South before the Civil War.
• Understand the impact of the cotton gin.
• Know what the underground railroad was.
• Understand the term “manifest destiny.”
• Know how the fugitive slave law created sectional tension.
• Understand how westward expansion caused sectional tension.
• Know the 2 ways that the U.S. acquired the territory that allowed it to
reach the Pacific Ocean.
Sectional Differences
• As North industrialized and became more
modern, the South stayed mostly the
• U.S. became a country with two different
The North
– 1. More Populous
– 2. More
– 3. More cities
– 4. More Railroads
– 5. Free Labor (wage
labor) “Self-Making”
• Mainly
• Slaves
Slavery 1860
The Cotton Gin
• Slavery was in decline as crops began to shift from
tobacco to wheat in the upper south.
• Eli Whitney’s invention (1793) makes cotton a crop that
can be grown in the south.
• It separates seeds from the cotton.
• After the invention of the cotton gin, U.S. South becomes
the leading producer of cotton in the world.
• Caused an increase in the demand for slaves.
Cotton Gin
• How were the North and South different by
the 1840s?
• What was the Cotton Gin and how did it
impact slavery?
• People who oppose slavery
– A. Moral grounds
– B. Goes against “Self-Making”—the idea that
through hard work, individuals can succeed.
Key Abolitionists
• William Lloyd
Garrison—editor of
The Liberator.
• Frederick Douglass—
An escaped Slave.
Underground Railroad
• “Conductors” help slaves
to safe houses until they
escape to free territory.
• Harriet Tubman is the most
famous “conductor.”
• Underground RR infuriates
many southerners.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Anti-Slavery novel
written by Harriet
Beecher Stowe.
• Upset many
• Who was the most famous abolitonist?
• Who was the famous abolitionist that was
an ex-slave?
• What was the underground railroad?
• Who was the most famous conductor of
the underground railroad?
Fugitive Slave Law
• Law that forced
Northerners to help in
catching runaway slaves.
• Fines for helping
• Bonus for returning them.
• Angers many
Sectional Tension over Slavery
• Southerners do not like:
– A. Underground RR
– B. Abolitionists
– C. “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”
• Northerners do not like:
– Fugitive Slave Law
– Slavery’s negative impact on white selfmaking
Manifest Destiny
• Idea that the country
is destined to expand
to the Pacific.
– A. Virtue
– B. Mission
– C. Destiny
• Allows overpopulation
to have an outlet to
the west.
• Term coined by John
L. O`Sullivan
Westward Expansion
• Country acquires more territory:
– A. Louisiana Purchase
– B. War with Mexico
The problem of Westward
• As the country moves west and makes
new states, the issue becomes whether
the new states should be “free” or “slave.”
• Why would people care whether states
could have slaves or not?
The answer
• The South fears that if it doesn’t have the same
amount of votes in Congress (The Senate),
Northerners will outlaw slavery.
• So Southerners feel that there always needs to
be the same amount of “slave” and “free” states.
• Many Northerners, however, oppose the
expansion of slavery. WHY?
Warm Up
What were some of the differences between the North and the South before
the Civil War?
What was the Cotton gin? Who invented it? And what was its impact?
What was the Underground railroad?
What was the fugitive slave law?
What was Manifest Destiny?
What were the two ways that America acquired territory west of the
How did westward expansion cause tension between the North and the
Louisiana Purchase
• 1803--When Jefferson is President.
• US wants to have access to port city of New Orleans so
farmers can get crops down the Mississippi River to
• When US asks to buy city of New Orleans from France,
Napoleon offers all of Louisiana territory.
• US buys for $15 million
• Doubles the size of the US
The Missouri Compromise
• Missouri applies for statehood in 1819.
• At the time there are 11-Free Sates & 11Slave states.
• Many slaves already in Missouri.
The Compromise
• The work of Henry Clay—Speaker of the
House from Kentucky.
• 1820--Maine would enter the Union as a
free sate and Missouri a Slave state.
• In the future, slavery would not be allowed
in remaining territory above Missouri’s
southern border of 36-30.
Indian Removal
• Another problems with westward
expansion was what to do about native
• Whites want native lands so they can
• When Andrew Jackson is president, he
tells natives they must give up their land
and move west of the Mississippi River.
The Trail of Tears
• Americans invited by Mexican govt. to settle in Texas in
1820s. They are led by Stephen F. Austin.
• Soon there were more Americans than Mexicans.
• American settlers declared independence in 1836.
• Mexican forces ruthlessly try to subdue the rebellion
(The Alamo).
The Alamo
The Alamo
• Battle of San Jacinto—
Sam Houston captures
Santa Anna and Texans
get independence.
• US won’t take in Texas
because it would create
controversy (slavery).
• Lone Star Republic until
1844 when US finally
takes Texas as a state.
War with Mexico
• Mexico breaks diplomatic ties with US over Texas
• US tries to buy New Mexico and California, but Mexico
• Mexico claims that border of Texas is Nueces River.
• America claims it is the Rio Grande.
• US President Polk sends forces commanded by Zachary
Taylor to “defend” the border.
• US claims it was attacked and Congress declares war in
War with Mexico
• 1846 – 1848 (US wins)
• Winfield Scott captures Mexico City.
• Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends war
• US gets California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada,
Colorado, and Wyoming.
• Also border of Texas is recognized as Rio Grande.
• US pays Mexico $15 million.
• 1846--When Mexican War
broke out, John C. Fremont
led a rebellion of Americans
living in CA and declared
independence (The Bear
Flag Republic).
The Gold Rush
• 1848—John Marshall—
working at Sutter’s Mill —
finds gold.
• Leads to Gold Rush
• Most are men—leads to
volatile society.
• Also many Chinese.
Problem with the U.S. winning the
war with Mexico
• Now new sates will want to enter the
union. Should they be free or slave?
• Missouri compromise won’t work.
• What would you do?
Problems of California
• Calif. Applied for statehood in 1849 as a
free sate.
• The balance between free and slave
states was 15 each.
• Southerners were opposed and feared
other potential new sates—New Mexico,
Oregon, Utah—would also enter as free
states too.
Compromise of 1850
• In 1850 there are 15 free states and 15 slave
• California wants to enter as free state.
• 1. Cal. Enters union as free state.
• 2. Utah & New Mexico territories = Popular
Sovereignty (the people in the state decide if
they want slavery or not).
• 3. Outlawed slave trade in Washington D.C.
• 4. Called for a stronger fugitive slave law.
Kansas - Nebraska
Kansas wants to enter the union.
• Supposed to be free of slavery because of Missouri Compromise.
• 1854 Kansas – Nebraska Act.
Territory divided into two—Kansas and Nebraska.
• Territories could decide for themselves = popular sovereignty.
“Bleeding Kansas”
• 1855—Elections held in Kansas.
• Pro-slavery people from neighboring Missouri come into
the state and vote.
• Pro-slavery majority vote to legalize slavery.
• Anti-slavery people form their own govt. and outlaw
slavery (Lawrence).
• There were then two governments in the state—One
saying the state is a slave sate, the other saying it’s a
free state.
• Pro-slavery forces go and “sack” Lawrence.
Bleeding Kansas (cont.)
• Soon fighting between the two
sides began to see who will rule
the state.
• Is a prelude to the Civil War.
“Bleeding Kansas”
Birth of Republican Party
• Kansas –Nebraska Act led Northern
Whigs and many Northern Democrats-who were upset at the repeal of the
Missouri Compromise—to form a new
• 1854—the Republican Party
Republican Party’s Ideology
• “Free Soil, Free
• They are against the
expansion of slavery
into the territory west
of the Miss.
Read Handout
• What were the two
key rulings handed
down by the Supreme
Court in the Dred
Scott Case?
• In other words, What
two things about
slavery were decided
by this case?
Dred Scott Case
• 1857—Dred Scott v. Sandford
• Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled:
– A. Scott could not sue because
slaves are not citizens, but rather,
– B. The Missouri Compromise was
unconstitutional & thus the fed.
Govt. could not say where slavery
could or could not be.
• Greatly increased sectional
tension because it made it seem
as if fed. Government could not
stop slavery from expanding.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
• 1858 Senate race in Illinois.
• Series of debates between the
candidates—Republican Abe
Lincoln and Democrat Stephen
• Main issue they debate is what
to do about the issue of slavery
in the western territories.
• Douglas win the election, but
Lincoln becomes famous
throughout the country.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
John Brown
• Radical Abolitionist.
• Leads a raid on Harper’s Ferry
• Wanted to give weapons to
slaves so they could rebel.
• Is captured and hung.
• Anti-slave people call him a
• South considers him to be
The Election of 1860
• Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for
President, is against the extension of slavery into the
western territories.
• Does not think blacks are equal to whites but thinks
slavery is bad for white self-making.
• Some in the South say that they will secede (leave the
Union) If he is elected President.
Election of 1860
Lincoln wins
• The South secedes.
• They form The
Confederate Sates of
• Some southern
“Border” states stay in
the union.