Bilingual Education Exceptions ESL Waivers

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Texas Education Agency
Bilingual Education Exceptions
ESL Waivers
Susie Coultress
Director of Bilingual/ESL
[email protected]
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
The information on the following slides is
from 19 TAC Chapter 89, Adaptations for
Special Populations, Subchapter BB,
Commissioner's Rules Concerning State
Plan for Educating Limited English
Proficient Students, Section 89.1205,
Required Bilingual Education and English
as a Second Language Programs
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Request for Exception to the Bilingual
Education Program
(a) Each school district which has an
enrollment of 20 or more limited English
proficient students in any language
classification in the same grade level districtwide shall offer a bilingual education program
as described in subsection
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Request for Exception to the Bilingual
Education Program (cont.)
(b) of this section for the limited English
proficient students in prekindergarten through
the elementary grades who speak that
language. "Elementary grades" shall include at
least prekindergarten through Grade 5; sixth
grade shall be included when clustered with
elementary grades.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Request for Exception to the Bilingual
Education Program (cont.)
Districts or charter schools that are unable to
provide a bilingual education program are
required by 19 TAC §89.1207(a) to request
from the Commissioner of Education an
exception to the bilingual education program
and approval to offer an alternative program by
submitting …Request for Exception to the
Bilingual Education Program.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Request for Waiver for English as a
Second Language Program
(d) All limited English proficient students for
whom a district is not required to offer a
bilingual education program shall be provided
an English as a second language program as
described in subsection (e) of this section,
regardless of the students' grade levels and
home language, and regardless of the number
of such students.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Request for Waiver for English as a
Second Language Program (cont.)
Districts or charter schools unable to provide
ESL certified teachers to implement the ESL
program are required by 19 TAC §89.1207(b)
to request from the Commissioner of Education
a waiver of the certification requirements for
teachers who will provide ESL instruction by
submitting … Request for Waiver for English as
a Second Language (ESL) Program.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Submission Deadline
November 1
All data must be based on
information prior to November 1,
2010.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Are charter schools required to provide
bilingual certified teachers and ESL
supplemental certified teachers?
Yes. If you are required to offer these
programs based on 19 TAC
§89.1205, then the teachers must be
certified appropriately.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Does TEA verify the colleges and
universities reported on the bilingual
exception and ESL waiver application?
Yes. The Bilingual Education Unit
collaborates with the State Board
for Educator Credentialing on
colleges and universities offering
certification programs.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Annual comparison of previously submitted
Bilingual Exceptions and
ESL waivers
Every bilingual exception and ESL
waiver is compared from one year
to the next to note progress and to
review if proposed action plan is
met.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Can a district or charter school use
permanent substitute
teachers to teach LEP students?
Yes, but only if these teachers have valid
Texas teaching certificates and are
properly certified in Bilingual Education or
hold an ESL supplemental certification as
required by the program that the district or
charter school is required to implement.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Does a district/charter school need to resubmit their application if they lose the
certified teacher during the school year?
If this situation occurs after November 1
for the 2010-11 school year only, there is
no need to resubmit. Try to serve the
students with a certified teacher. Solve the
situation as quickly as possible and keep
all documentation.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
School data in the bilingual exception
and ESL waiver if submitting both
Though most district data is the same when
submitting for both an exception and a waiver, there
are some differences in the information submitted on
the request for Exception to the Bilingual Education
Program. The questions pertain to number of
teachers instructing LEP students under bilingual
education exception for Spanish and languages
other than Spanish.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Instructional Designs
Any of the following acronyms that will most
appropriately describe the instructional
design used by your district in that class may
be used:
SC – Self Contained
TA - Teacher Assistant
PO – Pull-Out
I – Inclusion
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Performance Based Monitoring
Information regarding districts
submitting for a bilingual education
exception and/or ESL waiver is shared
with Performance Based Monitoring.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Reason for submission of a bilingual
education exception or an ESL waiver
A Bilingual exception needs to be submitted only if
your district/charter school has an insufficient
number of bilingual teachers to be in compliance in
offering the required program with Title 19 Texas
Administrative Code (TAC) Chapter 89.1245
Staffing and Staff Development.
An ESL waiver needs to be submitted only if the
district/charter school does not have a sufficient
number of ESL teachers to be in compliance in
offering the required program with Title 19 TAC
Chapter 89.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
If a district has the certified personnel
in bilingual education or ESL to instruct
the ELLs in their respective required
programs, then no documents need to
be submitted.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual certification for Vietnamese or
Chinese teachers
• Bilingual Generalist EC-4 Vietnamese
• Bilingual Generalist Vietnamese 4-8
• Bilingual supplemental Vietnamese
EC-4 and 4-8
• Bilingual Chinese
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual Exceptions
A bilingual exception application must
include an action plan that states what
the district or charter school will do to
ensure that the required bilingual program
will be provided the next year, including
plans for recruiting & training an adequate
number of teachers to eliminate the need
for subsequent exceptions.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual Exceptions
A bilingual exception application must show that
the district has:
• taken all reasonable affirmative steps to hire
sufficient certified bilingual teachers;
• reduced the number of teachers under
exceptions;
• implemented affirmative hiring policies &
procedures; and
• not unjustifiably denied employment to properly
certified bilingual teachers in the past 12
months.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual Exceptions
A bilingual exception application must show that
the district is:
• implementing specific measures to eliminate
the need for a bilingual exception by 25% for
the Spanish bilingual program; and
• providing a training program for staff assigned
to provide the alternative program and using
10% of the bilingual allotment for this training.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
2010-2011 APPLICATION FOR BILINGUAL EDUCATION EXCEPTION
AND ESL WAIVER
District/Charter School Name
County-District Number
Authority for Data Collection: Texas Education Code (TEC)
Subchapter B, §29.054; Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Title 19,
Chapter 89, Subchapter BB, Commissioner’s Rules Concerning State
Plan for Educating Limited English Proficient Students.
Planned Use of the Data: Documentation of district or charter school
compliance with state requirements for serving students
of limited English proficiency.
Please designate: Contact person for the district/charter school, and
check the correct response in the drop box on either one or both
statements below concerning the present status of the
Bilingual/English as a Second Language program in your district or
charter school. For further information, please contact our office at
(512) 463-9581.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Original form must be submitted
electronically by November 1, 2010 to:
[email protected]
• Please save this document to your desktop using the following file
name format: (district) Bilingual Education Exception or ESL Waiver
• Complete all pertinent information of the document, saving often.
• Please feel free to insert rows as needed and to copy and paste
individual tables or sheets to complete for additional campuses.
PLEASE DO NOT FAX FORM
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
REQUEST FOR EXCEPTION TO THE BILINGUAL EDUCATION
PROGRAM
District/Charter School Data
G.
H.
I.
J.
657
20
Contact email
Application for – Please choose correct response from drop down box (Bil exc.
or
ESL
waiver)
LEP
Students
waiver)
Bilingual Certified Teachers employed
K.
19
Bilingual Certified Teachers Currently Teaching Bilingual Ed
L.
0
Non-certified permanent substitute teachers providing bilingual education
instruction
M.
3
Teachers Currently on Special Permit Granted by SBEC
N.
O.
P.
12
12
0
ESL Certified Teachers (all grade levels) currently teaching
ESL Certified Teachers (all grade levels) employed in the district
Non-certified permanent substitute teachers providing ESL instruction (all grade
levels)
Q.
9
Teachers Instructing LEP students under ESL Waiver
R.
1
S.
T.
6
3
U.
1
Teachers instructing LEP students under bilingual education exception
(Spanish)
Teachers instructing LEP students under bilingual education exception
(languages
other thanLEP
Spanish)
Teachers
instructing
Students Under Bilingual Education Exception
(Spanish and other languages) Sum of Q+LR
Consecutive years since 1999-2000 District has applied for a Bilingual
Exception
Located in District Information tab
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
• Complete only the columns for the grade levels in which you
are requesting an exception. Do not record information for any
grade level in which you have appropriately certified bilingual teachers.
(e.g. bilingual-Spanish, bilingual-Vietnamese, etc.)
• Columns F,G,J,K,N,O,R,S,V,W,Z,AA,AD,AE,AH, AILanguage(s) of Instruction: For language arts, math/science/social
studies in each grade level, indicate the language of instruction by
choosing the correct response from the drop down box. The PL refers to
Primary Language and ESL refers to English as a Second Language. The
district should provide as much instruction in the students’ primary
language as needed to develop literacy and content knowledge. ESL
instruction must be provided in language arts and the content areas.
• Columns H,L,P,T,X,AB,AF, AJ - Number of Students Under
Exception: record the number of students who are not receiving
instruction from a bilingual certified teacher at the appropriate grade level.
The number of students will be added and the total number will be in the
TOTALS column.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
• Column B – Instructional Design: Choose an appropriate
response from the drop down boxes to describe the
instructional design(s) or method(s) of instructional delivery
being used to serve students under exception. You will be
asked to describe these codes in detail. Example: SC = Self
Contained Bilingual Classroom; TA = Teacher Assistant; PO =
Pull Out; I = Inclusion.
• Columns I,M,Q,U,Y,AC,AG,AK– Number of Teachers Under
Exception: For each grade where data has been entered,
record the number of teachers where students are receiving the
alternative bilingual services. (Example: If one ESL certified
teacher provides instruction to different grade levels in a
pull-out model, this counts as one teacher.) Add up the
number of teachers and input the total in the TOTALS column.
• Continue on the page as needed. Complete for each
campus and for each language for which an exception is
requested.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
REQUEST FOR EXCEPTION TO THE BILINGUAL
EDUCATION PROGRAM
PK – 6 Grade
District
CDN
Campus CDCN
Language
of
Exception
Language
of Instruction
Languag Math
e Arts Science
SS
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Number Number
of
of
Students Teachers
Under
Under
Exception Exception
Bilingual Action Plan
REQUEST FOR EXCEPTION TO THE
BILINGUAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
Action Timeline
Number of Bilingual Teachers to be Hired Yearly per
Grade Level
Located in: Action Timeline – Bil-Exc tab
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual Action Plan
Number of Bilingual Teachers to be Hired
Year
Grade Level
2010-2011
PK
K
grade 1
grade 2
grade 3
grade 4
grade 5
grade 6
PK
K
grade 1
grade 2
grade 3
grade 4
grade 5
grade 6
PK
K
grade 1
grade 2
grade 3
grade 4
grade 5
grade 6
PK
K
grade 1
grade 2
grade 3
grade 4
grade 5
grade 6
PK
K – Grade 6
2011-2012
2012-2013
2013-2014
2014-2015
Yearly per Grade Level
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual Action Plan
REQUEST FOR EXCEPTION TO THE BILINGUAL
EDUCATION PROGRAM
Describe the actions the district or charter
school will take to ensure that the required
bilingual education program will be provided and
continued beginning with the 2010-2011 school
year, including district or charter school plans for
recruiting and training an adequate number of
teachers to eliminate the need for subsequent
exceptions.
Located in Narrative Bil-Exc tab
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Recruiting/Training Activity and Location
Training Activities Planned
District
Date
Location
Brief Description
Recruiting Activities Planned
Date
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Location
Brief Description
ESL Waivers
An ESL waiver application must include
• all of those items required for a bilingual exception
except number of teachers instructing LEP
students under bilingual exception for Spanish
and /or Other Languages and the Total;
• the names of the teachers not on permit who are
assigned to the ESL program and who have never
been submitted previously for an ESL waiver; and
• the estimated date for completion of the ESL
supplemental certification. (The date must be within
the present school year.)
Located in District Information & Campus Info-ESL Waiver Tabs
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
ESL Waivers
An ESL waiver application must
include actions that the district or
charter school will take to ensure that
the required ESL program will be
provided and continued beginning
with the requested school year.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
REQUEST FOR WAIVER FOR THE ENGLISH AS A SECOND
LANGUAGE (ESL) PROGRAM
Sheet: District Information
G.
H.
I.
J.
354
15
Contact email
Application for – Please choose correct response from drop box (bilingual
LEP
Students
exception
or ESL waiver)
Bilingual Certified Teachers employed
K.
10
Bilingual Certified Teachers Currently Teaching Bilingual Ed
L.
0
Non-certified permanent substitute teachers providing bilingual education
instruction
M.
3
Teachers Currently on Special Permit Granted by SBEC
N.
12
ESL Certified Teachers (all grade levels) currently instructing
O.
12
ESL Certified Teachers (all grade levels) employed in the district
P.
0
Non-certified permanent substitute teachers providing ESL instruction (all grade
levels)
Q.
1
Teachers Instructing LEP students under ESL Waiver
V.
1
Consecutive Years Since 1999-2000 District has applied for one or more Waivers
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
REQUEST FOR WAIVER FOR THE ENGLISH AS A SECOND
LANGUAGE (ESL) PROGRAM
Sheet: Campus Info – ESL Waiver
Teachers Needing Waivers
District
Campus
First Name
Last Name
Located in Campus Info – ESL Tab
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Grade
Level
Expected ESL
Certification
Assessment
Date
ESL Action Plan
REQUEST FOR WAIVER FOR THE ENGLISH AS A
SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) PROGRAM
Describe the training program the district or charter
school will provide to improve the skills of staff
assigned to implement the proposed ESL program.
Teacher training must specifically address
instructional modifications for English language
learners, ESL endorsement and certification.
Provide specific information regarding the staff
development plan to include intensity and duration
of activities.
Located in Narrative – ESL Waiver tab
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
ESL Action Plan
Training Activities Planned
District
Date
Location
Brief Description
Recruiting Activities Planned
Date
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Location
Brief Description
1. Please save this document to your desktop using the following file name format: [district] Bilingual Exception Application 2010
2. Complete all three sheets of the document, saving often.
3. Please feel free to insert rows as needed and to copy and paste individual tables or sheets to complete for additional campuses.
4. Email the completed document to
[email protected] .
Note: This email must be sent from the email address of the district superintendent to verify its authenticity. The body of the email must contain the
following statement of certification:
I have verified the information submitted to the Texas Education Agency via this email and attached document and certify its
truth and accuracy.
Additionally, I assure the following:
• at least 10% of the bilingual education allotment shall be used to carry out the activities described in this application
• the proposed actions described in this request form will be implemented
• documentation of completion of the proposed actions will be submitted to the Texas Education Agency by November 1, 2011.
Name of Superintendent
Name of District Bilingual/ESL Contact
Email of District Bilingual/ESL Contact
Contact Phone Number (area code first)
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual Exceptions/ESL Waivers
Criteria for Review
• alternative program is appropriate and
adequate to meet the needs of students
and fulfill the requirements of the law
• the recruiting plan is adequate (must
include time lines)
• the previous year’s recruiting plan was
accomplished
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual Exceptions/ESL Waivers
Criteria for Review of Form
• # years requesting bilingual exceptions/ESL
waivers
• # & % teachers on bilingual exception
# & % teachers on ESL waiver
• # & % teachers on bilingual exception and/or
ESL waiver has decreased yearly by at least
25% for the Spanish bilingual program
• # and % of student enrollment impacted
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
Bilingual Exceptions/ESL Waivers
The 2010-2011 Exception/Waiver Application must be
requested via email from:
[email protected] Please
use “Exception/Waiver Request” in the subject line of the
email. All applications are due by November 1, 2010. On
or before that date each application must be submitted to
TEA as an attachment to an email to:
[email protected] The
district Bilingual/ESL contact person may request an
Exception/Waiver Application and complete it, but all
completed applications must be submitted to TEA in an
email directly from the superintendent.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
TITLE 19. EDUCATION
Subchapter BB.
COMMISSIONER'S RULES CONCERNING STATE PLAN
FOR EDUCATING LIMITED ENGLISH
PROFICIENT STUDENTS
19 TAC §§89.1207
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(a) Bilingual education program.
(1)Exceptions. A district that is unable to provide a bilingual
education program as required by §89.1205(a) of this title
(relating to Required Bilingual Education and English as a
Second Language Programs) shall request from the
commissioner of education an exception to the bilingual
education program and the approval of an alternative
program. The approval of an exception to the bilingual
education program shall be valid only during the school year for
which it was granted. A request for a bilingual education
program exception must be submitted by ______ 1 and shall
include:
(A) a statement of the reasons the district is unable to
offer the bilingual education program with
supporting documentation;
(B) a description of the proposed alternative modified
bilingual education or intensive English as a second
language programs designed to meet the affective,
linguistic, and cognitive needs of the limited English
proficient students, including the manner through
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(B) which the students will be given an opportunity to
master the essential knowledge and skills required
by Chapter 74 of this title (relating to Curriculum
Requirements);
(C)an assurance that certified teachers available in the
district will be assigned to grade levels beginning at
prekindergarten followed successively by
subsequent grade levels to ensure that the
linguistic and academic needs of the limited English
proficient students with beginning levels of English
proficiency are served on a priority basis;
(D)a description of the training program which the
district will provide to improve the skills of the
certified teachers that are assigned to implement
the proposed alternative program, and an
assurance that at least 10% of the bilingual
education allotment shall be used to fund this
training program; and
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(E)
a description of the actions the district will take to
ensure that the program required under 89.1205(a) of this title
will be provided the subsequent year, including its plans for
recruiting and training an adequate number of certified
teachers to eliminate the need for subsequent exceptions and
measurable targets for the subsequent year.
(2)
Approval of exceptions. Bilingual education program
exceptions will be granted by the commissioner of education
if the requesting district:
(A) meets or exceeds the state average for limited
English proficient student performance on the
required state assessments;
(B)meets the requirements and measurable targets of
the action plan described in paragraph (1)(E) of this
subsection submitted the previous year and
approved by the Texas Education Agency (TEA); or
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(C) reduces by 25% the number of teachers
under exception for bilingual Spanish
programs when compared to the number of
exceptions granted the previous year.
(3)
Denial of exceptions. A district denied a bilingual
education program exception must submit to the
commissioner of education a detailed action plan for
complying with regulations for the following school year.
(4)
Appeals. A district denied a bilingual education
program exception may appeal to the commissioner or
the commissioner's designee. The decision of the
commissioner or commissioner’s designee is final and
may not be appealed further.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(5)
Special accreditation investigation. The commissioner may
authorize a special accreditation investigation under the
TEC, §39.075, if a district:
(A)
is denied a bilingual education
program exception for more than three
consecutive years; or
(B)
is granted an exception based on
meeting or exceeding the state average for limited
English proficient student performance on the
required state assessments but has excessive
numbers of allowable exemptions from the required
state assessment.
(6)
Sanctions. Based on the results of a special accreditation
investigation, the commissioner may take appropriate action
under the TEC, §39.131.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(b)
English as a second language program.
(1)
Waivers. A district that is unable to provide an
English as a second language program as
required by §89.1205(d) of this title because of an
insufficient number of certified teachers
shall request from the commissioner of education
a waiver of the certification requirements for each
teacher who will provide instruction in English as
a second language for limited English proficient
students. The approval of a waiver of certification
requirements shall be valid only during the
school year for which it was granted. A request for
an English as a second language program waiver
must be submitted by and shall include:
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(A) a statement of the reasons the district is
unable to provide a sufficient number of
certified teachers to offer the English as a
second language program;
(B) a description of the manner in which the
teachers in the English as a second language
program will meet the affective, linguistic, and
cognitive needs of the limited English proficient
students, including the manner through which
the students will be given opportunity to master
the essential knowledge and skills required by
Chapter 74 of this title;
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(C) an assurance that certified teachers available in
the district will be assigned to grade levels
beginning at prekindergarten followed successively
by subsequent grade levels in the elementary school
campus, and on the basis of need for secondary
campuses, to ensure that the linguistic and
academic needs of the limited English proficient
students with the lower levels of English proficiency
are served on a priority basis;
(D) the name of each teacher not on permit who is
assigned to implement the English as a second
language program and estimated date for the
completion of the English as a second language
supplemental certification for each teacher under a
waiver, which must be completed by the end of the
school year for which the waiver was requested;
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(E) a description of the training program which
the district will provide to improve the skills of
the certified teachers that are assigned to
implement the proposed English as a second
language program, and an assurance that at
least 10% of the bilingual education allotment
shall be used to fund this training; and
(F) a description of the actions the district will
take to ensure that the program required under
§89.1205(d) of this title will be provided the
subsequent year, including its plans for
recruiting and training an adequate number of
certified teachers to eliminate the need for
subsequent waivers.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(2)
(3)
Approval of waivers. English as a second language
waivers will be granted by the commissioner of education
if the requesting district:
(A)
meets or exceeds the state average for limited
English proficient student performance on the
required state assessments; or
(B)
meets the requirements and measurable targets of
the action plan described in paragraph (1)(D) of
this subsection submitted the previous year and
approved by the TEA.
Denial of waivers. A district denied an English as a second
language program waiver must submit to the
commissioner of education a detailed action plan for
complying with required regulations for the following
school year.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(4)
(5)
Appeals. A district denied an English as a second language
waiver may appeal to the commissioner or the commissioner's
designee. The decision of the commissioner or commissioner's
designee is final and may not be appealed further.
Special accreditation investigation. The
commissioner may authorize a special accreditation
investigation under the TEC, §39.075, if a district:
(A)
is denied an English as a second language
waiver for more than three consecutive years;
or
(B)
is granted a waiver based on meeting or the
state average for limited English proficient
student performance on the required state
assessments but has excessive numbers of
allowable exemptions from the required state
assessments.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
§89.1207. Exceptions and Waivers.
(6) Sanctions. Based on the results of a special
accreditation investigation, the commissioner
may take appropriate action under the TEC, §39.131.
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
• Additional information on Bilingual/ESL
education can be accessed by visiting the
Bilingual/ESL Unit website
• Join our listserv:
http://miller.tea.state.tx.us/list/
Contact Information:
Susie Coultress
Bilingual/ESL Director
[email protected]
(512) 463-9581
Copyright TEA, 2010 All rights reserved.
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