Ready for Take-Off: Preparing Teens with ADHD/LD for College

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READY FOR TAKE-OFF:
PREPARING TEENS WITH
ADHD/LD FOR COLLEGE
Theresa E. Laurie Maitland PhD, Coordinator
The Learning Center’s
Academic Success Program for Student with LD/ADHD
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
[email protected]
http://www.unc.edu/asp
919-962-9350
WE WILL DISCUSS:
 College
experiences of students with
LD/ADHD
 Factors that may lead to transition
challenges
 How adults might be part of the problem
 How adults can become part of the
solution
 How to better prepare teens with
ADHD/LD for college transition
GOOD NEWS FOR COLLEGE
STUDENTS WITH ADHD/LD

Number has mushroomed in recent years

Tenfold increase since the late 1970s

More than doubled since the 1990s; from 1% to 2.4%

Make up the largest percentage of disabled students
on 4 year college campuses

4%-6% of college population
References: ETS, 2007, NCES, 2000, Henderson, 2001, McKee, T.
2008
NOT SO GOOD NEWS FOR COLLEGE
STUDENTS WITH ADHD/LD…



A fraction (47%) of students enrolled in LD
classes go on to a postsecondary setting
15.9% of these students attend 4 year colleges
Postsecondary attendance rates for disabled
students is nearly 20% less than non-disabled
peers
References: (NLTS2, 2009)
HARD TRUTH FOR ALL STUDENTS:
GETTING INTO COLLEGE IS
ONLY HALF THE BATTLE…
National Statistics:
Five years after starting college:

Non-disabled students: 55%-64% were still enrolled
or had graduated

Disabled: 52% were still enrolled or had graduated
Graduation from postsecondary setting has a significant
impact on adult life
References: NCES, 1999, 2000 and 2003, U.S. Census Bureau,
2002; Porter, 2002); Tagayuna et. Al., 2005

MORE GOOD NEWS FOR COLLEGE
STUDENTS WITH ADHD/LD…

They may graduate at the same rate as their
non-disabled peers if they access support.

Vogel and Adelman (1990, 2000)

Vogel et al. (1998, 1999).

Dawson College in Canada (Jorgenson et al., 2003)
MORE NOT SO GOOD NEWS ABOUT COLLEGE
STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES…

Only a third (1/3) of the college students who
received special education services in high school
sought formal accommodations in college
Not all of these student used available
resources

References: Newman et al. (2009) NLTS2
MORE NOT SO GOOD NEWS FOR
ALL COLLEGE STUDENTS…
•
•
50% of college students may need to seek help for
emotional/social issues
This fall’s college freshmen reported all time lows
for emotional health;
•
48.1% did not rate emotional health as good/above
average
References: Kadison, R. , and DiGeronimo, T. (2004). ; Sieben, L. (2011).
WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE
EXPERIENCES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS
WITH ADHD/LD…
They are likely to :
 Have lower grade point averages
 Be placed on probation more often
 Take longer to graduate
 Graduate at even lower rates
than students with other disabilities
 Struggle more with necessary coping and self
management skills
References: Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2007; D’Amico, personal communication, January 29, 2008;
Heiligenstein, Guenther, Levey, Savino, & Fulwiler, 1999; Murray, Goldstein, Nourse, & Edgar,
2000; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; Newman, Wagner, Cameto, & Knokey, 2009;
Rabiner, Anastopoulos, Costello, Hoyle, & Swartzwelder, 2008; Reaser et al. 2007; Vogel &
Adelman, 1990a, 1990b, 2000; Vogel et al., 1998; Vogel, Leyser, Wyland, & Brulle, 1999; Wagner,
Newman, Cameto, Garza, & Levine, 2005
THE EXPERTS SPEAK

Survey
 26 students
 How challenging was your transition to college?
87% somewhat to very challenging.
13% rated it not very challenging
 Why not challenging?
 Rigorous demands in high school, practiced
advocating, parents slowly let go
 Why Challenging?
 Not ready for self advocacy and demands for life
management, increased academic expectations.
Trouble accepting differences/disability
THE EXPERTS SPEAK
How has your disability impacted your
adjustment to college?
WHY IS THE TRANSITION TO COLLEGE
CHALLENGING?

College life is dramatically different than high
school.
Total freedom/responsibility
 No adults

The academic expectations are
more challenging than those in high
school.
 These differences are at odds with
the common problems students
diagnosed with ADHD/LD have.
 Different laws/services

THE EXPERTS SPEAK
Advice for parents
THE EXPERTS SPEAK
Advice for educators
THE EXPERTS SPEAK
Advice for teens
WHAT CAN WE DO?
Individual interactions:
o Assess our expectations and ways of responding
o Are we part of the problem?
Within our families and schools:
 Increase expectations to match what college life
will expect
 Develop strategic plans to promote readiness
 Raise awareness of differences between high
school and college
TRANSITION REQUIRES ADULTS TO
RESPOND IN NEW WAYS
Traditional roles:
o Authority, Teacher, Fixer, Protector, Director,
Advocate
o May limit growth in executive functioning and
self determination skills
o Can be enabling for teens
Deliberately adopt new roles:
o A coaching, advising or mentoring approach
o Targeted to promote executive functioning skills:
self understanding, problem solving and decision
making
o Will be empowering
A COACHING APPROACH
Features of coaching vs. traditional roles
 Partnership; teen pilots, adults as co-pilots
 Teens are the experts; in charge
 View teens as “naturally, creative,
resourceful”
 View failure/struggles/ challenges as
opportunities for growth
 Adults aren’t “in the game” stay on the
sidelines;
COACHING SKILLS
 Explicitly
design the goals, the plan including
the adult’s role in it:
 Ask open ended question, that promote
reflection; model thinking process
 Listen and summarize or acknowledge
feelings-not fixing or solving
 Offer suggestions with no attachment
 Allow consequences to happen, learn from
them
 Accountability
AN EXAMPLE
Tom comes to you and asks you to talk to his
history teacher for him. Apparently he has not
completed a paper that is due tomorrow and
since his IEP allows for extensions he is asking
you to request an extension.
Examples of an enabling response?
Examples of an empowering response or a coaching
approach?
COACHING RESPONSE
VERSUS ENABLING
What would you do?
 It is the Sunday after a long weekend and
Rachael just remembers that she was supposed
to have a poster created for her science class, she
begs you to let her miss school tomorrow and run
to Wal-Mart to get the supplies she needs.

What are some enabling responses?

What are some empowering/ coaching
responses?
HOW TO BETTER PREPARE TEENS WITH
ADHD/LD FOR TAKE-OFF?

Collaborative approach necessary
Raise awareness of stark
differences between high school
and college


Challenge teens to “stretch and grow”
Assess student’s readiness for
college (see checklists in :
Ready for Take-off and On Your Own)

HOW TO BETTER PREPARE TEENS WITH
ADHD/LD FOR TAKE-OFF?
o
Strategically promote important non-academic
readiness skills:
self determination
o daily living
o
Teach study skills/strategies that will be
necessary in college
 Slowly fade reliance on accommodations that are
not likely to be available at college
 Promote good decision making during the college
application process
 If more is going on: get help now

Q &A
RESOURCES: Transition/Self
Determination
Brinkerhoff, L. ( 2010) College Planning for Students with Learning

Disabilities: Retrieved April 23, 2010, from
http://www.greatschools.org/LD/school-learning/collegeplanning.gs?content=913




National Center on Secondary Education and Transition
http://www.ncset.org/.
Burgstahler, Sheryl. DO-IT: Helping Students With Disabilities
Transition to College and Careers: Research to Practice Brief Improving
Secondary Education and Transition Services through Research
September 2003 • Vol. 2, Issue 3 retrieved October 20, 2010 from
http://www.ncset.org/publications/viewdesc.asp?id=1168.
Bremer, C.D., Kachgal, M., and Schoeller, K. Self-Determination:
Supporting Successful Transition Improving Secondary Education and
Transition Services through Research. Research to Practice Brief April
2003 • Vol. 2, Issue 1. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from
http://www.ncset.org/publications/viewdesc.asp?id=962.
Field, S., Martin, J., Miller, R., Ward, M., & Wehmeyer, M. (1998). A
practical guide for teaching self-determination. Arlington, VA: Council for
Exceptional Children.
RESOURCES: Transition/Self
Determination
Hoffman, A. & Field, S. (2006). Steps to SelfDetermination. Austin, TX: ProEd.
 Maitland, T., & Quinn, P. (2011). Ready for TakeOff: Preparing Teens with ADHD or LD for
College. Washington, D.C. : American
Psychological Association ; Magination Press.
 Quinn, P., & Maitland, T. (2011). On Your Own:
A College Readiness Guide for Teens with ADHD
or LD. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Washington, D.C. American Psychological
Association: Magination Press.

RESOURCES: Study Skills





Mooney, J. and Cole,D. (2000). Learning Outside the Lines. New
York, NY: Fireside.
Nist, Sherrie, L. and Holschuh, Jodi (2000). Active
Learning: Strategies for College Success. Needham Heights,
NY: Allyn & Bacon.
Paulk, Walter and Owens, Ross, J. Q. (2007). How to Study in
College 10th Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Free
download: http://the-manuals.com/how-to-study-in-college-walterpaulk-manual/.
Strichart, S.S. and Magrum II, C., T. (2002) Teaching Learning
Strategies and Study Skills to Students with Learning
Disabilities, Attention Defict Disorders or Special Needs, Third
Edition. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Walter,T.L., Siebert, A., and Smith, L. N. (2000) Student
Success: How to Succeed in College and Still Have Time for Your
Friends. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace & Company.
RESOURCES: BOOKS







1
Barkin, C. (1999). When Your Kid Goes To College: A Parent's Survival
Guide. New York. New York: Avon Books.
Beattie, Melody Codependent No More: How to Stop Controlling and Start
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Kastner, L., & Wyatt, J. (2002). The Launching Years: Strategies for
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Kadison, Richard , and DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy. (2004). College of the
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San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass.
Maitland, T., & Quinn, P. (2011). Ready for Take-Off: Preparing Teens
with ADHD or LD for College. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological
Association ; Magination Press.
RESOURCES : BOOKS
o





2
Mullendore, R., & Hatch, C. (2000). Helping Your First-Year College
Student Succeed: A Guide For Parents.. Columbia, SC: University of
South Carolina, National Resource Center For The First Year
Experience and Students in Transition.
Pasick, P. (1998). Almost Grown: Launching Your Child From High
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Parenting for Prevention: How to stop enabling and start empowering
kids. MN: Johnston Institute, Hazelton, 1997.
Quinn, P., Ratey, N., & Maitland, T. (2000). Coaching College
Students with AD/HD: Issues and Answers. Silver Spring, MD:
Advantage Books.
Quinn, P., & Maitland, T. (2011). On Your Own: A College Readiness
Guide for Teens with ADHD or LD. Manuscript submitted for
publication. Washington, D.C. American Psychological Association:
Magination Press.
Sleeper-Triplett, J. (2010). Empowering Youth with ADHD: Your
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