Recruiting Diverse and Underserved Applicants

Recruiting Diverse and
Underserved Applicants
Michael W. Kelly – The University of Iowa
Krystal McCutchen – The University of
New Mexico
Why does diversity matter?
• Students need to be in learning
environments that reflect our diverse
• To improve healthcare to the
underserved and uninsured
• Broaden the research workforce
• Need for diversity among managers of
health care organizations
Cohen. JAMA 2003;289:1143-1149
How are we doing?
• Of the total number of students enrolled
in first professional degree programs for
fall 2012, … 12.4 percent were
underrepresented minority students.1
• Racial makeup of US, 2010 census2
Black or African American
Hispanic or Latino*
2. 2010 Census Briefs – Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010
Diversity in Higher Education
Affirmative Action
Are we going to be supported?
• Washington Post-ABC News Poll
– Do you support or oppose allowing
universities to consider applicant’s race as
a factor for deciding which students to
– Support – 22%
– Oppose – 76%
– No opinion – 2%
• Race-conscious admission policies may
be the only way to develop a diverse
student body
History of Affirmative Action
• 14th Amendment to the Constitution
– Adopted July 9, 1868
– Due process clause
• Safeguard from arbitrary denial of life, liberty or
property by the government
– Equal protection clause
• No state shall deny to any person within its
jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws
– Basis of Brown vs. Board of Education
Lakhan. BMC Med Educ 2003;3:1-6
History of Affirmative Action
• Executive Presidential Orders
– 1963 President Kennedy
• Stated that “discrimination based on race,
creed, color or ethnicity is forbidden”
• Coined term “affirmative action”
– 1964 President Johnson
• Guaranteed “equal opportunity in federal
• Later expanded to include college admission
History of Affirmative Action
• The Regents of the University of California v.
– Heard by the Supreme Court
– 5-4 decision, June 28, 1978
– Ruled that the admission process at the
Medical School at UC Davis was
– Special program setting aside 16 spaces
for “Blacks, Chicanos, Asians and
American Indians” was a quota system
– End of quotas
History of Affirmative Action
• Grutter v. Bollinger
– Supreme Court 5-4 decision, June 23, 2003
– Ruled that the University of Michigan Law
School had a compelling interest in
promoting diversity
– An admission process that considered race
as well as other factors was not a quota
– Current basis for many admission policies
State Action on Affirmative Action
• Six states have adopted bans on
affirmative action in state college
Oklahoma, State Question 759, 2012
Arizona, Proposition 107, 2010
Nebraska, Initiative 424, 2008
Michigan, Proposal 2, 2006
• Overturned July 2011, US Court of Appeals
– Washington, Initiative 200, 1998
– California, Proposition 209, 1996
National Conference of State Legislatures:
Latest Supreme Court Ruling
• Fisher v. University of Texas
– University of Texas has a two part admission
• By legislative act admits any student that graduated in
the top 10% of their high school class
• 12% of the admissions are based on an academic index
and a personal adversity index that considers race,
socio-economic status, and other factors
– Plaintiffs wish to strike down race as a factor
– Case heard by the US Supreme Court, October
– Ruling announced June 2013
Latest Supreme Court Ruling
What do we know now?
How might this affect admissions and
What is an Underserved Student?
• Student lacking proper preparation from K-12
• First Generation Students
– Family role models missing
– Cultural understanding may be limited
• Students from a lower socioeconomic
• Students from traditionally underrepresented
minority groups
• Students from rural communities
1- Shorall, C. (2009). Hill Street Blues: Are you serving your underserved
population?. US-China Education Review, 6(9), 57-66.
Not all high schools are the
High school course offerings
College prep courses
AP/Dual Credit/Honors courses differ
Grading standards vary across districts
Class size in various high schools
Geographic Factors
• Communities beyond the institution’s
– Ties into preparation in K-12
– Students from rural communities not
wanting to go to the “big city”
– Multiple schools in a similar distance from
– Knowledge of pharmacy as a career choice
– Change in support roles
First Generation Students
• Parents have not attended or have not
completed college
– Unsure of the commitment to higher education
– Miscommunication on purpose and value in
higher education
• Near 50% of first-generation students drop
out during freshman year of college
– 25% for overall student population2
• Length of time to complete is intimidating
2- National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). (2001). Students whose
parents did not go to college: Postsecondary access, persistence and attainment
(NCES 2001–126).
Cultural Diversity
• Not all cultures have the same value in
– Some traditional beliefs but more value on
being in the home than gaining education
– Students who are seeking education find
themselves in unknown territory and
change in family support
– Role of pharmacy in the culture not
Socioeconomic Status
• Likely to be first generation college
• More difficulties with financing
• Likely to postpone college or pursue
lower degree options4
• Length of time for financing education
3- Cho, S., Hudley, C., Lee, S., Barry, L., & Kelly, M. (n.d). Roles of Gender, Race, and SES in the College Choice Process
Among First-Generation and Nonfirst-Generation Students. Journal Of Diversity In Higher Education, 1(2), 95-107.
4- Niu, S., & Tienda, M. (2013). Delayed Enrollment and College Plans: Is There a Postponement Penalty?. Journal Of
Higher Education, 84(1), 1-27
Underrepresented Minorities
• Viewed as harder to recruit
– Relates to all factors currently discussed
• Move to expanding roles beyond family
• Shift in culture and social norms
Other ways to define the
• Should we be considering how
underserved is defined?
• Characteristics of an underserved
• How do you know they are
Admissions Factors
• We want to talk about your admissions
– At your table discuss some of the
questions provided
• Were there commonalities between
• How do your admissions factors affect
your underserved populations
Best Practices - UNM
• Pipeline Programs
– Work with the Office of Diversity to engage
– Start as early as grade school
– Lab activities (compounding)
• College and Career fairs
– Attend as many as possible
– Hands on activities for students
– Use current students as ambassadors
UNM Continued
• Recruit in rural communities
– Try to send the same recruiters each year
– Develop relationships with the parents and
– Engage the high school in what pharmacy
• Cooperative Pharmacy Program
– Students from rural NM attend NMSU
before moving to the big bad pharmacy
school at UNM
More UNM
• Collaborate with other health sciences
– Recruitment events
– Career days
• Holistic Admissions Process
• Use Pharmacy students as
Best Practices - Iowa
• Pipeline Programs
– Coordinate with our undergraduate
admissions office for high school visits
– Work with our Office of Equal Opportunity
and Enrichment
– Provide career simulations for visiting
Best Practices - Iowa
• College Efforts
– Standing Diversity Committee in College
– Standing Diversity Committee among the
health science colleges
– Use scholarship monies to support
– Use grant monies to provide support for
interview expenses
– Work particularly with members of
SNAPhA to help with recruiting
Best Practices - Iowa
• University Cultural Centers
– Afro-American Cultural Center
– Latino Native American Cultural Center
– Asian-Pacific American Cultural Center
– Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender
Resource Center
Best Practices - Iowa
• Sell the University’s diversity history
– Iowa was the first public university in the nation to
admit men and women on an equal basis
– Iowa was first public US university to grant a law
degree to a woman and an African American
– First to put an African American on a varsity athletic
– First public university to officially recognize the Gay,
Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Allied Union
Best Practices - Iowa
• Sell the community
– Ranked one of the nation’s most livable
cities by USA Today, Forbes, Outside and
the National Geographic magazines
– K-12 system is 40% not-white
Best Practices - Iowa
• Admission Procedures
– Based on Grutter v. Bollinger ruling
– All applicants reviewed by Associate Dean
• Interview invitations
– No minimum PCAT score
– 2.5 minimum GPA
– Admissions committee
• Holistic approach
• Reviews in light of University’s long standing
commitment to diversity
Resources available
• What are the resources you have
available for your students?
• Let’s talk together about those