Chapter 15.2 Diversity and Equal Protection for Immigrants • Fact: – Your ancestors immigrated to the U.S. from another country. – Question: • How did they become an American citizen? Unrestricted Immigration • 1776-1870’s – No restrictions as to who could come to our country. • Why? – We needed a larger population of workers! • Thus, the birth of the American dream… – Freedom – A decent job – Land! End of the 1800’s • By 1890 – Immigrants made up over 15% of our population! • Most became citizens of the United States through naturalization – Legal process by which immigrants become citizens. Process of Naturalization 1. Move to the United States and live here for 5 years. 2. After 5 years, file form for naturalization. 3. Government examines the forms to make sure immigrant is: – – – 4. 18 yrs old or older A good citizen who believes in the Constitution. Must pass a civil service test in English. Final Hearing – The immigrant swears an oath of allegiance to the U.S. Constitution. Can you lose your citizenship? • YES! – Two ways: • Denaturalization – Loss of citizenship due to giving false information on citizenship application. » Lying about age » Lying about prior legal offenses • Expatriation – Person voluntarily gives up citizenship to become a citizen of another country. Beginning of Immigration Restrictions • 1882 – Congress imposed a taxes on new immigrants • Also turned away – Criminals – Homeless people – People with mental or physical disabilities • Plus, immigration from China is banned!!! – Why? » Chinese workers were taking all of the jobs in California! Immigration Restrictions..cont. • 1900 – Congress passes law to restrict number of Japanese immigrants to America. • Why? – They were taking jobs in California now that Chinese couldn’t come. • 1920’s – After WWI, Europe was destroyed • Congress passes laws to restrict number of immigrants that could come from anywhere but Europe! – Why? » We were okay with Europeans coming to America to work, so let them come! – Who couldn’t come? » Asians, Africans, and Mexicans! Immigration after 1940’s • WWII is over, Europe is destroyed….again. – America eases their immigration restrictions to help people who have no homes. • This includes: – Most of Europe – Japanese (we dropped 2 atomic bombs on them, remember?) – From 1945 to 1989 • 290,000 immigrants allowed in America per year. – 120,000 from Western Hemisphere (Asia and India) – 170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere (Europe and Africa) Latin American Immigration • Began during 1970’s – Most of Latin America was having Civil Wars • Huge issues with drugs • Governments were corrupt – Over 50% of all immigrants into America from 1970 to today are from Latin America. • Mexico being the biggest contributor. Immigration Since 1990 • Immigration Act of 1990 – Set new quota for immigration at 675,000 per year. • That means over 337,500 are from Mexico. – Those are the ones that we know for sure! – What about the ones who are sneaking into the country? » Estimated that 4,000,000 Mexicans are living in America illegally today. Racial/Ethnic Population in America, 2000 So, what do we do? • Deportation – Forcibly return any illegal aliens to their original countries. • One catch…. – Congress can offer amnesty • A pardon that allows illegal immigrants to stay in the United States – They must apply for citizenship within 3 years. – Why would we do this? A Nation of Diversity • Immigration has led to America becoming a ‘melting pot’ – Benefits of diversity • New cultures • New ideas • New music and traditions – Challenges of Diversity • Prejudice – Opinions about others not based on fact, but feelings • Discrimination – Practice of treating people differently due to prejudice.